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TOI{ON1
O, OLD,J\ND NE\V: 


- .\ \IE:\WRI.\I. HH C\IE - 


HISTORICAL DESCRIPTIYE l\ND PICTORL\L, 


VESI<;'\"FII TO 'I \R.... 1 HE 


H t' :,\])REDTH .-\:\:'\ I\'ERS.\RY OF TH E P.-\SSIXG- OF TIlE CO
ST [TUT[O:\, A L 
.-\CT OF lï91, \\'HICH SET APART THE PRO\'I:\CE OF 
C P PER CA 1'\ .-\ D A .-\:\ D G A \' E B I R T H T () 


YORI
 (
O"T TOI
ONTO) 


1'0 WHICH IS -\DIJED \ ;",\RR,-\TI\-E OF THF 


RISE A:'\D PROGRESS OF THE PROFESSIOKS. Al'JD OF THF GRO\VTH A
D 
DE\'E LOP:\IE Xl' OF TH E CITY'S I XDl"STRI ES AX D CO:\Iì\IE RCE, 


WI rH 
O:\IE SKETCHI-.
 OF rHE 


JIE
 \rHO HA \'E JIADE OR ARE 
L\KIXG THE PRO\lXCIAL CAPITAL. 


- H\ 


G. 
IEH.CER ADAM, 


- \\ ITH \ '\" 


I'\TROnCCTIO, BY THE RE\'. HEXRY SCADI>IXG, n.n. 


([oronto : 
TilE :\L\IL PRI
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TIIF :\1 "L HGIJ.mx". TOIW'TO. 


Fntered according to the Act of thc I'urliamcnt of Cnnn<l,l. ill thc ycar onc thou8....<1 cil{ht hundl'cd 8ml ninc!) 'one. b) TilE :\IAII Printing l'umpnn)' 
,Limited). in tht. otllce of the 'lini
ter of Aii;l'icllltlll'e, Otta\\a. 


Pnt-- 0.. THF 
"'.IL JOB Pm"'TI'1o ("0. (I tll , 



PREFACE. 



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 .
; 
:.. 
 . .

 H ,1-: R EC E
T phen
menal . gro\\ tI
 and the. marvellous. development of the tra
e and industry of 

 . 
, ( :r, loronto. together \\ Ith the 1I1crea
1I1g attractIons of the city both as a place of residence and as the 
Ftr. . ',Ii metropolis of the Province, ha\e led the Proprietors of THE :\I,\IL to prepare a work of a somewhat 
. \ '" 
p ambitious character which shall deal \\ ith the chief features of its local histor) and civic life. The 
,.., 1.>1 
'-' 
 'J!' work which now appears, it is hoped, will prow in some measure worthy of the occasion which it is 
_ de
igned to commemorate, namely, the completion of the first rentur) in the synchronous annals of 
the Pro\ ince and its Capital. 
Though the scope of the volume, as its title indicates, is limited to Toronto, Old and Xew, the \\ork 
properl) lays claim to more than local 
upport. It doe
 so for t\\ 0 \'alid reasons: First, because the annals 
of the city, as we all kno\\, begin, run parallel \\ ith, and, to a large extent, are really those of Ontario: and, 
secondl), because Toronto, from its metropolitan character, has now become the focus of the Pro\'Înce, and 
our people in all parts of it take a li\'e interest in its affairs, look to it in the main for their intellectual 
sustenance, and fed a just pride in the status to \\ hich it has attained and the promise of greatness which 
lies still hefore it. How large a space Toronto fills in the records of our young Commonwealth. few e\'en of 
its citizens stop to think. Take its history out of the chronicle of the national life of British Canada and 
much of political, industrial, and social interest \\ould he gone. "'hat is true of the national is true also of the civic annals 
of the I'rO\'incial Capital. I et any old resident recall the successive aspect of things in the local ell\'ironment of his life, and 
ho\\ much \\ ill he have to tell in the city's prai:.e, But Toronto is not only endeared to us by the history of the past, and by 
the associations which cluster round its social and ci\'ic life. It has a real and practical present-day interest, \\ hich grows with 
e\'er) year of its corporate grO\\ th as well as with every stride in its industrial and commercial development. 
 or is the story, 
important as it is in its material aspects, \\ ithout its human interest; for hehind the money are the toilers \\ ho have made it, and 
\\Îthin the institutions, factories, and warehouses are the forces of brain and muscle that make for its acti\ ities. Xor ha\'e 
these forces alone found de\'elopment in the fields of industry and trade, Other and higher fields ha\'e enli!>ted their service, 
and to their beneficent operation the city owes much of its intellectual and moral ad\ancement. 
Of these various matters, Toronto, Old and Ne't", endea\'ours succinctly but graphicall) to treat. Aiming at being a 
thoroughly representati\"e volume, it deals \\ith most of the various forces and activities that have made Toronto a \ast com- 
mercial emporium, a great railway centre, the literar) "hub" of the Dominion, the 
Iecca of tourists, an Episcopal and Archie- 
piscopal See, and the ecclesiastical headquarters of many denominations. the !>eat of the law courts, the PrO\incial Legislature, 
the uni\ersities. colleges. and great 
chools of learning, \"hile it has given prominence to trade and commerce. and dealt 
with the hanks and other monetary institutions, the loan and insurance companies, and the manufactories and larger importing 
and trading houses, it has devoted no little of its space to the various professions, setting forth their rise and grO\\ th in the 
community and given some account of the men who ha\e ri
en to eminence in them. Interest in this, a
 in the other 
hi0 6 raphical departments of the work, it is hoped, has been enhanced by the gallery of portraits; while the historical and 
de
cripti\e sections ha\'e, it is believed, been enriched by the many \'iews of the streets, churches. villas, residences and public 
buildings which the \'Olume contains. 
The design has been to make the book an important and pleasing c'\position of the principal phases of Toronto's com- 
mercial and industrial as well as social and intellectual life, and, if possible, a worthy tribute to the genius and nation-building 
qualities of her toiling sons. In carrying out this purpose the present writer gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to the 
Proprietors of THE :\1 \11, to whose enterprise and public !>pirit an) success the \'olume may meet \\ ith will be entirely due. To 
the Re\'. Henry Seadding, D.D., the \'enerable chronicler of Early Toronto. he is particularly beholden for the introduction. 
which, coming from so interesting a source, \\ ill doubtle

 be specially \'alued h) the reader. 


TOROXTO, Dec. 9, 1890. 



CONTENTS. 


hI'ROI)tTTIO:-õ,II\ THF RF\. Hh:<>RY Sc.-\DDlNG, )I,D. 
('H \1'. I. THE RFGINN[l'(;S OF TORONTO 
" I I. I'HE t:. E, Lm AI-[STS AND THE FOUNDINI; OF "HE PRO\"INCE 
" I I I. E\ E'I I"S \\ HICH PRECEVED THE FOUNV[N(; OF Y OR.... 
,. IV. [HE Ft'TURF CII'\" IN S[;\ICOE"S DAY '\NV \T THE BEGINN[NI; OF' TH[: ('E:I. I"URY 
\. YOR.... DUR[N(; fHE """R OF 18I2 
VI. THF R
'(a;\IES OF (;OVFRNORS (;ORE, l\I-\ITI -\NI>, A:-'D COI BORNF 
\ I I. I ",CORPOR,-\ lION OF rORONTO 
\"111. THE RFBELIION, TO THE UNION OF I"HE PROVINCF
 
"IX. 'fHR U
ION, THE R \IL\VA\ ER-\, AND THE FE:"-1L\
 RAIU
 
"X. ('ONFFDER,\TION AND CIVIC EXP-\NSION 
.. XI. THE TORONTO OF TO-DAY 
.. XII. SO;\IE ASPECTS OF THF 
IODERN ('[['\" 
.. 
 III. TORO'lTO, TOPO(;R \PHIC-\L AND DESCR[PTIVE 
,. 
I\', THF PUBLIC 
II:N OF THE PROn"CI.\L C'\I'[T.-\I 
" '\.\"'
 'I'HE I>ENO'llNAfJONS -\
lJ THEIR PA
TORS 
" X\ I. TH"- I.....w COURT
 A;l/V THE LFG\I- PR()FF
SIO;I/ 
X\ïI. THE HE.\LlNG ART: A CHAPTER Allot'1" DOCTORS 
X\'IlI. EnUCHION AND II's PROFESSORS 
XIX. ART ANI> :\Ius[c 
,. 
X. '('HE (
[T\'
 HO\lES: l'Ho
E \,T HO ()\\
, PLAX OR Bl IJ U rrHf'\[ 
,. XXI RF \1 E"I'\TF. -\:-;0 THOSE "oHO TRHoF\(' I"' IT 
.. XXII. rO\llllERClAL TORONTO, ANn THE CH[FFS OF COIII;\IFRCE 
XXIII. INIIIISTRl.\L TOROXTO, ANV I"HF ('API"AINS OF INDUSTRY 
xXI\' Fn, \NCl-\L TORO'lTO: B.\ 'I"" S. STOC....o.;, AND INSt'RANCE 
.. XXV. \\"1'0.;1" TORONTO JUNlll();I/ \"-D IT
 .\CrInTlFS 
I'IDF,( ()
 "I BJH I" \"'1' N"", 


5 
9 
[3 
[6 


25 
28 
3 1 
35 
39 
4 2 
4 6 
49 
55 
68 
89 


102 


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160 
180 


193 
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r-rOI{ONTO, OLD 


A}\TÐ 


N E \ '1. 


IXTROI>lTTIOX 


m THE RFV, HFNR\ SC.\nrHX(; D.D, 


T HE \'OLl.:":\IE here presented supplies the reaùer with a lively picture of the dewlopment of a city from its first germ 
to full efflorescence, a consummation reached in the comparatively brief space of les
 than ten decades, destined it 
is hoped to be maintained perennially by the cominued ., Industn, Intelligence and Integrity" of its inhabitants in all 
time to come. rhere is not a city, to\\ n or village of the Province of Ontario \\ hich might not, had the lJroper 
precautions been taken years ago, have a like record of itself. 
fhe fault has been the non-establi
hment at an early period, of a pioneer and historical society for every county of 
the Pro\ ince, associations of intelligent persons taking a real interest in the first foundations of 
ettlements, zealous to collect 
and put on record minute particulars relative thereto, In the absence of such societies important documents, plans and diagrams 
oi much local interest are continually lost, and characteristic narratives and anecdotes of enterprising men pass wholly into 
oblivion, Somdhing has been done in the direction of forming such societies in the Counties of \ ork, Peel, \,"entworth, 
\,"elland. and Lincoln, but it is important that the practice should become general throughout the 1'rO\ ince, Ewry city, town, 
and village would then ha\'e it in its pOller, from time to time, to report progress in regard to itself in as pleasing and satisfactory 
a manner as the Capital of the Province is enabled to do in the present volume. It is singular to obsen e in the works which 
some years ago \\ere much in \oogue, descriptil'e of ideal commonwealths and cities, that amidst all their arrangements, a 
pro\ ision for the maintenance of a standing record of the kind suggested is lacking, In a land like this, where in the future 
new communities are likely continually to he coming into existence, on more or less ideal principles. care should be taken to 
suppl) the omission. 
The Xew "'orld has been a field for making many e'\periments, having in view the material and moral ad\ancement of 
mankinù, from the day
 of the Jesuits in Paraguay dOli n to those of Joseph Smith, at XaUl'oo, and Brigham \ oung, at Salt 
I aJ...e City. C"nfortunately. extrmagances characteri/e man) of these efforts; fanaticism, 
uper
tition and a subtle though 
unconscious selfishness ha\e Icd to failures which it might be supposed e\ery rea
onablc man \\ould ha\e forest.en. On the 
other hand, where the more moderate principles that usually guide ordinar) mortals have been followed, as amongst ourselws 
and other off-shoots of the British 
tock on this continent, man) c'\:imple,., of a ver) fair degree of Succe,.,,., .ue to be met with. 
In thi,., category, Toronto may be classed. 



.J 


INTRODUCTION 


Phil.1dclphia. \\ ashington and other places in the United States have heen laid out from the heginning in accordance 
\\ ith id".lli,.,tic 
chemL"'. For !>) 
tematic regularity these cities \\ ould meet with the apprO\.al of e\ en lord H.1con or Sir Thomas 
\Iore From a utilitarian point of \ ie\\, the re
ults ha\ e heen sufficiently satisfactory. Boston. and some of the other older 
1"11 ns 01 the Cnion, came into heing La
ually, as it were, and spread in a cramped. circumscribed ;,ort of a \\.lY, somewhat after 


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RUSSEll. ABBEY E-\Rl.Y DI TilE rRF
E;\/T CENTURY. 


the manner of the old \\alled towns across the .\tlantir, and their later inhabitants han
 heen put to much trouhle and e"\pense 
in overcoming ronsequent inconveniences, from some of which they are not entirely freed to this day, In Canada. there have 
heen e"\periences of a similar character. Through the circumstanres of their original development, (Juehec, Montreal and e\'en 
King;,ton are all more or less affected in the direction and dimensions of their streets, and assessments for the nn:dful straight- 
enings and enlargement;. ha\e heen heavy. Our modern \\ïnnipegs, Brandons, Reginas, and other hurghs that arc to be 
hereafter in our great X orth- \\ cst, "ill douhtless profit hy their acquaintance \\ ith the past of their elder ci\Ïc sisters, and he 
sa\ed from several puhlic inconvenienccs in the future. 
Happily for l'oronto, the to\\ n was from the 
first laid out, like I'hil.1dclphia and \\'.1shington, in 
accordance with the theories of the idealists, and it 
has had scarcely anything to correct in its general 
ground-plan, which was simply that of a parallelo- 
gram divided into parts hy straight streets, generally 
sixty-six feet in width, running east and west, traversed 
hy straight streets of about the same width, running 
north and ;,outh. Its site -a \\ idcl),e"\tendcd, gently 
sloping plain -admitted of this, and from the time of 
its first projection, in I ï93, on a very modest scale 
hard hy the outlet of the Ri\ er I>on, to the present, 
"hen, through a populous suburh and a park, the 
munificent 
ift of the late :\11'. Howard, its horders all 
but touch the Humher, some si"\ miles westwarrlof 
the starting-point, the germ-idea of the pl.lce has nol 
heen materially departed from. One thoroughf.ue 
north and south was staked out on the Toronto plain, 
some fifty year;, ago. of the e"\(:eptional \\ idth of one 
hundred and thirt)-t\lo fect, but grave per"ons of the 
period shook their he.llb and pronoun red the notion 


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":'1 n, , HOLLOW," ("( LI E'.I' SJ., RI 'I1)E
CF (II "O
. 1. II, ROI,I

I)". 


.. 



INTRODUCTION 


3 


t'"trm agant and C\ en vi"ionary, It ha" comc to pass, nevertheless, that this thoroughfare is a reality, and its \\ idth IS not con- 
"idered no\\ as being anything especially out-of-the-\\a
 for a street \\ hich seems likely to be in the future the a"is of Toronto, its 
streets in theory, in 


dÏ\ iding line into east and west. C nfa\ ourable to the picture"lJue a!> i" the parallelogram arrangement of 
I'r.1ctice a good deal of impre"si\ eness often 
results therefrom, and c\ en beauty, so long 
.1S the roadwa) s arc \\ ide and the building- 
lots continue to be spacious. Fine vistas 
are secured, and in certain localities the arra) 
of comfortable residences coming in lJuic\... 
succession on both sides is a sight quite 
pleasant to see, The free currents of pure 
air, too, which this arrangement permits, and 
the facilities which it affords for a gooù sy!>- 
tem of se\\ ers, are pomts in its fa\ our. 
I'heir city planned from the beginning on 
ideal lines. the inhabitants as their riches 
have increased have sho\\ n themseh'es well 


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inclined to gi\e "ome pla
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several respects. I'heir churches, for 
e"ample, ha\e become ver) numerous, and 
lJuite sumptuous, From sc\eral points of OS,;OODF HAIl, 1111' SIAl OF THE LA\\ COl'IUS. 
\ie\\, the sky-line is agreeably \'aried by the spires, towers, gables, turrets and pinnacles appertaining to these, \\hile, beIO\\, the 
buildings themseh'es are most of them good specimens of style and substantial masonry, \\ ith e"tensi\'e grounds surrounding 
them in several instances, tastefully planted and carefully kept; the church itself consisting not merel) of a solitary temple, as 
formerly, but of a cluster of apartments or halls, all of them rendered necessary by the e"igencies of the church life rcvi\'ed 
everywhere in these days schools, lecture-rooms, class,rooms and librariö, to say nothing of appliances in "ome of them for 
the more COI1\ enient furnishing forth of acceptable mundane refre,hments to large social gatherings on festi\'e occasions. 
.\gain, from the e"traordinary multiplication of ver) beautiful re
iùences on e\'ery side, round and in the town, it is evident 
that a high ideal of a refined domestic life is present to the minds of a great number of the inhabitants. Hut a tendency to the 
ideal in another direction has of late )ears particubrly asserted itself, in the deliberate pulling down of barriers and thro\\ ing 
open to the public view the grO\'es and other ornamental surroundings of private residences. \ laudable desire is thus sho\\ n to 
come near to the cundition of a perfect communit\" wherein moral defences suffice for the protection of propert), and implicit 
confidence is put in the cÏ\ ility and good-will of neighbours and the publi,' at large 1'0 plan hou"es and layout grounds from 
the vel') first so as to conform to the new practice is now. a!> a matter of fact, quite common. .-\11 this is cheering as e\ idence of 
social progre"s It like\\ ise contributes to the general good appearance of the town, .-\Ireadya certain noble air of spaciousne"" 
has been gi\'en to se\'eral thoroughfares and 
to the grounds bordering on them, an effect 
promoted also by the modern fashion of 
boulevarding. Then again, stroll round and 
inspect the educational institutions of the 
place, from the "Cniversities and 1>epartmen- 
tal Establishment downward, and see ho\\ 
many things there are in their II1ternal and 
e"ternal arrangement,> and their respecti\ e 
em ironments, which more than come up to 
the imaginings and hopes of the old specula- 
tÏ\'e \\ riters on such subjech. Or let the 
benevolent institutions be \i"ited, the hospi- 
tals, asylums, refuges, homes for the )oung 
and old, and let the general roominess and 
pleasantness of each be noted, or go to the 


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TORO'1TO l'XI\ ERSITY, AS SEF:oò FRO\J THE VOLl'
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INTRODCCTIOX, 


lield
 "et apart for athletic !>ports and gamc
, to the parks, the grounds allotted to the Indu
trial E"\hihition purposð, or for the 
,'ncouraocment of horticulture; or drop in on a !-unn) da) and there are a great many such in this region all the ye.lr round - 
,It the hank,>, at the places of hu!>iness of the \\hole
ale merchant
. at the offices of the large law firms, at the chamhers of the 
;udg,,,> at ()
g:oode Hall, or at the grc.lt printing-houses. Is there not a hright, air), ideal aspect about them all, as seen at the 
prl'
ent hour in their comparatiH' ne\\ nes,> ? \re there many places where the multiform affairs of men are carried on under 
I"<lI1ditiOlb more fa\ourable, on the \\hule, to happines!-, health, and length of days? The e"\ception<; to the rule which will 
occur are temporan, and they arc engaging the attention of the proper person
, Three court huu!-es on different sites hm'e 
heen "een in roronto during its brief histor), two of them ahandoned and the third about to be abandoned, not on account of 
(Iela), but from h.n ing become ill,adapted to the wants of a rapidl) growing community. ,\ fourth, of dimensions amI cap.lcity 

uited to the city and count), is at present under construction. In like manner, at least three 
ets of parliamentary Imildings 
ha\e heen seen here, also on different sites. ,\ fourth will. ere long, be ready for occupation. 
.\n idea of the beauty anrl dignity of these edifices may he gathererl from engravings to be seen else\\ here in the pagö 
of this \0Iun1e. Thi<; sUlTession in buildings for puhlic purposes is an outward and visible sign of the rapid progress of the 
countr), .\s to the tenants who from time to time ha\e peopled the buildings that have passed or are about to pass a\\ay, and 
filled their chambers great and sm.t11 with a bus) life, the judge". sheriff<;, magistrates, pleaders, jurors, attorneys of the one, the 
iegi,>lawrs, e"\ecntivc councillors, lieutenant-gO\ernors, st.ltesmen, financiers, orators, and \'arious official functionaries of the 
other of these \\e ha\e 1\0 room here to speak. They come within the purview rather of some local association established for 
the purpose of such matter". I d then the
e remarks be closed with a reiteration of the doctrIne they started with, that there 
ought to be in e\ ery county of the PrO\ ince, a Pioneer and Historical Society formed for the purpose of collecting and 
presen ing characteri
tic <;ayings, doings, dres" and demeanour of the first founders of settlements and communities amongst us. 
Such soeieticS \\ ill occa,>ionally be found cOl1\'enient supplements to the ordinary registry office. ""hill' the latter preservcs its 
mmute record of the division and sub-di\ ision of the soil, and of the transfer of lJortions of its surface from hand to hand, the 
former will often preserve the memory of men \\ho, b) the sweat of their hro\\, earned the first implement of market value for 
that soil, \\ho sometimes at an early period hecame ornaments of the acres which they tilled, gracing their respecti\'e neighbour- 
hoods \\ ith characters of high moral e"\cellence and great usefulness, and augmenting the fair fame of the country at large, 


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THE BU;IXXIX(;S OF TOROXTo. 


TORo'\"ro I" 
IFl'I-E\'\1 TI\IF-;. -THF Foc'\"vl'\"(; OF THI" :\"E\\' \\'OIHf). THF FI{F'l.CH ,-\'\"D rHFIR I'\"lJI\" .\IIIFs.- 
.. rHF p\-;-; 1:\' TOlw"ro. THI' L\.I"LR\IlXUIO'\" OF THE HLRo,,-;. UrHtR rR-\II" 1'0 THF \\'EST, E\RI\ FRE'\"CH 
_\lI\'E" ITIU: I" THE O"T.\IHO PF"I'\"SI'1 \, FORT ROULI É, THL: F!{F"CH TI{ \lJI'\"I;-I'OSI. DFsTI{CCTlO'\" OF THE 
FI{E'\"CH FOln ,\T rÜIW"TO. 


H LX ci\ ili/ation fir"t seriou"ly invaded the sanctuaries of ?\ature in the region of what is 
no\\ the fair ('in' of Toronto, the 
t,1Ttled onlookers were a Rock of \\ ild fo\\ I and a 
couple of families of the Children of the 'rood. ,\t the time we "peak of. in the 
beautiful basin of Toronto H,ubour. if \\e e"\cept the noisc\es" mOvement!-, during the 
hours of day of one or t\\O 'Iis"iss,lga Indi,lIls. !-oolitude reigned supreme, \\'hen the 
sun \\ent do\\ h e\'en Xature became still. .h night fell upon the scene, the pines 
ceased their moaning, and nought \\.b heard sme the occasional spla"h of uea\'er or 
musqua"h in the \\aters of the forest-sneened harbour, or the cr) of the \\ood-duck as it 
took flight for its e\'ening haunt in the reces-;es of the \\oods. But the )ear 1793, 
\\ hich \\ e are accustomed to speak of as that of the founding of the capital of Ontario, 
\\as \\hat may be called the mediæ\al era in Toronto's annals, for the place had an 
earlier histor), This histor) is spread O\'er the fateful period of the dominion of France 
in Canada, in connection \\ ith her commerce \\ ith the Indians and with the thrilling 
FORI' ){OUILU' PILLAR. story of the Jesuit Missions. 
The early years of the se\"ènteenth century \\ere big with enterprise and fruitful of results for the American Continent. 
:\Iaritime ad\'enture then sought on the .\tlantic the field which had hitherto heen mono)Joli7ed hy the 
h:diterranean: the 
Xew \\'orld for the first time saw a fringe of colonies fasten upon ib cuasts. In 1607. Yirginia was coloni/ed hy Sir 
\\ alter Raleigh; in 160S, Champlain founded Quehec. and in the following \'Car :'\ ew \' ork was settled hy the Dutch, To 
these settlemcnt-;, in 1620, \\ a" added that 
of :\1.1ssachusetts. after the historic landing 
of the Pilgrim Fathers. From the French 
colon) at (2uebec came the first attempt to 
penetrate the ('ontinent. though the Ilutch 
soon made their \\ay up the Hudsun. and 
estahli"hed a trading-po"t at Orange (Alh:my). 
'\e\\ York State at this period \\a
 the lair 
of the I roquoi". \\ hile Canada. in the nl.lin. 
\\.lS the hunting-ground of the \Igonquins 
and Hurons. The _\Igonquin-; were scat- 
tered along the hanks of the Sr. I a\HenCe 
and the Ottawa, \\ hile the home of the 
Huron" or \\')al1fiOb \\as the countr) I)ing 
immediately to the north of Toronto and 
"kirting the waters of the lake that hears 
their n,lIne, Between the Hurons and their 
dearlh enemy, the Iroquois, lay the Xeutrals. 
a nation that \\ ith the Huron tribe the con- 
federacy of the Iroquois was ere long to \\ipe 
out of existence. In 1615, Champlain, with 
his Jöuit following. made his eventful voyage 


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THE BEGI.\'.\?VGS OF TORONTO. 


up the Ott:l\\a. cros"ed 
('1lJed Ln -'J.r Douce, 
he tarried, 
Here, in \\ hat i" no\\ kno\\ n as the \latchedash Peninsula. the Black Robes. who had accompanied and prcceded 
Champlain, hegan their e\ angeli7ing \\ or\.... and set up the altar of the Church in the \\ ilderness. This intrusion of the" pale 
(11"',," into the territon of the \\'\.lI1dots \\as regarded first with curiosity, hut suhse'luently \\elcomed, in the hope that their 
nL'\\,found friends \\ould become their allies in the Huron raids upon the Iroquois. In a weak hour to this Champlain 
con"ented. and for nearJ
 a hundred and tift\. years the colony of 
e\\ France was to IXI
 the hitter penalty. From carr) ing 
Ihe Cro"... into tIll' \\ ilderness Champlain and hi" follo\\ ers undertook to carry the arquehuse and the torch into the heart of the 
I rOf)uois confederacy; and joining his Huron friends he speCllih' appears among the .IPpalled trihes of the "Five 
ations" in 
glittering armour. This heedless fora) cost him and his nation dear; and to the Huron trihe it hrought ruin and desolation. 
\\ hat retrihution fdl upon the Huron" no pen can in ih full horrors portray; and there is scarcdy a chapter in histor) that 
offers to it an adequate parallel. For the space of a generation there aro"e an internecine 
trife so crud th.n one's hlood curdles 
to re.\(l the record. .\Ias 
 it was a conflict not confined to savages; its hloodiest \\ork W.IS \Heaked upon the French. The 
poor Jesuit mi
sioner was made the sport of fiends, for no death seemed too terrihle to glut Iroquois lust of hlood. On the 
errands of hdl. season after season, came h.lI1ds of the Five Xation Indians, and in their path through the forest marked" the 
pa<;s 1)\ Toronto -- \\ ith the scorchings of Iroquois hate, 


La\...e X ipissing and paddled do\\ n the French Ri\ er to that inland 
ea of tIll' \\'yandots, which he 
I k"cending the (;eorgian Hay he came upon the eountn' of the Huron", among whom for a time 


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H :\IARhEJ", TO\{O"\TO, IS4I. 
It !>eem<; hut a baleful dream to stand to-day by the mouth of the Humber, now almost a suhurh of the great city, and 
reflect that by so placid a \\aten\ay the Spirit of E\ il then !>ent its emis
aries to work such havoc, It is nearh' two hundred and 
fifty )ear
 since these tragic days in the history of Canada, but how fe\\ arc there of roronto's holiday cro\\d
 on the Humber 
\\ ho think to \\ hat "cene
 the pre"ent safe and pleasant waters, \\ hich connect I a\...e Ontario \\ ith I a\...es Simcoe and Huron, 
then led, It was a time of fearful trial to the poor French nll..sioner, a time of unredeemed barbarism and savagery. "ain 
and fruitle
s were the efforts he and hi" order put forth to convert and ci, iliæ the aborigines. The missions the Jesuit had 
come to plant among the Hurons were consecrated with tears and watered with his life-blood. Through years of unparalleled 
toil, and \\ith great agony of soul, the hopes of the fathers were alternately raised and crushed. Despite their amazing fortitude 
and unquenchable zeal, the hopes of the mission were doomed to destruction, and the heart of Faith was humbled in the dust. 
In a time of such peril to hoth priest and cOl1\'ert there was sore need of a Comforter. The Comforter came, but in the form 



THE flE(;IN1\IXGS OF TORO,YTO. 


i 


of the grim Iroquois e"\terminator, II ith his n.lIi\'e tomaha\\ k and the match-lock of the I )Utdl, In 16-1-1'1 the merciful end 
drew near. and to the ri
(JUrs of the follo\\ ing \\ inter \\ ere added those of the stake and the torch. It is computed th.lI within 
the space of thirtl' \'ears the \\hole Huron nation. numhering ahom thirtl. thousand souls, sal'e a sm.11I contingent th.It escaped 
for succour to (Juehec. wa,., ruthlessly e"\terminated, 
.\ full score uf )ears pas,,"ed 11\, from the period of this Kew \\ orld .. harr\"Ïn
 of the :\orth,"' till \\e again hear of 
French .Ilhenture within pro"\llnate range of Toronto, \\ïth \\hat devastation the regions north and \\est of thc Humher had 
been s\\ ept h) the Iroquois, the narr.ltives of French e"\ploration ahundantly hear witness. On the maps of the period the 
ominuus words. llt1tW/l ddrlfile "trihes e"\terminated" repeatedly occur, and tell their sad tale of \\oe and desolatiun. But 
French enterprise \\ a
 now taken up. not with carr) ing into the wilderness the standard of the Cross. hut \\ ith he.lring aloft the 
t/uo-dt'-lis of the ('rown. The anne"\ation of territon' and the e"\tension of trade were nOlI the aim of French chi\'alry, and in 
pursuit of its ohject it met the jarring hostility and ceaseless rivalry of Britain, Keen and prulunged \\as the contest for 
supremacy on the continent of the Xe\\ \\ orld, and we know ho\\ it ended. The story forms the most hrilliant episode in 
Canadian hi
ton', and decks the nation's \\'alhalla \\ith an aureola of fame. 


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But. he,.,ide
 "Ihe p:tss h) l'oronto. and that hy the \\aters of the Ott,lw,1 ,111<1 Lake Xipissing, there were other menues 
to the north and \\ cst which French e"\ploration and the pursuit of the fur trade ,.,oon opened up, Just bevond Fort Frontenac 
(nOli Kingston), at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, the Bay of <,luinte gil'es access to the l'rent Ri\'er and the line of water 
and portage communication \I hich eunnects [ ake Oatario \\ ith Lake Simcoe and the (;eorgian Bay, B\' this route Champlain 
and his Huron raiders made their hapless descent upon the Irotluois. and 1)\ the same route, the great Frenchman, wounùed 
and ùispirited, W,I
 fain to return for s\mpathy and SliCCOur to the mission,., of the Huron Peninsula, ]11' this \\aterway al
u, 
or hy the highw,1\ of the Ottaw.l, the French [rapper or missionary would find his toilsome way to the "Cpper 1.lkes. and the 
rich mines of Lake ;o;uperior: for already the mineral \\ ealth of the region dl\ iùed with the mission at ;o;ault Ste. :\larie the 
hopes and ainb of French e\angdiLation. 
.\" }et, little of the last peninsula of Ontario lias known te the French: many years lIere still to pass ere it began to 
be reclaimed from nature and the savage. In 1626 Daillon, a Récol\et friar, ventured from the mission forts of the Huron 
district as far inland as the beaver meadOlls of the Grand River and the Thames. Fourteen years afterwards came Chaumonot 
from the same mis.-;ion on an erranrl of 100'e to the tribe of the Xeutrals, and with him was Brebæuf, "the .\jax of the Huron 



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\Iissions," who a fe\1 years later lIas to thrill the world with 
the heroism of his mart) I' death, But a nell name was now 
to be emhlaLOned on the scroll of French e"ploration: for in 
the) ear 1669, the eager-eyed I a Salle \1 as to descry for the 
first time -,",Hure's lovely solitudes at the fOnd dulac, as the 
western end of lake Frontenac (Ontario) was termed hy the 
French. Ten) ears later. the ad\ enturou" \'oung :>J" orman 
found his \Iay to the mouth of the 
Ii""issippi, and rolled up 
the curtain of Frtonch domination over the south and west. 
With I a Salle on his earlier e"\pedition W,IS the Sulpician mis- 
sionary, (;alinee, whose map, published in France in 1670, is 
the earliest chart \Ie possess of the configuration of the Untario 
peninsula. Galinee, II ho seems to ha\'e heen an enthusiastic 
sportsman and fond of good cheer, speaks of the interior of 
the peninsula as a famous stalking-ground for deer and, he 
grimly adds, .. a bear-garden of the Iroquois:' 
Full of disaster as was the rule of the Frtonch culuny at 
Quebec, there was a time \\ hen hope beamed on the fruits of 
French e"\ploration and "ettlement in the \\"est. The daring 
and ambition of the young French lloblesse nothing could 
daunt; and their enterprise laid the foundations of that trade 
which led to the partial opening up of the later proYince of 
Cpper Canada, though it was e\'er and anon retarded by the 
ri\alry of the Engli"h of the sea hoard, In pursuit of thc fur trade, that great source of wealth to the people of both 
nations, these trails to the \\ est became a\enues of commerce Ilhich it was important for the French to hold and for the 
Engli"h to ob"truct or stri\e to obtain. To conserve the trade for the French crolln, a number of forts were early established 
in the \\est, which h,Id Frontenac (Kingston) as their base of supply. .\s trade e"\panded and rivalrygre" keener, Fort Rouillé 
(Toronto) was erected in 1749 to guard the passage by the Ri\'er Humber. This stockade received its name from the French 
('olonial \linister of the period. .\ntoine Louis Rouillé, Count de Jouy. It stood on the Jake shore, ahout midway between 
the {;arri'ion Creek, at the western entrance of the harbour, and the Humber, and may practically be spoken of as the first 
germ of the Cit\' of Toronto. Through the instrumentality of the Rev. 1)1', Scadding, the \ cnerab]e historiographer of the 
('it). a memorial column has bcen erected to mark the original site of the Fort. It stands at the "outh-\Iest angle of the 
E"\hihition (;round", near the 
ni t to the \1 harf. 
()n the "outh side of 
I ah Ontario the French had 
:tlread \ a fort at X iagara, II hile 
the Engli"h had established a 
ri\ a] post at Choueguen, now 
(),.,II ego. The H ud...on and 
the St. 1,IIHencL Ilere then, 
as nOli, in direct ant.Igoni...m 
in tilt' matter of tr,ule, Com- 
merce ...ought the most ad\an- 
t.lgl"IUS market, and the re 
,.,trictiH' impost.. of thL' French 
,It (2uehel', and the high pricc... 
there of commoditie.. offered 
in L "change for the products 
of the cha...e, threw much of 
the traffic of the Indians h) 
the \ aile) of th L \Iohallk, 
into the hands of the Fngli"h. 
rhi... naturall) emhittered the 
fedings of the French for their 
hereditary enemies of the "ea- 
board, and gave local zest to 
the contest which II as long 


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\'IEW O:\' THE IIU
IBER. 



THE e E. LOYALISTS A "D THE FOeXDIXG OF THE PROrÜ'CE. 


9 


waged hetween England and France. But the end of the strife hetween the two nation" \\as at hand, and though the ri\'al 
route" of trade were "till to he fought oyer. French dominion in the 
ew \\ orld was to pass into the h,mds of the Engli"h, 
and the lilies of France wcrc to gi\'c way to the ('ross of ::-it. (;eorge. But jusl hefore this happened, calamity 0\ ertoo\.. the 
four trading-posts on lake ()ntario, 
In q 56. Choueguen fell hefore the daring of :\Iontcalm, and three years afterwards Colonel Bradstreet le\ ell cd rort 
Frontenac with the dust. In the same )ear. after a short siege, Fort Xiag,ua surrendered; while the French stockade at 
Toronto, to prè\'ent its falling into the hand" of the \'ictorious English, was destrowd hy order of :\1. de \',1Udreuil, the 
(;0\ ern or. 
Of the importance of the trading-post which guarded" the pass hy Toronto." and which now historically disappears, 
there is on record the statement cf Sir \\ illiam J ohnstcn, emhodied in a despatch on I ndi.m aff.lÏrs to the Earl of Shelhurne, 
that for the monoph' of a se.lSon's tr.lde with the Indians at rort Rouille. could the post he re"tored, trader" would he willing 
to gi\'e as much as a thousand pounds: 
Such was the \'alue attached in q67 to the trade of .. the pa"s h) Toronto:' a \'alue w!lich its location and other 
ad\'antages were increa"ingl) to heighten. and a quarter of a century afterw.uds was to be turned to frc"h account. 


CHAPTER II. 


THI: t;, E. I.OL\I.lSrs ,\XI> THC FOL'
m
(; OF rHI: I'ROn,CE. 


,\ 
 F\\' ER,\ OF ['OLOXI \1 HISTOR\ 
l'POX C \X,\V \. THE:\I \....IX(; 
OF THE XEW SETTLE:\IF'\"TS. 


1:"1 .\:\IERIC\. E\'
XTS \\HICH 1 FI1 TO I'HF \\'\({ OF ['\"VFPE"VF'CF. 
OF TORO:".TO. THE S\CRIHCFS OF rHF C, E. 10\ \1 ISTS, rHE BR \\\, 
l'ORO'\"TO RECEI\'E" THE C. E, LO\,\lI"TS AXV PISB\'VEV :;OLlIIFR\. 


1 rs EFFFCT 
\'\V :\ILSCI E 


\'I:XTS were nm\ ahout to hring into greater prominence, not only the historic" pa<;5 hy 
Toronto:' hut the region through which the Indian trail led northward!'. to the waters of Lake 
Huron. the \Ïrgin site of Toronto ibelf. and the heautiful harhour that lay near to the 
southern outlet of .. the l'a",,:' -the reed-eO\ered delta of the Humber. From the Fall of 
Quehec and the period of the di"nl.lntling of Fort Rouillé. a gener,ltion in the haunts of men 
was to pass aw.l) ere we ag.lÏn hear of Toronto. or see "ign of renewed life and acti\'ity in 
its neighhourhood, X,Hure was fast resuming ih swa\' mer the place. and the little clearing 
round the trading-post was again heing gi\en up to solitude. \leanwhile. the drama of life 
was proceeding elsewhere. and through the scattered colonies of the continent there ran the 
pubations of a quickened e"l.istence. The pre\'ious chapter ended with the dose of French 
rule in Canada; this opens with a new era of coloni:li history in .\merica. European 
settlements in the ,ew \\ orld had hitherto 
mainly been for trade: now they partook 
of the character of. and felt the desire to he, 
a nation. The days of great pri\'ileged com- 
panies. with their huge land grants and re- 
stricti\ e monopolies. had passL'd, and the 
tiLS. commercial and pt.litical. beh\een the 
:\Iother ('ountn' and the colonie" \\ere al- 
reach' heing sundered, Britain's dream of emprisL O\'er the \"ew \\'orld had 
heen full) realiæd. and the trading-classes of the" tight little sea-girt i"le" 
threw up their caps when she became mi"tress of the \\ e"tern Continent, 
But while she had bra\'eh conquered, "he could not wiseh' hold, Her wars 
in the Old \\'orld had financially crippled her. and "he looked to the Xew to 
ha\'e her coffers refilled, Xor \\as the desire altogether unnatural. The 
publi(' deht of England had been piled up largely on account of her colonies, 
and it seemed reasonable that with their growth and prospenh return should 
in some measure be made to the :\Iother Countr) for \\ hat they had cost her. 
But how and in what shape \\as this to he returned to her? 1'0 Ia) hem ier 
dutie" on her o\\n imports \\ould he to ta"l. herself, not the colonies. 1'0 
lay them on the colonie". English statesmen ne\er dreamed \\ould lead to 
reyolt. To ta"l. the carr) ing trade was first attempted, and \\ hen this was 


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IREU' \!EIHUl>bI' CHURl II. 



]I) 


THE C. E. LOJ",lLIST,',; .1XD TilE .FùCXDING OF THE PROT INCE. 


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I.icl.ed at, \\hat \\.1" carried \Ias then 
taxed, But a, little \1.1" thi" relished 
.1' \\a" the proposed hut cancelled 
St.lInp ,\ct. \\ hat tool. place at the 
Port of Bo"ton and \11l.lt came of it, 
.ue too \\ dl I.no\\ n no\\ to tal.e up 
"pan' to inquire into, "ith thL'ir 
hirthright Briti"h colonists had in- 
herited Briti"h liberties, and British 
liberties tool. ill \\ilh ta ",eù teas, 
But before \\ e turn this picture 
t ) the \1.111. let us 1001. a little doser at 
Ihe coll.lp"e of the colonial s\ stem in 
.\merica, and see what it>- effect:-. \Iere 
upon ('anada and hO\I Toronto came 
therel" to be the gainer, .\ month 
after the capitulation of :\lontre.ll, 
(;eorge the Second wa" gathered to his 
fathers, as the historians minuteh' 
chronicle, in the "e\'enty-se\'enth \ear 
of his life and the thirt\-fourth of his 
reign, His page went one morning. as 
I'h.lcl.era) tdls us, to take him his ro)al 
chocolate, and, behold: the most rdigiou" and gr.H'ious SO\ ereign lay dead on the floor. The intractahle monarch \\ ho succeeded 
him tool. the .1dministration of aff.1.ir
 into his 0\1 n hands, and though he made a mess of things on this continent he was not I.ll.'king 
in rourage, and, when his mind was clear, would brook little interference from his counsellors, But (;eorge I I I. was unskilled 
in diplom.lC1', and ha\ing his O\ln he.lClstrong \Iay, he hrought humiliation on Britain: and after the I.lpse of some )ears a 
pitiful malad\ fell upon himself. The period of what is I.nown as the" King's .\Iinistn," extending from 17 68 to 17 82 , cO\'ers 
the e\"entfu] era of the 'r.u of Independence. in \\hich the colonists of the Xe\\ "'orld, resenting interference in matters of 
trade from admini"trations in I .ondon, and feding that liberty W.IS imperilled hy the aggressions of the Crown, threw off 
allegiance to Britain and founded the gO\ernment of the l'nited States, 
Burke s m.lgnifieent pica for conciliation hore no fruit. and the eloquent warnings of Fm, and Chatham were wa"ted on 
Ihe insolent lord 'orth, For a time British arms met \Iith their \Ionted SUccesses, and the hopes of the )oung nation \Iere 
f.1.r from being elated, .\Iontgomery had f.lllen at Quebec, and Burgoyne had penetrated from the St. I a\\ renee to the Hudson, 
".lpturing the stronghold of Ticonderoga h\" the way, Brant and his Indians were carrying terror through the ".llIe\' of the 
\Iohawk, "hill' :\e\1 York and the 100\er Hudson \\ere ill\'ested by the fleet of I.ord Howe, But \\hile the \\eary years of the 
unnatural conflict passed, fiel.]e Fortune beg.m to change, and the Fates to smile on the arms of the Young Repuhlie, The 
R()\ ali"ts met \1 ith re\ er,.,e after re\"erse, until the end came \\ ith the surrender at Saratoga of (;enera] Burgoyne, and at 
Yorl.town of I ord Corn\\allis, \Ïetor) finally 
re,.,ting upon the Continental arms, .\merica 
achie\'ed her independence and was formally 
admitted into the categor) of nations, In this 
she \Ias no litt]e assisted by Britain's heredi- 
tar) L'nem\, France, \1 hich nation on the 
surrender of Burgo) ne, not on I) h.lskned to 
acl.nO\\ledge the re\olted colonies, hut sent 
an army to aid them in their ,.,tTUggle with 
. .. the common foe But the capitulation of the 
Briti
h generals was not mere!) the capitula- 
tion of an arnH', it lIas the ,.,urrender of h.tlf 
of Britain's hold upon the :\e\\ \\ orld and 
\... \\ ithdrawa] from the best part of a continent. 
t ' 
 To the 100'alist "the lost cause" \1.1'" freighted 
'''''!! \\ ith e"i], for to him and hi,., it hrought IIOC 
and desolation. With the ,.,UlTess of the col- 
onies came persecution and the loss of prol'ert). 
Then \\ as accepted \ o]untary e"'p.1triation \1 ith 
its trials and pri\ atiolb. .md the sad e"'periences 


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hI\IA'I('ELB\I'lhl ClfLI., II, C(lF:'
RJA"\I
 A"n \\"111
SII\ SlS, 



THE U E. LOlALISTS AND THE FOUXDING OF THE PROVINCE. 


11 


of e"\ile in the \\ ildernesses of Canada. 
sequel in the" making of Toronto:' 
\Iuch has been \\Titten ahout the Cnited Empire Loyalists. on the one hand in disparagement of their hostile attitude 
towarùs the new-horn Republic. and on the other. in well-dl'
en ed praise of their loyalty to the British eTO\\ n. Our 0\\ n \ ie\\ 
is. that they made great and undouhted sacrifices in abandoning their homes and possessiuns fer a domicile under the Old Flag. 
Some of their detractors have gone 
the length of sa\'ing that their devo- 
tion to the House of Urunswick had 
not the merit of being e\'en a 
enti- 
mental one -that the\' \\ere actuated 
bv mercenan moti\'es: I", party al- 
liance \\ ith the .Idministration that 
had prO\oked the \\ar: and b) a 
spirit of Tor) hostilih to the "'hip. 
who \\ere opposed to coercÏ\c mea- 
sures tlmarù" the colonies. But thi
 
is surd) an e:l.treme and an unf.lÏr 
\'ie\\ of the matter, and a libel on I P- 
the memor) of these patriots, Part\ 
feeling then, as now, no doubt ran 
high, and faction was almost certain 
in a great issue then pendin
 to ha\'e 
its follower;" But rebellion was a 


"e necù hardly point out that this e"\patriatiun had its happy. thuugh as yet distant, 


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.. HILLcREsr," ROSED-\LF, ANII ApPROACH TO THE NORrH IRO," BRIDC;E. 


serious alternative; and with men who 100'ed the Old Land and re\'erenced the Flag, to renounce the one and be untrue to the 
other \\as a step they might well be excused from taking. howe\'er impolitic may ha\'e been the course of British administration 
and unjust the measures forced upon the coìoll\'. 



I:! 


THE IT, E. LOJ:/LISTS AND THE FOlTDI.\'G OF THE FROVIXCE. 


On the other hand, it m.IY be asked, were there not L'"\n:
ses indulged in by the partisans of the ]{epublic; CO\'Ctous 
e\ö laid on the pos"essions of true men and 100'al citi/clb, and taunts and jibes thrown at tho"e who were knoll n to look coldlv 
upon the succes
es of the colonist
 in re\'ult. and \\ ho Ic)\'ed the land of their birth and honoured the home of their kindred? 
11 \\ould not be difficult to prove that thi
 wa
 but too cruelly the c'a
e. Haliburton, in his I. Rule and :\Iisrule of the English 
in ,\merica:' .lffirms that" tarring amI fe.lthering, .\Ild other acts of personal outrage, became so common in :\lassachusetts, that 
,III su"'pectnl p:uli
.ms of the \Iother Countn' '\ere obliged to seek refuge with the troops:' ,\nother authorit) says: "] could 
adduce instances of conduct in Londists that \\ ould do honour to 
human nature; but therc is one which I cannot pass mer, heeause 
it shows with \\ hat firmness men will act when they arc conscious 
that the) ha\'e taken the right side of a question. ,\ fort lIas reduced 
by the .\mericans on the River Savannah, and such of the loyal 
militia as were in garrison there had the ahernati\'e offered them of 
enlisting \\ ith the Americans. or being put to de.lth, Among the 
Lo)alists wa
 a young man who desired a few minutes to consider 
the proposal, and after a short pau
e he resolutely ans\\'ered that he 
preferred death to disgrace, on which al"'ount he was immediately 
cut down," 
But, whatever the actual facts and however \'aried the motlvcs 
that kept the r .ovalists from ) iclding up their fidelity to their king, 


there can be little quötion as to the hanbhips they 
endured in abandoning their estates in wll.lt lIas com- 
p.uatin' ei\ ili/ation for a home in the inho
pitable wilds 
of the trad.le

 forest. Few of their number, it ll1av 
be, \\ ho, for the sake of a principle, had the courage t
 
prefer instant death rather than he untrue to their con- 
\ Ictions; though 111.111\ are knO\\ n to have taken their 
chances of life or death \\ ith the Briti
h troops in the 
v.ln ing fortune" of the \\ar, HCI\\ many after the dose 
of the Ll1Ilfiict preferred e"patriation to li\ing in a 
countn that had lIon independence through rebellion, 
histon is here to .Iltest; and these \\ ere the men \\ ho 
\\ere to form the hra\\n and muscle, the mind and heart 
of the ne\\ 
ettlemenh of .\cadia and Canada. True, 
the I o\ali"h recei,ed large gifts of the 
oil in the ne\\ 
land to which they had come, as !'.ome compen
ation for 
their 10 ...es : but these grants were such as al1\' cIas" of 
settlers \\ould be likely to receive under any politic BlOOR SrRl"u' BAl'l"ISr CHURCH, 
S) 
tem of Immigration. And as to thl' mone) appropriation hy the Crown on their hehalf, in view of \\ hat work by before 
them as piolwer<; of a ne\\ and unopened country, and depri\t:d as they \\ere of almost nerything their pre\ious toil had 
secured to them, no generou,; mind \\ill ca\ il at, or say that, con
idering their need, it was not richly their due. 
\\ïth the pean' of I ï8.), \\ hich the Treaty of \ ersaille
 secured, hands of r .oyalists entered ('anada from \arious points, 
and 
dtled in the neighbourhood of Xiagara, round the 
h(lre
 of lake Ont.lrio, up the B.I) of <2uinte, dc)\\n the :-it. Ll\\felll'e, 


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EVEXTS WHICH PRECEDED THE IiOUNIJI,rG OF rORA: 


13 


and hv wav of 1 )l'troit, along the hanks of the St. Clair and the Thames. In the East there was also considcrahle sdtlement 
in de.;jrahle Im'ations in XO\'a Scotia and Xe\\ Brun"wick, Of thu"e that enterell Canad.l hy the 
iag.lra Ri\er, not a few \\ere 
to find their \\.W round the he.ul of I ake Ontario to Toronto. accomp.mie(l hy contingents of dishanded soldiery from the 
tm\"!l of 
e\\ark, \\hich, on the di\ision of the countn into the PrO\im'es of l'pper anù Lo\\er Canada, \\.IS in Ii')1 to hecome 
the temporary capit.II. This LO\alist immigration was composed fur the m lin part of the middle and upper cl.lSses in the 
communities they had left classes that though wdl-to-do were accustomed to hard lahour. acquainted \\ ith hush-life, familiar 
with the work of the farm, and possösed of a courage and endurance which. often put to the test, were to prO\e the hest 
qualities for a pioneering life and the gift
 most needed for suhduing the wilderness. .\s has heen said of them. no portion of 
the British possessions e\er recei\'ed so nohle an acquisition, for they hrought to Canada the materials for a nation ready-made. 


CI L-\PTE R J II. 


E\'EXTS \\ HICH PRECEDED THE FOeXIHX(; OF YORK, 


THE ORIGI:'II OF THE FRF:\'"CH-C,\:\'"-\DI.\N PROIII nl. - CRE.\TIOX OF UPPER \'\"D IO\\FR C,\J\ \D-\. E\RLY TFSrI\IONY TO 
THE .\I)\" -\'\"T-\(;FOL"S LOC.-\TIO:\ OF TORO'\" roo SI\ICOF ,\1'1'01:\ TED (;OVf RNOR OF C PPER C,-\ '\",\1>,\. TOlW:\TO (Y OR....) 
HECO
IFS THE C,\PIT.-\L OF THF PROVINCE. 


'. 
 
W; - - I rH the estahlishment. in, 179 1 , of.Cpper Canada as a separate..PrO\inc
, Si,r (;u)" Carll'ton., n
\\ 
, \ Lord Dorchester the (,O\'ernor-( ,eneral of the colony -had KlI1gston 111 \ lew as the I'ronnClal 
,I I" metropolis. How Toronto, or rather \' ork, as it came for a time to he called. won the honour 
1 ,I. ,r of heing the capital. We "hall presently see. Meantime let us take a glance at II hat had heen 
transpiring in Canada since the Conquest. \\ïth the addition of X ew France to the Colonial 
Empire of Britain, the :\Iother Country took o\'Cr an element of some perple",it
, in a people she 
found it difficult to assimilate \\ith her o\\n nationality. France in the Xe\\ \\'orld not only 
spoke another language, hut she 
had peculiar laws of her 0\\ n, and 
a religion which, though it had been 
that of the country from the time 
of Champlain, was not that of her 
new rulers, England's policy, of 
course, was to make it as easy as 
possihle to incorporate the French-Canadians into the national 
s\'stem, For a time it was necessary to resort to military rule, 
but this indeed. if we except that of the Church, \\as the only 
rule the French Colol1\' had hitherto kno\\ n. With military rule. ðAJ:....oÍil."". 
ho\\ever, courts of judicature were constituted for the hearing and 
determining of all causes, criminal as well as ci\'il, with liberty 
of appeal, under the usual restrictions. to the Cro\\ n, Cnfortunatcly, though the laws \\ere administered in the justest manner, 
and \\ ith due regard to the feelings of a people who were unfamiliar with the forms of British justice. the French. under 
the Quebec .\ct of I ïï-t, had restored to them the .. custom of Paris," a code ()f ci\ il la\\ which e...isted prior to the Conquest. 
This privilege, Il'ith guarantees for the maintenance of their language and their religion. and the s\ stem of seignorial tenure on 
\\hich they \\ere permitteù to hold their land", the French-Canadians have continued to enjoy to the present day. To the 
English who hold settled in the countr} the concession g:l\'e instant and just offence, as it was a \ iolation of the ordinance 
of I 76-t, securing the administration of English law, and on the 
faith of which numhers of English-speaking people had taken up 
residence in Canada. In some respects, ho\\e\Tr, the ('oncession 
was a politic Olle, as, though it placed Ihe English minority at a 
disad\antage, it strengthened the attachment of French ('.mada 
to the British Crown, an ohject at the time of no little moment, 
in ,iew of the disaffection among the Engli"h colonies on the 
seahoard, and their suhsequent re\'olt. I n other respects the 
measure was good. namely, in its remmal of the disahilities from 
.--. 

 
 Roman ('atholics. as, among other henefits conferred, it ga\'e a 
legal sanction to their religion an act of toleration which it took 
England many years to e:\tend to the same communion in the 


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TORo:\ TO IN 1803. 



 


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1-1- 


El'EKTS WHICIf PRECEDED THE FOUXJJI.n; OF rOR^
 


muther-Iand. thuugh it ma
 be ".Iid that. from a pröent-d.I\' point of \ ie\\, it has not contrihuted to the prosperity, hut rather to 
Ihc dis..uh.II1I.1gC. of I O\\"L'r Canaùa, ,h wc ha\e 
.lÏd, the measurc natur.llly gan' great offencc to British settlers in the country. 
But dis
ati...f..lction \\ a" e"pecialh e"presscd \\ ith it, in consclJuence of the e"\tensi\ e area throughout which the . \et would 
ha\ c to bc rc"p.'cted. for 1)\ ih pro\ isions the \\ cstcrn hounùan of ('anada \\as to include a region so remote as the vallev of 
the Ohio, In due time, ho\\e\er. the repcatcd protests of the ,\nglo-Canadians against the injustice of the (Jucbcc .\ct 
induced the English 
Iinistr) to makc a radi- 
cal change in the administrati\e machinery 
of Canada, so far, at least. as the \\estern 
portiun of the countn was concerncd. The 
incoming of English-speaking scttlcrs from the 
territory of the new-horn Repuhlic incrcased 
the Hllume of complaint he.ud at the Coloni.II 
Office, amI no douht hastened the p.lssing of 
the ameliorating measurc, 
Jh thc Constitutional. \ct of I i91 as 
the Hill was called thc country was di\ ided 
into two pouts, designated Cpper and l.owCT 
(',mada, the houndary line being the Otta\\a 
Ri\'er. Each I'rovince was to have its own 
(;0\ ernor, and an E:\ecuti\'e Council, ap- 
pointeù bv the ('rown, together with a Parlia- 
ment, consisting of a I.cgislati\'e ('ouncil anù 
a 1{epresentati\'C . \ssemhly. The (;0\ ern- 
ment in hoth I'rO\ inces wa
 unfortunately 
made rcspon
ihle. not to thc Representativc 
. \ssemhly, hut to 
thc Colonial 
()f/ìcein England 
a mistakc which, 
III Cppcr C ',lI1aùa particularly, was in time to hring forth e\'il fruit. In Upper ['anada, English law 
\\.lS to hc ,'st.lhli"hcd, and prm ision made in hoth I'rO\'inces for the support of a Protestant clerg\', 
1)\ the .;eltingapart 
of eertam \\ild 
lanù
,calledClerg} 
Resen'Ls, an cn- 
actmcnt \\ hieh 
later on \\ as to Icaù 
to much conten- 
tion in the L: pper 
I'rm ince. Frced 
from the trammels 
of connection \\ ith 
I 0\\ cr ( 'anada. thc 
L:pper I'ro\ incc 
tno" a leap on- 
\\ard III that path 
,Jf progre

 \\ h ieh 
to look h.lCk on 
In'Ùa). >hl";-" if 
it h
ù C,JmL ahout 
I I} L neh.lntmcnt, 
..u !!:reat h.1 bcen 
thc tran
form, tion -.
. . TO "". 
anù man ellou" th, 
de\ e!opment. 
"rom 'i 8 .'), \\ Ilt"n th.. R",olutionan \\ ar c1o
ed, the I'rO\ inl'e prolm.;ed to he invadcd along the whole of its \\ater-front 
.It 
L.lttcred (loinh :Jttr"lcti\c to the 
ettlcr. Cp to 1 i9', howen:r, \\ ith the e"\ception of small cummunities along the St. 
La\\Tence, the Ib) of C,!uinté, thL Xiagara frontier, and the Detroit Ri\'er -the bulk of which was of Lovalist settlement-there 
\\,!
 no \\hite population in thL Lountr
, and the whole region was an almost trackless forest. The nat
ral advantages of the 


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ErEXT.S WHICH PRECEDED THE FOl"'DI,XG VF ro/("
 


ne\\ Iy,created I'rm ince of C pper Canada were great: it ahounded in timher, it had a good soil. plent\" of fish and game. and in 
eu'n direction \\.lS \\ell \\atered 1)\' streams. generall) n.l\igahle for boats and canoes. and possessed of a climate at once 
br.lt"ing and health\. \\ hat alone \\.lS needed \\ere the sun'e
 or. the axeman and the settler. Record of the appearance of the 
lirst of these \\e find trace of in the neighhourhood of ('oronto, in the person of Sun'e\'or-(;ent"ral ('(Jllins. who. in I ï 88 . in a 
report of the region to I.ord I )orchester. speaks of the Harhour of Toronto as .. cap..'1cious. safe. and well-sheltered." rhree 
\"ear
 !.lter. \\e find :\lr, ,\Ilgustus Jones. I'rmincial L:lnd Suneyor. pur"uing his vocation in the same land-locked waters. and 
prospecting gencrall\' in the neighhourhood, Colonel Bouchette. Surn:\or-(;encral of I.ower Canada, at the time engaged in 
the na\',ll and Il\drographical sen'ice of the \\estern !.lke,.;, also ad,[.; his te
timon
 to the f.lvourahk location of Toronto for the 
seat of the I'rO\ incial capit.l\. .. I still distinctl
 recoil en." he sa\ s. .. the untamed aspect which the country e"\hihited \\ hen 
lìr
t I entLred the l,e,lUtiful hasin, I knse 
amI trackless fore
h lined the margin of the 
lake. and reflected their imertt:d image
 in 
its gl,I
S\' surf.1Ce. The \\andering sa\age 
had con
tructed hi
 eplwmeral hahitation 
heneath their lu"\uriant foliage the group 
then consisted of two f.unilies of :\1 i""i
",lgas 
-and the ha\ and neighhouring nl.1rshe
 
were the hitheno unin\',lded haunts of im- 
mense cO\'e\'s of wild fowl." 
The heauh' and shelter afforded by 
the B.\\" of Toronto \\ere 
uch as readih to 
commend the 
ite a
 a desirahle one for the 
location of a cit\", It ga\e aCt"ess. as \\e 
have seen, h\" the most direct )lath. to I ,1ke 
1.1 (lie (Simcoe) and the waters of Huron. 
and Ia\' in clo
e pro...imit\" to the Humber 
ri\'er. and the .. place of meeting" as the 
\\ord "Toronto" denotes -of the Indians, 
:\loreO\er. it \\as within easy hail of 
iagara. 
the British fort on the opposite shore of the 
lake. and in the line of communication ea
t- 
ward. Ho\\ the"e ad\'antages were to tell 
in f.'1\'our of the selection of Toronto as a 
capital we shall ere long discO\er. 
With the erenion of Cpper Canada 
into a di
tin("t I'ro\ ince it secured. as We have 
said, a separate gO\'ernment: and an admin- 
istrator \\as to he appointed, with the title of 
l.ieutenant-(;O\ ern or. The gO\ ernorship fell 
into the able hands of Lt.-Col. John (;ran:s 
Simcoe, \\ hose appointment. in I ï92. led to 
his crossing the .\tlantic and taking up resi- 
dence at 
ewark, the I'rO\ incial capital 
With him came a staff of officials to admin- 
ister the aff.'1ir
 of the ne\\ I'ro\ ince. including 
\Ir. Peter Russell. a memher of hi
 L"'ecuti\'
 
('ounci\. and the officLr \\ ho. sume years 
later. succeeded Simcoe in the r .ieute;lant- 
( ;O\'ernorship. The (;0\ ernor and his suite 
left I:ngland earh' in \Ia\. I ï9 2 , and arri\ ed I'ARLIA \lnT STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 
at 
iag,lfa on the 8th of the follo\\ing Jul
. Here. in the Centre of the beau 11londe of the PrO\ince, as an early tra\eller 
t?wugh Canada f
cetiously remarks. (;o\"ernor Simcoe, in the month of September, summoned the first Parliament of L'pper 
(anada, It ('onslsted of an L)lper House of se\en memhers. appointed hv the Cro\\n for life, and a Lower House of si"\teen 
n>mhers, to be elected 1)\ the people. The J.Hter \\ere chosen. in the main, from the fanning and trading classes, the profes, 
slon
. as }t.l, not ha\:ing had foothold in the I'rmince. The legislation of this primiti\'e Parliament, though unamhitious, 
senslhh' met the rel)Ulremenb of the Cf)llntr
. One of its earliest measures was the introduction of the Ci\'il La\\ of England 
and trial h,v jU? Other measures made prO\'ision for the erection of court,houses, jails, and such other public Luildin
s as 
\\ ere reqUIred 111 the various districts Into which the PrO\ ince was at the time divided. 
T,hese districts, which cancelled the di\Ìsions of the Pro\-Ìnce made some years before by I ord Dorchester, and to \\ hich 
he had gl\en <;erman names in compliment to Cngland's Hanl)\'erian King, were a., follo\\s: the Eastern di
trict, cO\ering the 


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16 


THE FCTURE CITY IX SI.1fCOE'S DA Y 


rl ,ion hin CT bet\\een the Otta\\a ri\er and the (
.lI1ano(lue: the \Iirlland, eo\ering that hetween the latter and the Trent; the 
H:
me 
r 
iagara di,.,trict, e"tending from the Trent to Long Point on Lake Erie; and rhe "'estern or Detroit district, e"tending 
10 the St. ('lair. Thes di,.,tricts \\ere again suhdi\'i(led into counties, and each of the latter \\.lS to ha\'e its jail and court-house. 
rhus \\ ere the initial steps taken to open up the Pro\ ince for settlement, and e\'olution was to do the rest. 
1\iagarol at thi,., period, if we cxcept Kingston, \\as the only place of importance in Upper Canada, and it naturally hecame 
the !=radle of the \re
rern prO\ ince. It had, therefore, some claim to hecome the permanent capital. Unfortunately for the 
t(mn, its nearne

 to Cnited State" territor
, and the dangerous prm.imit) of Fort Xi.1gara, dashed the hopes in this respect of 
ih inhahitants. To (;0\ ern or Sllllcoe's surpri,.,e. he found that the fort at the mouth of the river was shortly to be garrisoned hy 
\merican soldieT\. .lI1d tll.lt it did not helong to King (;eorge. But this need not h3\'e surprised the Co\'ernor had he 
cOlbidered for a moment \\ ith \\ hat ignorance the coloni.11 office had heen wont to gi\'e effect to treaties disposing of enormous 
.lTeas in the r\e\\ \\'orld, \\ithout the slightest kneJ\\ledge of geogr.1phy and \\ith suhlime indifference to local considerations. 
rhe folly of flo\\ ning Stred in regard to tre.ltY,Il1.1killg \\.lS not onl) manifest in the proceedings which gave effect to the Treaty 
of Paris, contìrming the independence of the United States, hut was also to he shown. at a later date, in the Treaty of (;hent, 
\\ hich terminated the \\ ar of I 
 12. B) the fonner, England not only lost a large slice of territory, but, in its ignorantly placed 
.lI1d impracticahle line, ('anada has recently had to grope in the dark in fi:\ing the western houndary of Ontario, from the 
notahle north-\\e,.,t angle of the Lake of the \\'oods. By the Treaty of (;hent, it is almost unnecessary to remind the reader, 
Britain lost the whole of the State of l\Iaine, which hy right of conquest belonged to Canada, and at the time was ours with the 
.. con"ent and content" of its people, 
:\lealH\ hill', the location of a site for the capital was not long in ciouot. From the chronicles of the period we learn that 
(;O\ernor Simcoe entered Toronto Ba\'. \\ ith hecoming state, in the month of lIIay, 1793, and at once selected the place of 
landing a spot near the mouth of the I Jon a,., the scene of his future administrative operations, and made his cam'as-tent, 
pitched on the ri\t
r h.lI1k, the germ of what he hastened to call the capital town of York, 


CHAPTER IV. 


THE FL'TCRE CITY IN SI\I('OE'S DAY ANI> Xl' THE RE(a
KIKG OF THE CEr\TCRY. 


SIMCOF'" ;\IILI f.\RY (' \RI'ER. THE FIR'iT OFFICI \1 S OF UPPER C,-\ ''-\11.\. - TORONTO SELECTFD AS THt" (' \PITAI, 111 \ Y, 1793. 
TH
 ()I H',\'" R,\'\"(;['RS CO:\STRl'('T \"0:,\(;[,: STRFET. THI' C\PIT,\L HEl'EI\ FS ITS l\,\MF, \'ORK.- 
IE\NI;\"(; OF THL 
\\'ORD TORo'\ 1'0. TORO"l/TO 1)1 SI<;'\"FD TO BF THI'; QUEBLC O
 THE I..\KFS.- ()RJ(;IJ'\AI. TO\\"/I;-PIOT OF TOROl' 1'0.- 
SII.... OF CASTI F FR \:XK Oi\! THI 1)0:\,",- (;0\ FR:\OR SJ\/COF'S I )FI'.\HTl'RF. (;F'\"FRAI BROCK J\PPE.\RS ON THE SCFl'E, 
YORK AT THF ()PI"'\J
(; OF TH..- CI:'\"TUR\, \11 ETli\!(; OF THE FIRST P,\RLL-\\lI:/I;T 1:\ TOROi\!TO. - YORK I
 1797 
I)
 'iCRIII
 v H\ \ ('0'\ rE\lPORAR\. .\RRI\ AI. OF (;OVERNOR (;ORE. SOCIAL PHO(;RESS OF \" ORK. 


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 I '" r((.\ HE historical retrospect we ha\'e, in the pre\Ïous chapters, placed before the reader, will 
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 '\ now enahle him t
 enter upo
 th
 a
1I1als of th.e yet embryo T
)ronto, with a oetter idea 
f( '
';<;:c;.,'..' tf. ,;''::/ of ho
\ t
e l'rO\ lI1:c, of \\ hlch It IS t
e capItal, was cal
ed mto ðlstence, and what 
" . 
A matenal, 111 the mam, came to the makll1g of the future city. In the vangu.lTd of tht 
, '
-;.J4 army of peaceful imaders \\ere, as we hme seen, the U, E. Loyalists and the royalist 
,'Ì ' J/_"1 
i ,.,oldiery, \\ ho had fought and 10'it in the Revolution. \\Ïth them had come contingents of 
, . 
. ",- / "X' _ 
.;. - sturdy yeomanry, who had either entered the I'rO\ ince from the neighhouring Repuhlic, or 

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 had mO\ ed we'it\\ard from th,e hank
 of the St: I:awr
nce to take advant.lge of the land 

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 grants of the newly-formed C pper (anada admlmstratlon, and hew homes for themseh es 
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 y'- in the \\ ilderness. In the þerso1l1lel of the administration there W.1S fine material for the 
',
 'I I, , :1
U\fJ:, re.lTing of a ne\\ commom\ ealth. Culond Simcoe, the soldier-(;O\ ernor, was himself a 
j man of note. .\s Commander of the ()ueen's Rangers, one of the most effi('ient PrO\ in- 
/'ial corp", p.lTt inf.'\ntry and part horse, that fought on the loyal side in the Re\"()lution.lTY \\'.IT, he rendered distinguished 

eT\ice through the campaign,., of 1777 to 1781. Towards the close of the war he fell into the hands of the enemy, and becom- 
ing imalided, \\a" !>ent home on parole to England. He was ,.,uhsequently released from his parole, entered Parliament, and as 
a memher for a borough in Corn\\a]], took part in the debate<; on Pitt's Bill, the COIhtitutional .\ct of 179 1 , hy which the 
PrO\ince of ()uebec \\.b di\ided into L'pper and I (mer Canada, On the passing of the Bill in the Imperial Parliament, 
Colonel Sim, oe \\a" appointed Lieuknant-(;O\ernor of the Cpper I'rminceand, accompanied by hi!> \\ife, he proceeded at once 
to the !>cene of hi,., future labours. 
\\ Ith him camt.-. or on hi" arri\al \\ere immcdi.ltdy appointed to office, the following gentlemen, whose names, either in 
the per!>on!> of tho
e \\ho then bore them or in that of their descendants, are f.'\miliar to the ears of Toronto citizens. Hon. 
William ()sgoude, Chief J u"tiLe; \1 r, Robert (;ray, Solicitor-(;encral; l\[r. John White, Attorney-General; D. \\. Smyth, 



A_'
D AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CEXTl./RY 


Ii 


Sur\'eyor-(
eneral ; Hon. Pder Russell, Recei\'er-(
eneral ; Thomas Ridout and \\ïlliam Chewett, .\ssistant Recei\'ers-Ceneral: 

l.1jor Littlehales, :\Iilitary Secretary; William J.uÙs, Ci\ il Secrd.uy Ensign (aftef\\ards ('olund) Thomas T.tlhot, _\ide-de- 
Camp, Early in Juh. I 79 2 , (
O\crnor Simcoe \\.lS sworn in at Kingston, \\ ith the fi\'e memhers of His E\.cellenc)'s E\.ecuti\e 
Council. The memuers of this first L'pper Cmada Council "ere \\"m. Osgoude, Peter Russell, James Rlhy, .\Ie\.. er.mt and 
"'m, Rohcrhun, Later on Robert H.uuilton, 
Richard Cartwright and John 
[unro \\ere 
nominated Legislati\e Councillors: and still 
later fifteen memhers "ere rdurned as repre- 
sentati\'es of the people to the PrO\'incial 
.\ssembly. Of this first Parliamentary budy, 
:\Ir. John 
l.1cdonell "as elected Speaker, 
"hile :\Ir. John Small was appointed Clerk 
of the Executi\e Council. 
The first L'pper Canada Legislature, 
we have already seen, \\as called to meet in 
Ke\\ark (Kiag.ua) on the 17th of Sept em her. 
I ï92, and its first session lasted till the 15 th 
of the follO\\ ing momh. Hut (
o\'ernor Sim- 
coe had other tasks to perform than to open . 
and prorogue Parliament. .\ capital was to 
be found for the newly-constituted State. ,\s 
yet Toronto was a metropolis only on paper. 
In the spring of I ïQ3, just before the second 
session of the I egislature met, Simcoe set 
out with a party in bo.lts for an e\.cursion 
round the head of the lake, resoh'ing to lay 
the foundations of the future capital at 
Toronto. .\t the end of July. hming pre\iously disp.ltched some companies of the Queen's R.mgers to t.Ü.e pussession of the 
to\\n, His E\.cellenC), on the 29th inst., left Sa\y Hall and embarked, as the Ga:;elle tells us, ., on board Hi" :\lajesty's 
schooner lIIissi..-saga for \ ork, \\ ith the remainder of the Queen's R.mgers:' The troop established themseh-es under call\'as 
by the (
arrison Creek at the mouth of the harhour, and Simcoe and his suite made a home for themseh'es in a large marquee, 
which once belonged to Captain Cook. the na\'igator, erected on the shores of the bay, near the mouth of the I )on. Here '\'ere 
soon to arise the halls of the L' pper Canada \ \" est- 
minster, and near by was the rude cradling-place of 
the future city, The troops "ere set to work, tìrst to 
connect the site of the garrison \\ ith the nucleus site 
of the cit). and aften\ ards to open up lines of com- 
munication "ith the interior of the new PrO\'ince. 
The forests. as )et. cO\'ered the whole country as \\'ith 
.1 garment, so that road-making, while it was a necessar). 
\\.IS by no means a light undertaking. \'onge Stred 
(named after Sir Frederick \'onge, English Secretar) 
of "ar), an arteri.11 line, connecting the inf.:mt capital 
\\ ith the Holland Ri\ er and the watef\\a) to the \\ cst, 
\\as the first great aehie\'ement (,f the troops. .\nother 
import.mt undertaking W.IS the construction of] )und.ls 
Stred, a post-road tra\ ersing the I'rO\ ince, and gi\ ing 
access to the fertile regions of the \\'estern Peninsul.l. 
The fine geographicaÌ position of the site pitched 
upon for the city, ,\ ith the a(h'antages of a capacious 
and ,\ ell-sheltered harhour, lent enthusiasm to the 
work, which now went rapidly on, of gi\ ing to it form 
and substance. Whm has ,ince been achie\'t:d has 
amply justified (
O\ernor Simcoe's location for the 
capital. "hate\er counter,attractions other sites pre- 
sented, there is little douht that Simcoe in his heart 
accepted Toronto. \\"e say Toronto, but this, as our readers know, was not the name he chose for the future city, The King's 
army was then in Holland, and his second son, the Duke of York, had command of the continental contingent. He it '\as that 
our soldier-Governor had it in his mind to honour; hence \ ork, and not Toronto, came for a time to he the name of the capit.ll. 



 
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CIIl'RCH OF rllF REVFF\IF.R (ArH:LlcA'I;), BLOOR Sl REEr. 


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fiII.ÞNO'JIO.rliO.lll. 


Sf, PAUL'S (A
r.LlCA:'/) CHURCH, BLOOR STREEr. 



11'\ 


THE FUTURE CITJ' IX SIJICOE'S DA Y 


\ \\ ord m,1\ be all 0\\ ed us here on the some\\ hat \ e\.ed signification of the word .. Toronto," Some hm'e erroneously 
deri\ed the \\ord from the \Ioha\\k, and spe.lk of it as me,ming .. I'rees out of w,lter" -the reference heing to the willo\\s and 
other treLS on the isl.1nd .1S 
een at a distance on the lake, This deri\'ation I>r. Scadding than whom there is no better 
.luthorit) II.1
 told us i
 a \\rong one, and ,lltmlls that the true meaning of the word, in the Huron di,llect, is .. Place of 
\leeting. I'he tenll, \\e learn, W.IS a general one, and at an earl) period was applied to the region around Lake Simcoe, the 
.. meeting-plao '. ot French and Indian \ 0\ ageurs amI of ro lilling b.lllds of the nati\'e tribes that peopled or frequented the 
di
trict. .\fter a l.1pse of ye,us, hO\\e\'er, It was found cOl1\enient to limit the area cO\ered by the elastic term, and the name 
I'oronto came to he applied e\.dusi\ dy to \\ hat its citi/ens now proudly designate" the <Jueen City of the \\ 'est." 
I'hroughout the brief period of Simcoe's gO\ernorship. we see tr.lces of the milit.lry r,Hher than of the ci\'il administrator. 
It was the ci\ ili.m and his (ullily he sent into the back woods, and he gave to the old soldiers grants of land in the front 
to\\ nships \\Ìthin ea
) hail of the c.lpital. The c,lpital itsdf he seems to ha\'e designed for an arsenal. The 
tcm n-plot he locates, \\ ith the Court House and P,uli,ullent Buildings, at a safe di
tance from the entrance into the 
harhour, and the latter he protects by hluck-houses on (;ihr,lltar Point and at the mouth of the < ;arrison Creek. 
In his communications with the authorities at <Judlec, he spe,lks of sending them" some observatiuns 
on the milit,uy strength and na\'al cOl1\'enienr'e of Toronto, now \ ork, which I propose immediately 
to occupy. I n writing also to the Secretary of \\'ar in Engl,md, \\ e find him remarking that.. \" ork 
is the mOst important and defensible situation in Cpper (",mada, or that I ha\'e seen in )Jorth .\merica'-' 
.\11 this I\as douhtless becau
e Fort Niag,ua \\,lS to be gi\'en up to the .\mericans, and, until Toronto '" 
\\a
 fortified, the ("olony \\ould he at the mercy of his old foe 
:\Ieanwhile, ho\\ ever, the ci\Ïc growth of York went on apace. The 
\\ ork of I.wing our the to\\ n rapidly advanced. "The town-plot, as defined 
at this time," oh
ef\es our antiquary, Dr. Scadding,* "was a compact little 
p.uallelogram, hounded on the west hy (;eorge Street, on the cast by Ontario 
Street, on the north by I )uchess Strect, and on the south by Palace Street - 
streets that still retain their original names. The loyal monarchical character 
of the (;0\ ernor appears in nearly everyone of 
these 
treet names, as also in the names gi\en to 
other streets, as \\ ell a
 in the name of the town 
itself. The main thorough fan, \\as King Street; 
the ne\.t street par,llle! to it un the north was 
I )uke Stred . the stred north uf that Duchess 
Street, The boundary \\est\\ard wa<; (;eorge 
Street; the nL\.t street parallel to that eastward 
\\,lS Frederick StrLet, and the street 1'0110\\ ing 
that \\as Caroline Street, \\ hill' the one succeeding 
that \\as Prinees Street. The last street running 
north and south \\',IS Ontario Street. (;eorge 
Street bore the name of (;eorge, Prince of \\'.lles, 
afterwards (;eorge 1\'. (",uoline Street COIll- 
memoraterl his \\ ife, the unfortunate Caroline of 
Ihun
\\ ick. I luke Street alluded to the I )uke 
01 \ ork, Duchess Street to his \\ife, and FredLrick 
Street was di
tinguished hy his Christian name. 
The gener.lI name, Princes Street, was a ('ompre- 
hen"i\e compliment to the other ro)al prinr'es, 
\\ ilhout specify ing them. Ontario Street indicated 
the tr,lck \\ hich. doubtless from time immemorial, 
led dm\ n to the c.llloe,landing ne,uest to the 
. carr)ing-place' on the Isl.lI1d, \\here the small \\mH.;" s 
JI:lJICAL Cnu 1'(;1'. SU)IACII SrRI 
.r. 
craft pa
sing up and dO\\n the lake and tradin g t \ ' I I I ' fi d 
. " , a or", were \\ont to Ie J te acros
 the narrow neck of I,md there. Palace 
Street \\a
 ,,0 .,tyled ber ause it \\as e\ I leeted t I th' . " I ' I . . . 
, ,.,', . 0 Ie e v/{r saC! a to t le ,I ,lce of (,0\ ern me nt, to speak III Fn:nch stvle ; 
I.e., the public hllll
mgs 
or p,uhamentary and other purposes, to I\hich, in f,lI't, it did lead, do\\n to 182-1-." It is curious to
da)' 
to look back on SlIllcoe s cffu<;i\e lo ) 'all y a<; ',. ' th I ' I ' , 
, ' ,. seen In e nomenc ,Itun: of aronto s carly streets. "'ithin the century. \\ e 
ha\e e\ Identl) S\\lIng to the other c\.treme of democr,leY ! 
The first winter wa
 "pent b ) ' the Covern I'" I h I' ". . 
, '. 'or unc l:T c,lmas, am t e roo of the ( (Juno I (hamber was that of thc aIr\' tent. 
I rbently a domestic !>hnne \\as reared b' H' F' II h . " .- 
, , "....-'.) IS ,\.ce en('y on t c helg lts O\erlookmg the I )on, to whleh he ga\e the 
amllltJou!> name (,I
tle I' rank lts site was' th" . , 
. , " across c ra\Ine, opposite the northern IlIllIts of St. James' Cemeter)'. 1'0 this 


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* .. {'uwnt", 1'.1.t and Pre.ent: Historical and Descriptive," page 19. 



summer hou,.,e of logs. a bridle-path led from the to\\ n. and communic,uion \\ ith it \\.b ,IJsO a\.Úlable by the meandering 
,.,tre.un which bounded the city on the ea"t. ,\s the 1'.uli,lInent Building,., were not yet ere.,tcd. the (;o\'ernor periodic,llIy 
returned to :"ii,Ig",lra to summon and prorogue the Legislature and direct the aff..lÎrs of :-'tate. He also undertook m.m
 
e"\peditions through the 1'rO\ince. to make himself acquainted \\ith the ,Ippe.uanct' of the countr) and h,IH'.m e)e to the \\ants 
and well-being of settlers, TIlt' routine 
of lift: W.ts occ,lsiOll.llly varied by till' 
festi\'ities of a ball at 
Jag,ua. and 
b) the (;overnor's I.l\'ish hospit.llitie,., 
at :\',IV) Hall or under hi,., Llmous 
tent. These hospitalitie,., \\ ould be 
shared at one time by the Indian 
Hf;Jnt. at another by an (>ld "orld 
tr.1\ e1ler ami diplun1.lt. ('he subjects 
of com'er,.,ation would then turn on 
Republi{'anism and the fl:\"t>lted ('01- 
onies, against \\hich the ne\\I)-formed 
1'1'0\ ince was to be a buh\ ark and 
wall of defence. t.:nhappily for the 
I'ro\ ince and it:> capilal, it \\ould 
seem these t,llks of the (;overnor 
were 1',11' from pacific. and lest he 
might embroil the King's (;0\ ernmcnt 
\\ ith hi,., Republican ncighbour,.,. the 
stuHI) 10Y,llist (;0\ ern or \\a,., tr,ms, 
ferred to .mother post. In September, 
I ï96, Sim{'oe left 1\avy Hall for San 
I )omingo. and the 1'1'0\ ince th.n owed 
TORO" ro S I'REF'!', him so much sa\\ him no more. 
"ïth what devotion and sturdy fidelity he had sen'ed the King in his new 1'1'0\ ince of C pper Cm.llla. there is hardh' need 
here to tell. .\s \\e have said of him elsewhere, he g,l\'C the Colony his e\en thought. and \\orked resolutch' to put it on its 
feet. Could he have had his own W:1\'. it is not too much to say that it would not long have ren1.lined a mere stripling by thc side 
of the nation to the south of it. But he W,IS too independent to be an official truckler. and had been brought up in a school 
that knew little of dissimulation, The student 
of histon' can ha\'e nothing but respect for 
the bluff old soldier. 
Hefore the first decade of the pre,.,ent 
century had passed. the bra\\n and muscle 
of the inhabitants had done great thing,., for 
the to\\ n of York. E\ en the face of the 
PrO\ ince had undergone much change ,.,ince 
the withdrawal of its first administrator, ()n 
Simcoe's departure the aff..'lirs of the c()untr
 
had passed temporarily into the charge of .: 
 
President Russell. until the ('ro\\ n. in 1 ï99. 
sent out a new Lieutenant-(;on:rnor. in the 
person of (;eneral Peter Hunter. Hunter 
retained office until his death in 1805. \\hen 
he \\as sUCl'eeded in the (;O\'ernorship b) Sir 
Francis (;ore. Gore, III turn, \\ithdrew to 
England a year before the outbre,lk of the 
war, and the defence of the Pro\"Ìnce fell 
into the hands of Sir I saac Brock. the acting- 
(;0\ ernor. "'hi Ie these changes in the ad- 
mini,.,tration \\ere taking place. York had 
gra\\ n and spread itself; ch urches. houses 
and stores had been built; streeb had bt:en opened out which. though the) have long ,.,ince become unf.l,.,hionable. \\ere in 
their day the home of wealth and the dress-paraùe of fashion. the Parliament Buildings had been wmpleted, and according to 
British use and wont, had witnessed the ceremonial of many openings anù closings of the House Even the recesses of the neigh- 
bouring forest had been imaded b) cour,lgeou,., settlers, seeking to found a home for themselves and their f,unilies in the woods. 


A \-D .1 T TilE flEGI_\T.VING OF THE CE \7Uin: 


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IsABELLA STkEEI' 11'OR11I SWF) \\ ES[' OF JAR\ IS STREEr. 



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THE FCTCRE rITY IX SIJICOE'S DA Y 


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"'hen the centun opened, the l'ro\'incial capital was still hut.l little place, though the (;o\'ernor. in kingly phrase, was 
\\ont to speak of it, in summoning his f.lÏthful Commons, a
 " our royal town of York," Ih population, e,>c1usi\'e of ahout two 
hundred soldiers, did not at the time c,>ceed a score or so of families. "'hen the Legislature was callcd together, it cost senne 
effort to house and feed ., the f.1ithful ('om mons:' rhis \\c learn from a lettcr written hy the acting-( ;overnor in Niagara, to 
S(lIne one in authority in York. on the occasion of the first meeting of Parliament at the capital. "As the Legislature," 
\\fite" l're,ident Ru

e1I, .. is to mect at York on the 1st of June [Iï97], it hecomes absolutely necessary that prO\'ision shall be 
made \\ ithout loss of time for its reception. You will therefore he pleased to apprise the inhahitants of the town that twenty- 
fh e gentlemen \\ ill \\ant board and lodgings during the session, which may possibly induce them to fit up their houses and lay 
in prO\lsions to accommodate them.-- EÙdently there were uses in those days for a Lieutenant-(;O\ernor! Nor was the 
.' market of the to\\ n, at that period, gi\'(
n to 
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j . .",' across a letter written by an officer of the 
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:" ? ., guard of honour stationed at the garrison to 
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' a chum in Newark, hegging him" for sweet 
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. mercy's sake" to send him o\'er a few pounds 
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 cidian. l\Ieantime, to the good people of 
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,," ,'C.:,. ./:', ":"''-'' ' York,lifewasin a real and honcstway"\\orth 
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, , .;,...,ti,? · quite a political and social paradise, a eon- 
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." place, Surveyor-General I >.l\'id \Y. Smyth 
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' has left on record the following topographical 
. . description of \ ork in 1797 : 
j .- :.t:

 '.. , .. York," he says, "is in about 43 
':(IIi-;:"
:;." degrees and 35 minutes of north latitude, 
'9'1" 

 . and is the present seat of (
overnmcnt of 
. 
:; ,'.
 " Upper Canada. It is most beautifully situated 
" 
 . within an exccllent harbour of the same name, 
--:: 'ì made of a long peninsula, which confines a 
::- ; basin of water sufficiently large to contain a 
. r consid-=rahle fleet 
 on the e)Þ..tre111ity of the 
.J r. peninsula, which is called (;ihraltar Point, are 
II..IIIWr CU1111nodious stores and hlock-houscs, \\'hich 
'low- command the entrance to the harhour. On 
the mainland, opposite to the Point, is the 
(;arrison, situated in a fork made by the 
harhour and a small rivulet, \\ hich, IJeing 
improved hy sluices, affords an casy access 
for hoats to go up to thc stores; the barracks, 
..
 heing huilt on a knoll, are \\e11 situated for 
health, and command a delightful prospect of 
the I.tke to the west, and of the harbour to 
the cast. The (;0\ ernment House is about 
1\\ 0 mile
 ah(H' the (
'lrrison, near the he.ld of the harbour, and the town is incrcasing rapidly; the Rivcr 1>on emptics itself 
into the harbour a little ahove the town, running through a marsh, which \\hen drained will afford most beautiful and fruitful 
meado\\
. This ha
 already heen commenced in a small degree, which will no douht encourage further attempts, The long 
beach, or peninsula, \\hlch affords a most delightful ride, i
 consiùered so healthy by the Indians that thcy rcsort to it whenever 
indl
posed : and 
o 
oon ao; the bridge o\'er the I >on is finished. it will, of coursc, be mo
t generally resortcd to, not only 
for plea,ure, but as the most comenient road to the heights of Scarborough, The ground which has he en prcpared tr the 
(;O\ernment Hou,e is situated het\\cen the to\\ n and the Ri\er I >on, on a most beautiful spot, the \icinity of which is well 
suited for gardens and a park. The oaks are in gener.ll large; the soil is excellent and well watered with creeks, one of which, 
hy means of a short dam, may be thrown into all the "treets of the to\\ n. \' essels of all sires may he conveniently built here, 
and .\ kind of terr.H'e or "econd hank in front of the tll\\ n, affords an e,>ccllent situatiun for a rope-walk (!) Thc remains of 


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.1XD.-IT THE REGIXXf)'G OF THE CEXTCRl: 


the old French fort, Toronto, st:lI1d a little to the \\ estward of the present garrison, and the River H umher discharges into 
the I ake Ontario ahout two miles and a half west of that: on thi'i riwr and the I Jon are e"cellcnt mills, and all the waters 
ahound in fish. In the \\ inter the harhour is fro7en, and affords e"cellent ice for the amu,.,ement of northern countries, driving 
C/l traineall, The climate of York is temperate and well sheltered from the northerly \\ inds hy the high lands in the rear. The 
Y onge Street leads from hence to I ake Simcoe, and the I )undas Street crosses the rear of the town." 
Such is the picture preserved to us, hya contemporary hand of the appearance of Toronto at the close of the last century. 
Few, we may he sure, of the rude forefathers of the then hamlet, e\'Cr dreamed of the potentialities that lay hid in the 
emhryo city. ;'\jor, to look at Captain (;other :\lamÙ paper-plan of Toronto*, ideal as it is, would e\en the seer of the period 
he likel) to predict \\hat the city would heeome hefore a hundred years had elapsed. As yet the chroniclings of the Official 
(;a.ætte do not indicate a very fast-growing 
town, The press of the period is chiefly 
hurdened with the records of the going and 
coming of the (;O\ernor or acting-(;O\ernor, 
and the mo\ ements of the (;O\'ernment 
schooners on the lake, as they carried to 
and fro, on the husiness of the Crown, the 
law-officers of the Province, and such na\al 
and military magnates as \\ere in this part of 
the world on His :\Iajesty's service. .\mong 
the latter, in 1803, was the Duke of Kent, 
uncle of Her Present I\lajesty, who, on p.lying 
the I'rO\'ince a second visit, was entertained 
at Yark, we learn, hy General the Hon. 
,Eneas Shaw, one of the I'rO\'incial Governor's 
Councillors. .\ still later arri\'al was the 
Hon, Francis (;ore, who for some years was 
to figure in I'rO\ ineial history as Lieutenant- 
(;o\'Crnor. I juring his .ldministration, hoth 
\ ork and the PrO\ ince continued to ad\'ance 
in settlement. P.uliament \ oted sums for 
the cOlhtruction of roads and hridges, and 
made considerable effort to open up new 
sections of the country. Postal f.lcilities 
\\ere also inereased, and communication \\Ïth 
I.ower Canada and the outer world hecame 
more practicahle. .-\t this time, we learn, 
the mail het\\een :\Iontreal and York \\as 
hrought at lengthened intef\'als, on the hacks 
of pedestrians, while the numher of post 
offices in the t\\O PrO\inces was then under 
t\\enty. 
\\Ïth all the disadvantages, society at 
the capital, ho\\ever, grew apace, In 1803, 
a \\eekly puhlic market was estahlished in 
the to\\ n, and in the following year \\as 
erected "the church at York" -the first 
.. meeting-house for Episcopalians," as it was 
for a time termed, which suhsequently blos- 
somed out into the Cathedral of St. James, 
Its firo.;t clergyman was the Re\'. G, Okill Stuart, \\ 110 altef\\ards hecame an archdeacon in the Church, and for a time was 
master of the Home District School at York. In the records of both church and school, Canadian sociologists \\ ill meet \\ ith 
the names of many estimahle citizens who, with their families and their descendants, hm e heen intimately associated with the 
to\\ n, as well as \\ ith the settlement and the political and social advancement of English-speaking Canada. 
A few incidents in the professional and social life of Toronto at this period arc not \\ ithout interest. One of these is the 
creation of the first members of the legal profession hy royal proclamation, in the year 1803. The honour fell upon the 
follO\\Ïng gentlemen, who were facetiously termed the" heaven-descended barristers :"- ,I>r. \\". \,", Baldwin, father of the Hon. 


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* This map was discovered some rears ago in the archi\es of the Colonial Office, London, br :\Ir. Thomas Hodgins, Q.C" and is in the 
possession of that gentleman. 



:?2 


1'ùRA- DCRI\ (; THE H:1R. 


Rohert H.lld\\in, the noted later-day I iheral ; \\'m. Dickson, of Niag.ua; I >".\rcy Houlton, of .\.ugusta, and John Powell, of 
York. If these \\olthy gentlemen of the early Upper Canad.I Har h.ld an e}e to fees, it \\ould seem that they must have had 
difficulty in collecting them, for currency of all kinds was scarce, and only a system of harter in the main prevailed. If they 
.ITe to he looked upon J.S guardians of the puhlic morals, there was, it would appear, much need, however, for their services, 
for intemper.mce and 
treet or.1\\ls, we learn, were then pre\alent vices. Inordinate tippling was at the period dealt \\ ith after 
a utilitarian manner: ,\.11 persons, \\e read, guilty of drunkenness, were made to gi\oe a certain amount of lahour in pulling out 
tree stumps in the puhlic streets, Nor, despite early legislation again
t slavery, was the holding and transfer of human chattels 
wholly unknown at this period. While we hear of sl:l\es heing manumitted, we also hear of their heing sold or offered for sale. 
In the Gll
et'e of the time, Ï\lr. Peter Russell. then admini,.,trator of the affairs of the Province, ad\'ertises for sale "a hlack woman, 
named Peggy, aged forty} ears. and a hlack hoy. her son, named Jupiter, aged ahout fifteen years, hoth of them the property of 
the suhscriher ! rhe \\oman," so sets forth the alh-ertisement, "is a tolerahle cook and washerwoman, and perfectly under- 
stands making 
oap and candles." The price set upon I'<:ggy is $150, amI upon Jupiter Junior, $200, "payahle in three years, 
\\ith interc
t from the day of sale, and to he ,.,ecured h} hond." His E,>cellenC} is good enough to say, howe\er, that" one- 
fourth less will he taken for ready money!" These are hut a few glimpses of the social life of the time. 


CIIAPTER Y. 


YORK. I>CRINC THE \L\R OF 1812 


PRE\IO,,"Il"IO:l/S OF rHI: ('UlIIINI; S[OR\1. (;O\'ERNOR (;nIH;'s AIIVRFSS [0 rHF LI';(;(SL\[ITRF.. ('C)N(;RFSS I>FCL\RES \\',\R, 
I'\I (lU\I ITlrs 1"1 THI' SrRl'(;(;I I'. BRnc.... AT THE CAPIrAL. B\1TLE OF ()UEE:'II!-.IT':'o/ Hr:U;HTS. I>F,\TH OF 
BROCh.. TORo:'ll ro TWICE (' \I'ITRED, BlIRN r A "D R-\lL>lw. .bIERIL'.\N A [' I'\c....l:la; ('Ol.lIl\1:'11 IkowèIf C P. - RE- 
j'HIS\lS FOR ('.\:'II.\lII-\N LOS';FS. \k('LURF'S I:\HU:\I-\"IIfY A[ Nl\l;\R.\. H.\I"J'I.E OF Ll'ND\'S I,\:'IIE .\NV CLOSF 
OF rHr \\ \R. 


EFORE the memorable figure of Brock appears actively on the scene, the clouds of \\ar had hegun 
to stretch their murky curtain mer British possessions in Canada, and the mutterings of a por- 
tentous storm \\ere already distracting the little to\\ n of York. In (;Q\'ernor (;ore's address at 
the openmg of Parliament, in 1809, occurs this presage of the coming conflict: "Hitherto," says 
His E"cellency, "we have enjoyed tral1lIuillity. plenty and peace. How long it may please the 
Supreme Ruler of Xations thus to favour us, is wisely concealed from our \oicw. But under such 
circumstances it becomes us to prepare ourseh'es to meet every event, and to evince hy our .real 
and loyalty that \\e kno\\ the \'alue of our Constitution. and are \\orthy of the name of British 
suhjects." ?\or \\crc the loyal citi.rens of England's ('rown in York slow to respond to the appeal 
of patriotism. or indifferent to what was e"pected of them when the hour of trial came. In the 
thirty months' conflict that was ahout to elhue, no community could well have given a hetter account of themseh'es. It is 
\\ ith just pride that the Canadian hi,.,torian pens the narrative of the unequal strugt:k of those terrihle years, I X 1.2- q; for when 
('ongrð,.,. on the Il)th of June, rR12, declared \\ar ag.lÎnst the ;\Iotherland, and took instant steps to il1\ade Ciluda, ('.mada, 
with equ.II promptitude, proceeded to c.dl out her militi.I, and determinedly braced herself to resist il1\'.Ision. 
The tutal popu1.nion of the Brilish Colony at this time did not e"ceed 300,000, of which only ahout a fourth was 
,ettled in the L.:pper !'rovince. The regular troops of al1 arms in 
the country, a,., the pn."ent l\r;ter h.TS else\\ here ohsef\'ed, did not 
quite numher {.500 men, I.ess than a third of this number \\.IS 
then in Upper Canada. With this snull hody of troops ('.mada 
h.HI to defend a frontier of o\er 1,500 miles, threatened at man} 
points hy a large and f..'Tirly disciplined army, with a population 
to dr.11\ from of near!} eight millions. Yet, !.uch was the !.pirit of 
her 
ons that, hopeless as secmed the undertaking, she did not 
hesitate to take the field at the fir,.,t signal of danger. Within a 
month after the declaration of \\ar, the .\merican (;eneral Hull, 
\\ ith an arm) of 2,500 men, cros!.ed the I )etroit Ri\ er and 
entered ('anada. I ater on, at other point
, the country \\.lS 
invaded, namely, on the 
iagara frontier, and in I o\\er Canada, 
by way of Lake Champlain. On learning of the imasion of the CA...MO............ 
western peninsula, General Brock cal1cd an emergency meeting 


GESERAL BROCR. 


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IDRA" DURI\'C THE 1I:1R. 


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01 the I'rO\ incial l'.uli.lInent at the capital. desp.ltched somc r:ompanies of the 41 st Regiment, then in garri,.,on at \ ork. .wd 
thither. \\ ithin a fe\\ da) s. follo\\ ed them. Colond Proctor, \\ ith the remaining companies of the 41 st, was ordered to reinforce 
tlll'troops at ,\mherstburg. \\ïth the 3rd Regiment of York :\Iilitia, Brock himself set out. on the 6th of .\ugu,.,t, for the 
\\ est. ,\t .\mhersthurg he 11.1S joined hy the Shawnee Chief I'ecumseh, \\lth \\hom and his Indian followers, Brock concerted 
mL'.1';ures for the capture of Fort Detroit. Bv this time l:ener.11 Hull h.ld \\ithdra\\n his ann) from Canada and retired upon 
the stronghold on the I )etrOit Riwr. Promptly carr) ing out his project, Brock put his !.mall force in fighting array and crossed 
the ri\'er into :\1 ichigan. Before assaulting the fort, he summoned the garrison to surrender. The summons, to Brock's surprise, 
\\as complied \\ith, and 2,500 .\merican soldiers ga\e up their .mns. Elated at his unlooked-for success. and enahled h) the 
capitulation of the fort to more efficient'" ann the Canadian militia, he resoh-ed at onCe to return to \' ork. thereafter to cross 
1,Ike Ontario and s\\eep from the 
iagar.1 frontier other detachments of the enemy, By the 27th of .\ugllst Brock and hi
 
troops \1 ere hack at thc capital. \\ here the, \1 cre recèÌ\'ed \\ ith the \\arme,.,t acclaims of the popul.1Ce, t: nfortunatel), II hen ahout 
to ,.,et out ag.1in. Brock's design to pre\'ent the enemy from mas,.,ing on the 
iagara Ri\er lIas for the time frustr.lted hy an ill. 
timed armistice, This had heen agn:ed to hy Sir (;eorge Prevost. \1 ho at the period held supreme command in 1.0\1 er ('.mada. 
The armistice delayed action till the follll\\ ing Octoher, and g.l\ e the . \mericans time to concentrate a force of ahout 
(',000 men. under '-an Rensselaer, in thc 
ncighhourhood of I ewiston. .\t dayhreak 
on the 13th the at" .wce-guard of the . \ meri- 
can force effected a landing on the ('anadian 
lunk of the 
Î.1g.ua Ri\er, despite the 
heroism of ih defenders, (;ener.11 Brock. 
heanng at Fort (;eorge the cannonading. gal- 
loped with his aides-de-camp to the scene of 
.H-tion. and at once found himself in the 
thick of a desperate onset. The story is a 
hrief one. T\IO comp.mies of the 49th Regi- 
mL'nt. \\ ith ahout a hundred of the ('.m.1di.m 
militÏ.1, had for somc time heen holding the 
enem\' in check. \\ hen the eng.1gement sud- 
den" hecame general. ,\ portion of the 
inv.1ding force, gaining the heighh uno!;- 
served. from this \'.mtage-ground hegan to 
pour a destructive fire upon the defenders. 
Brock, \\ ith ch.u.1Cteristic gall.wtr), instantly 
placed him-;elf at the head of the twops. \\ ith 
whom \\ere t\\O comp.mies of the militia of 
\' ork, and hastened to dislodge the enemy 
from the heights, Conspicuously leading the 
,.,torming part), and \\ ith the cn', .. Push on, 
the York \' olunteers 
'. on his lips. Brock \\as 
struck hy a musket-hall and fell mortally - 
wounded, 
raddened at the death of their 
heroic leader. the troops t\\ ice essayed to 
dear the imaders from the fI.lIne-dad heights, 
T\\ ice. hO\\ e\'er, \\ ere the) drÌ\ en hack, and 
the !!.111.mt column of harely 300 men \\as 
compelled to retire upon the \ illage and 
\\ait rLinforcements. I're,.,entl) the,.,e c.lIne up. and under (;eneral Sheaffe the) now outflanked the _\mericans and drO\e them 
o\'er the prLl'ipice. or, on the hrink of the rin:r. forced them to surrender. \ïctoryonce more rested upon British arms, though 
ih lustre was grie\'ousl) dimmed hy he.1v) losses sustained hy the \"Ìdors, and hy the death of Sir Is.lac Brock, their loved 
comm.lI1der. Three da)s afterw.uds they laid his hody lcmporarily to rest in a h.1stion of Fort l:eorge. and the Canadian people 
mourned for the dead hcro, 
In these pages it is not our purpose to trace the e\'cnts of the war further than \\e have done. .\11 we can properly deal 
with is to record hriefl\' its effects upon the 1'0\\ n of York. and to sho\\ how hravely its citÌ/ens hore themseh-es in the conflict. 
The B.mle of (.!ueenston Heights hrought mourning into many a I'oronto home. \\ïth (;eneral Brock there fell his acting 
aide,de-camp, Colonel :\11'1 )onnell, the .\ttorney-(;eneral of thc Province. 
umhers of the soldiery of York and the Home 
District also fell on the hattie-ground, But the to\\n itself \\as now to suffer from a closer contact \\ith the enemy. In the 
spring of the follo\\ ing )ear, the .\mencans rene\\ ed their efforts to capture Canada. Their designs included e"tensi\ e na\ al 
oJleralions on the lakes, \\ith, if possible. the hurning or raiding of the Provinci.11 capital. On the 25th IIf .\pril. Commodore 
Chauncey set out from Sackett\ H.1rhour \\Ìth a fleet of fourteen armed vessels. and 1.600 troops under the comm.md of 
(;eneral I Je.lrbofll, ()n th.. e\"Cning of the follm\ ing day, the good peoplt: of \ <Irk sa\\ thi,., winged men.H'C pass west\\ard, 


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oUI
ide the harbour, and come to anchor near the Humber. Ke\t da} the enemy landed, under con:r of a hot fire from the 
fleet, and a column, headed by Brigadier Pike, advanced to attack Fort Toronto, The defence
 both of the Fort and the town 
\\l:re unhappil} \\l:ak, for Sir J.unes Yeo's contingent of the Royal Marines had not a
 }et left its winter quarters at Kingston. 
('onscious of the untenableness of his position, Gener.ll ShealTe, then in command at York, concluded to evacuate the Fort, and 
(0 f.L11 h.lck upon the (0\\ n. Passing through the latter with his few "regulars," he proceeded eastward, ignominiously kin ing 
the defence of the c.lpital to the enrolled militia. )leanwhile the enem) ad\anced on Fort Toronto e\pecting to make it an 
l"hY prey. .\s the} pushed on in column to take possession, the fire of the fort haÙng ceased, suddenly there \\as a terrific 
e\plo
ion and Brigadier Pike, \\ith 200 of his command, \\ere unceremoniously shot into the air. The powder magatine, it 
,.,eems, had been fired hy an artillery sergeant of the retreating regulars, to pre\ ent it falling into the hands of the enemy, and 
the fuse \\as lit, from all accounts undesignedly, at a horribly inopportune moment. Despite this calamitous check and the 
consternation that ensued, the .\mcricans advanced upon the to\\n and received the submission of Colonel Che\\ett and the 
handful of militia \\ ho h.ld not fallen in defence of it. 
The exploding of the maga.lÏne and the loss of life it occasioned, put the invaders in no humour to treat generously, 
either \\ith the to\\n or \\ith the people. York was not only taken possession of by the .\mericans, but the place \\as sacked and 
many of the public buildings \\ere gÌ\'en to the flames. The Houses of Parliament. \\ ith the library and public records, were 
burned, and e\er}thing of value that could be remo\'ed was put on board the fleet. The Re\, John (.lfterwards Bishop) 
Strachan, \\ho h.ld recently come to York, was instrumental in restraining the wantonne
s of the enemy, in the lust of destruc- 
tion, and in s:1\'ing from the torch not a little 
private property, He was also enabled to 
secure some modifications in the articles of 
capitulation, and to effect the release on parole 
of the Canadian militia and other volunteer 
defenders of the to\\ n, 
Unhappily the humiliation of \"ork 
was not yet complete. Three months after- 
wards, ('hauncey's fleet made another descent 
upon the capital to revenge the aid it had 
given (;eneral \ incent in his defence of 
Burlington Heights, The town had to sub- 
mit to a further scorching and looting, though 
the . \mericans had soon to pay for their 
wantonness by se\'ere losses elsewhere and 
by grim reprisals in the later history of the 
war. To balance the account Canada has 
to show to her credit the engagements at 
Beaver Dam and Stony Creek, the exploit at 
Ogdensburg, and the descent upon Black 
Rock. In these affairs, as \\ell as in the 
victories of the next year at Chrysler's Farm 
and Chateauguay, the loss to her arms of the 
young Colony was fully counterbalanced. 
On the lakes, fortune was capricious, now 
playing into the hands of Chauncey and Perry, anon into tho
e of Barclay and Yeo. The year [813, as we ha\'e chronicled 
ebewhere, dosed amid woe and desolation. The .\merican (;eneral :\IcClure, in command of the captured stronghold of 
rort (;eorge, being hard pressed by Vincent's troops, decided to winter in Fort Kiag.ua. on the other side of the river. Thinking 
Ills 
afcty e\cn then endangered by the proximity of .i'J"ewark, he committed the inhuman act of turning out of their homes, in 
the depth of \\ inter, about 1 SO families, including 400 women and children, and fired the town at thirty minutes' notice. For 
thi,., harbarou<; act the Americans were held to a terrible account, in the reprisals which instantly followed, the surprise and 
capture of Fort Niagara, and the consigning to the flames of all American \illages from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. 
There is little, as \\e haw said elsewhere, to record in the events of 1814, save the failure of the British attack on the 
strong position of the Americans at Chippewa, and the crowning victory of the war, the Battle of Lundy's Lane, with which the 
War of 1812 may be said to have practically ended. The Treaty of Ghent, which was signed on the 14th of December, 18 14, 
terminated the protracted struggle, and left Canada in possession of her own. The country had been de\'astatcd, innumerable 
homes made desolate, and thousands of lives sacrificed, in an inglorious attempt by the American people to subjugate Canada, 
and supplant the (; nion Jack by the Stars and Stripes. The ordeal Was a trying one for the country; but her sons were equal to 
the occasion, and she acquitted herself with honour, and carried to the credit of her national life that which has since 
strengthened and ennobled it. 


24- 


J"ORÃ' DCRI,YG THE J1:-lR. 


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TifF. NT-GIIIE5; OF GOrERXOR.'.; GORE, JI,UTL1XD, AXD COLBOR '-E. 


25 


CH.\PTER \'1. 


THE Rf:(;I:\IES OF (;()\'ER
()RS (;ORE, \1.\ITI..\
f), .\XD C()I.BOR
E. 


\'ORK -\f THF ClOSE n
 THE "',\R. -THE CO\I!:'/I; 0.. THE Rn. I>R. SfR\CH,\:-I. -THI: :\1.\" ,\:-111 HIS 'Ion II, -THE 1.0\'\1 
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\lI',\rRIOnC SOCIElT 0.. C.C.-:\I\fERI\L ,\LJ\'.\'\"CE
IEXT OF THE C\I'If-\L.- BEI;J"'\"I:-I\;SOF I'nLlTlC\1 IJISSE'\SWX, 
THI" F\\III\ ('O\IP\CT ,\'\"O E\RL\ R\lIIC,\lIS\!. ,SfE\\1 0:-1 IHE L.-\....FS,- RISE OF PUBLIC BUILVI'\"GS.-:\I\;I;SIOl'S 
OF THF .. .\'\"C1F
 RÝ(;I\II:," 


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 C R 1:\ (; . a considerahk period '
'oronto, or as It was still called, \ or
, suffer
d from the 
) \\ par.lh-nng effects of the \\,u. i'rom the s\\ord and torch of the II1vader It, however, 
I rallied \\ ith the return of peace, The cessation of hostilities in Europe brought con- 
I siderahle accessions to the troops in Canada. and set free from the service of Mars not 
a few \\ho came to the I'rovince to engage in more peaceful pursuits, .\mong other 
recent acquisitions of the young capital \\a:> one who had already become a prominent 
citiæn, and who was destined to fill a large space in the annals both of the city and the 
PrO\'ince, In the first year of the war there had come to \' ork the Rev. John Strachan, 
a di\'ine who \\as to be more to Cpper Canada and its lusty metropolis than a repre- 
sentati\ e of the Church militant. From his first coming the to\\ n felt the stimulus of 
his active and forceful mind. His earliest energies were directed to de\ ising means for mitigating the horrors and alleviating 
the sufferings of the time. He founded and took a large share in conducting the affairs of an association, called the .. Loyal 
and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada," the chief ohjects of which were to make provision for the \\ido\\s and orphans of the 
war, to tend the wounded, and give succour to those whose homes had been made desolate, Of this institution. the late Bishop 
Bethune, Strachan's hiographer. ohserws. that" it contrihuted more towards the defence of the Pro\'ince than half-a-do/en regi- 
ments. from the confidence and good-\\ ill it inspired, and the encouragement it ga\'e to the young men of the country to leave their 
homes and take their share in its defence." There \\as other patriotic work which, \\ hile the war 
\\ent on, enlisted the energies, as well as the sympathies, of the resourceful young ecclesiastic. In 
the chronicles of the time. Strachan is seen to haw taken an active, though rather aggressin:. 
part in negotiating the terms of capitulation with the American invaders of \' ork. To him, in 
the O\'ertures \\ ith the enemy, the to\\ n owed whate\'er clemency \\as shown to it, though his curt 
speech and dour manner, neutralized only by the courteous address and genial ways of .-\twrney- 
(;eneral (aftef\\ards Chief Justice) Robinson, ca.me near cancelling all that had been gainedJrom 
York's rude <:"1.ptors. 
Before passing on with the 
histor\', let us take a closer glance 
at the town's sturdy champion and 
shrewd, though brusque, mediator. 
Strachan \\as a }oung Scotch school- 
master (horn at Aherdeen in 1778) 
who had come to Canada in his 
twenty-first year, \\ith some e"pecta- 
tion of recei\ ing the principalship of 
a college \\ hich was designed to he 
founded by the Go\ernment and en- 
dowed \\ ith a large grant of land 
from the puhlic domain. On the 
last day of the century the \'oung 
dominie arrived at Kingston, where 
he learned that, with Simcoe's de- 
parture from the colony, the project of founding a college under the auspice:> of the Î.o\ernment, had for the time hecn 
abandoned, He, howewr, had a friend in :\Ir. Richard Cart\\fight, an influential resident, \\ ho prevailed upon him to open 
a school in the to\\ n and light the lamp of learning in the youthful colony, In this work :-'trachan æalously engaged, until 
ha\'ing taken orders, he was appointed hy Bishop :\Iountain to a charge at Cornwall. ,\t Cornwall he comhined educational 
with clerical work, and there, in \\ hat became a famou
 preceptory, he taught many who \\ ere ere long to go forth to fill the 
highest positions in the PrO\ince. In I8II, owing to the death of the Re\'. Dr. Okill Stuart, the first incumbent of St. James' 


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IARKET, FROM THE SOUTH,EAST. 



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THT. RL(;/JIFS OF GORL", J/. IITLI 'D, .IXD COIJWRXE. 


('hun'h at , ork .1Ild the headma"ter of the. [ollle I )j"trict (;r,llllmar School. Strachan was im ited h\" (;o\'ernor \-ore to come 
10 the rapila] allll t.lke up Stuart's \\or\... 1'0 this the )Olmg cleric consented. and, as we have seen, entered upon his duties 
in the \'ear l!-i 12. \\ ith the outhreak of the \\,Ir, he identified himself \\Ìth all the nJllcerns of the capital, chi\alroush took 
part in'it<.; defence. and hec.1Il1e the animating spirit of the I oya] and I',ltriotic I.eague. Ih- (;enera] Brock he was appointed 
10 Ihe ('haplainl'\ of the troops. allll ere long he ro"e to a seat in the Legi"l.1tin; ('ounciL In this latter post, Strach,lIl suhse 
quent]) figure" a" one of the mem- 
hers of the .. Famil) ('omp.H't" 
oligarch\', .md the mark for the 
h.uhed arnl\\S of di"content and 
sedition, later hi"ton knO\\ shim 
onl), as it knows him hest, as the 
first Bishop appointed h) the Crown 
in Cpper Canada. 
\\ïth the close of the W,Jr, 
York set itself the task of ]a\'ing 
ane\\ the found,ltions of its material 
advancement. Immigration set in, 
and the increase in population not 
only gave a fresh impulse to the 
L "pansion of the city, hut led to 
the further opening up of the I'rO\'- 
ince, \\ïth improve(1 r.lcilities of 
communic.ltion, ro.lds and canals 
were huilt, and at this period c.lIne 
steam transit on the lakes. The 
(;0\ ernment also hegan to redeem 
the arm\' hills, \\ hich it is ued during 
- the \\ar, and to 1);1) the w.u pensions, 
This set money in eirculation and 
made a c,l11 for hanks, which were 
soon c
tahlished : \\ hi]c the I.egislature made large appropriations for the construction of roads :J.nd hridges, and for the founding 
of Common Schoob. .\s the result of this acti\Ìt\" a new day da\\ ned upon ,. ork and the) oung Colony. 
While the to\\n and the country \\ere thus making satisfactory materia] progress, the situation of aff.'lirs politically was 
dep]orahle In hoth the l'pper and the [O\\er I'ro\'ince, puhlic feeling \\as aroused O\'er the irresponsih]e character of the 
E"ecuti\ e Council, and found \ ent in many storm}' scenes in Parliament, as 1\'ell as in angr\" outhursts in the Radical pre's. In 
the Cpper Province especialh there \\as a p]entiful crop of grie\'ances. .\mong these 
\\e quote from our words elsewhere were the scandalous system on which the puh]ic 
1.1I1ds \\ere granted. and the parti.llity shO\\ n in the issue of land-patents and other f:I\'ours 
in the gift of the Crown. Immigran
s from the l'nited States, heing tainted as it was 
supposed \\ ith Repuhlicanism, \\ ere the special ohjects of official dislike ,1Ild the \'ictims 
of [egis]atÏ\e injustice and \Hong, Oppressi\e 1.lws were p,lssed ag,linst them, and an 
.\lien .\et was rigorousl} enforced, \\ hich for a time deprivcd them of their po]itical rights, 
excluded them from the pri\'i]ege of taking up land, and suhjected them to many indig- 
nities, including arhitrar\" e\pulsion from the Prminee. The chief authors of these ahuses 
\\ere the memhers of the E"ecutive and Legislati\e Councils, \\ho hy their close alliancLs 
for mutua] advantage, came to he kno\\ n h} the rather sinister designation of the ramil} 
(",mpact. For the most part they were of C, E. 1.0) alist descent, men of education. 
OITUP} ing good social and politica] positions in the cih or I'ro\ inn not a few of them 
heing connected h) famih tics and having at their dispos,l] offices of emolument and 
other Cro\\n patronage. which secured for them a strongh attached, hut not always a 
scrupulousl\' honest, follo\\ ing. I n the reforming spirit that no\\ set in, it must in justice 
hL said, that \\ hatever good was in the administration of the time \\as hut indifferenth 
acknO\\ledged. We may admit th,ll, at the period. pO\\er \\as firmly centra]i/ed in the 
hands of a dominant and c"clusi\e class that all the puhlic officLs \\ere in thLir gift. and 
that the entIre puhlic domain, including the ('ro\\n and C]erg) I and RL'Ln'es. \\as also 
in their hands, It is true also that, through the patronage at thLir disposal. the Famil} ('ompact \\ ere enahìed to fill the I 0\\ er 
House with thcir supporters and adherents. and, in I.uge medsure, to shape the I'ro\ inci,tJ ]eg;isl.1tion so .1S to m..intain their hold 
of officI' and perpetuate a monopol} of PO\\u. That the\' used their positions ,llItonaticall}, and laid a hea\}' hand upon the 
turhu]ent and disaffected, \\as abo true: but thcir respect for Brilish institutions, and their staunch lo\alt} to thè Crown, at a 


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41 



 
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RE\, DR. <;rAII\>I...-". 



THE REGIJIES OF GORE, .MAITLAND, AXD ('Of HON.\E. 


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time when Repuhlican sentiments \\ ere dangerously pre\'alent, were \ irtues which might \\ ell offset innumerahle misdeeds. and 
"qu.ue the account in am unprejudiced arraignment. \ïe\\ ing the matter jur!iciall\". and in the calm light uf a later and hetter 
day. this. \\ e \'enture to think, is the opinion that ought no\\ to pre\".ÜI. 
In the period hetween the \\'ar and the Rehellion. the nomilul chiefs in the I'rO\ incial \dministration. \\ ho represented 
the CW\\ n in the Colony. \\ ere (;O\'ernors 
(;ore, \I aitland, and Colhorne. The rule of 
these men e"tends from the period \\ hen 
(;ore returned, in IS 15. from England to 
Toronto. do\\ n to the) ear 1 83fi. when Col- 
home \\as transferred to the (;o\"ernorship of 
X 0\'.\ 
('otia, and :-;ir I"r.mcis Bond Head 
came upon the tro\.1hled scene. \\Ïthin these 
twenty \'ears the Town of York. as we ha\'e 
in part indicated, nude great 
trides, ()n 
the lake, steamers supplanted the sailing- 
packet in the passage to Xi.\g.ua. and an era 
of e"tensi\e huilding operations set in in the 
to\\ n. XC\\ Houses of Parliament were 
erected on the 
ite of those \\ hich had heen 
hurned hy the .\mericans in 1813. Here. 
in I 8n. Parliament was com ened, though 
three) e.lfs afterw.uds the ne\\ huildings fell 
a I)[e\ to the flame
. ,\ ne\\ Cuurt Hou
_ 
and (;aol \\as also ahout this time huilt, and 
the sljuare on which it \\as erected \\as long 
a place of rende.l\'ous for the citÌ/ens. Its 
location was a little Wa\' north of King. he- !!1!r11 ,n.- . 
tween Church and Toronto 
treets, The 
market. which was now enclosed. hecame 
also a pl.1ce of public resort; while halls of 
modest dimensions. attached as yet to the hotels, \\ere erected for mass-meetings and occasionally user! for the play .lIld the 
dance, Xor did the citiæns of the time neglect the need of places of \\orship. In 1818 the first :\letho(li
t Church \\a
 built, 
and shortly afterwards the Episcopal Church of St. James was enlarged and remodelled. I ater still, came an entireh new 
edifice, which, despite its heing of 
stone. fire unhappily de\"oured in 
1839, In the" t\\enties" were also 
erected sacred edifices for the use 
of the Roman Catholic and Preshy- 
terian communions, To\\ards the 
close of thi
 decade, the York citi/en 
also saw erected a ne\\ (;eneral Hos- 
pital. a (;o\"efl1ment House, and 
ground cleared for the buildings 
de\otcd to the use of C"pper Canada 
Cullcge and for a home for the La\\ 

uciety of the I'n)\ incl'. In 1822, 
the Bank uf Cpper Canada was 
founded, and four \ears hter the 
C.mada I.mll Cumpany hegan ih 
operations, :\or was the indi\ idual 
citi/en slow to fashion a hume for 
himself in .. :\Iuddy I ittle York:' 
\hout this period were erected a 
numher of family mansions. ...ome 
(,f \\ hich to-da) retain their old-time 
glory, \\hile others ha\t" gone into 
BA'ih OF 
Io'\ TREAI, COR"I':R OF \'O"';E A'\D FRo=, r SI REE. s. decline with the passing } ears. Of 
the former are The Grange, Be\erIey House, and 
Ioss Park; of the latter "The Palace," on Front Street, is a t} Pl'. fhe decade 
is also memorable as that of the coming to York of William L}on 
lackel1/ie and the increased troubling of the political walers. 


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IXCORFOR.ITIOX OF TOROXT{). 


C H .-\ P T E R \ - [ I. 


I,CORI'OR.\TIOX OF TORO:\TO. 


rORO' 1'0 RrSl'\IF
 IT
 Oil' .-\I'I'FI.!..\ 1'1\ E. 1'0Pl:I,\R I>ls \FFFC 1'10"1 ,\1\11 POIITIC.\I CXRFST. THF HI<;H I'RERO(;ATIVE 
ER \. rlu: F,\\III \ CO;\IP,\CT \XI) IT'; OPPOXEX rs. THE ,\HIS OF THF RFFOR\IIX(; SPIRIT OF THE rnlE. l;o.;cOR- 
I'OR \110:\ OF THE CII'\ \1'111 ORe; \:\T17\TlON OF IfS MC'\"IClP\1. S\STDI. THE FIR
T 
L\\OR ,\XD eH\ COU:\CIL. 
Sn\'l
\'ICs OF I'Rm;REss, .\ [.\I)\'s S....rTCH OF TOROXTO I.... 1836. 


HE year 183
 is memorahle as that which sa\\ the Town of York e"tend its limits and 
'(' ) rise to the dignity of an Incorporated City, under its old historic name of Toronto, It 
was a happ) idea that suggested itself to the minds of the .. rude foref.'lthers of the 
, halnlet U that" ith the honours of incorporation as a city the place should resulne its 
heautiful Indian appellati\'e. X or could an) thing be more appropriate than that the 
great metropolis that was to he, \\ hich hut forty years before had opened as a mere 
forest pathway beh\ een the I Ion Rivcr and the mouth of the harhour, should bear the 
name associated in early French annals \\ ith the Huron trihes, known as the Toronto 
nations, whose hunting-grounds lay immediately to the north\\ard, and with the 
hlood-stained region long identified \\ ith their fateful history, In the four decades that had passed OWl' the town since its 
earl) cradling-time, the iJlace had seen many changes, and its citil'ens had strivcn hard to plant Toronto lìrmly on its fed. 
Slow as )d, however, were the successive stages of ci\ic development, and the visitor within its gates often mocked the preten- 
sions, and, \\hen he shook its dust from his feet, evcn spoke slightingly of the SOcid). of the still "lJualid Provincial metropolis, 
But \\ith the stocks and the pillory \\ere soon to go the humdrum and unprogressiw era of .. 
Iudd\' Little York." Before 
the hrighter day came, ho\\e\er, Toronto had to enter upon a conflict which tried the spirits of its sons, and proved, as \\ ith 
fire, their sturdy claim to the rights and pri\'ileges of freemen. 
.\t the time, as we ha\c sccn, political power was centrali7ed in the hands of a dominant and e"c1usi\'e class, \\ho ruled 
the 1'1'0\ ince autocratically, and shaped the Provincial legislation so as to maintain their hold of office and reward, \\ ith 
extensi\e land grants and other fa\ours, their large and not ovcr-scrupulous hodyof retainers, .\gainst this ruling oligarch\' 
and the placemen of the time, Rohert eourlay, earliest of ('anadian Radicals, was the first to protest; and when he had been 
harshl) dri\en from the I'ro\ince, his \\ork \\as a..tivdy taken up by \Ym. I.\.on :\IackenLie, who had removed to the city in 
18:q. anù \\as now to become a prickl) 
thorn in the f1anh of the administrati\'c 
junto, l;ourlay had, in 1817, lit the flame 
of discontent by his series of disturbing 
questions addressed to the people of the 
I 'I'm incc a<; to the retarding effects of the land 
Im\ s and the arbitrary Iq!;islation, embodied 
in .\lien and :,edition .\cts, passed by the 
autocratic 1'1'0\ Î11f'ial E"ecuti\e, ;\Iaekenl'le 
too\.. up and carried fOr\\ard the Excalibur 
brand of the agitator, and \\ith it vigorousl) 
"mote the Family Compact and the \\ hole 
,,\ stem of pri\ ilege that had craftily wormed 
itself into the machinery of irresponsible 
gO\ernment. [n his paper, The Colollial 
Ady'ocale, he \\armly e
poused the \\ork of 
reform, and during a 
eries of ..tormy rears 
ga\e voice to the popular discontent and let 
the light of da) in upon a large and un hal, 
lo\\ed crop of grie\ances. For this patriotic 
"en ice he \\a<; re\\arded hr seeing the young 
Tor)dom of the time sack his priming office, 
"m.Ish hIs prLsses to pie('l'
, and gleeful!) 


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turn his fonts of t) pe into the Bay. Being returned a member of Parliament, ascended Toryism pursued him to the I,e
is- 
!.tture and lÌ\e times e"\pelled him from the House. But not thus could the stunJ} spirit of the patriot be broken, for 
\laåen.lÏe had nO\\ a large and sympathetic followin
, and as often as he \\as ejected from his seat, public sentiment and the 
Liberal element in his constituenq rdurned him as a representative. 
In this high prerogative era, Tor)dom, thou
h it was often nettled and sometimes abashed. was not yet worsted in the 
fight. It had lon
 been entrenched in office, and possessed not a few doughty champions \\ hose skill in the art of political 
\\arf.1fe \\as great. and whose sources of strength \\ere the Crown and the lo}alist cries it knew well how to rally tu its support. 
()f th
'"e champions, the most redoubtahle were the politico-ecclesiastic, the .\rchdeacon of York, and his chief liegeman. the 
youthful .\ttorney-(
eneral of the I'rU\ince, Bcsides Strachan and Robinson, the leading spirits of the Family Compact, the 
pri\ ileged order could call to its aid a numerous band of supporters, \\ hose names have hecome historic in the annals of 
the cit\ and were then bandied ahout in 
the rough tumult of the time, But if fossil 
Tor) ism had its shinin
 lights, so, too. had 
) outhful Liheralism. If the one could point 
to the Strachans, Robinsons, Boultons, Hager- 
mans, Sherwoods, Drapers, _\lIans, and :\Iac- 
Xabs, the other could pit against them the 

Iackenlies, Rolphs, Bidwells, Bald\\ins, 
Perr\"s, and Dunns. X or were the differences 
slight ones that separated the two bands of 
combatants. Each side, no doubt, considered 
itself fighting religiously for a principle. In 
the politics of the \oung colony, it was the 
first sharp contest between privilege and non- 
pri\ ilege, The one side sought to conserve 
what it deemed its sacred trust and was 
jealous of its own rights and pri\ ileges: the 
other had little respect for Crown nominations 
if it" nominees alJU<;ed their trust and would 
pa\ no deference to the voice of the parlia- 
mentary majority. In the struggle that 
ensued, we shall better see what the reform- 
ing spirit of the time sought to remedy. 
I n the meantime the field of part\' 
strife changed from the I.egislature to the 
l'i\ic Chamber. \\ïth the }ear 183-1-, the 
citi7ens of York had come to feel that the 
ci\ÏL administration \\ould be more satis- 
factor} were the aff.'1irs of the county sepa- 
rated from those of the town and the latter 
gi\'en a municipal system of its own, This 
idea, at once progressive and reasonable, 
met, hO\\ ever, with opposition, the Reformers, 
strangeh' enough, opposing, while the Con- 
servatives were in fa\our of, the measure. 
Political feeling, which had long been at fever 
heat, took sides in the civic contest; and 
though Reform, perhaps fearing the evils of 
increased centralilation, had at first scouted 
the innovation, it finally accepted it, and in 
the elections carried \\ ith it a majority of the 
party as representati\l:s on the CounciL CU\UIERS' PRESBVTERIAl\" CHURCH, DUNDAS STREET. 
.-\s the e\'ent is of some importance in the annals of the city, it may be worth while to note the successi\'e incidents in 
the aff.'1ir of incorporation. In February, 183-1-, :\11'. Jarvis, memher for York, introduced into the Legislature a Bill emhod)ing 
the proposed measure. On the 6th of 
Iarch it received the RO\'al assent and became law. The main features of the Bill 
con-;tituted the town a city, under the name of the City of Toront
, and divided it into five wards, with t\\O aldermen and t\\O 
councilmen for each ward. The citi/ens were to elect the ward representatives, while the latter were to elect from themsel\"es 
a ma}or. Thc combined body was to ha\'e the management of the city's aff.'1irs, and power \\as gi\'en to it to lev) such ta"\cs 
as should he found necessary for the proper maintenance of the city's government and the requisite public imprO\'ements, On 


IXCORFOR.-l TIO \' OF TOROXTO, 



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LVCORPORATIOX OF TORO
VTO. 


Ihe 15 th of ;\l:1rch a proclamation \\as issued appointinl!; the 27th of the same month as the date of the elections, The 
follo\\ ing \\ ere returned as the representati\ es of the various wards: 
\\ \({IIS, \1 PER
IF:'oI. COl'!'(("(1 \IFN. 
Sr. .\'\"IIRF\\ 's . Dr. r. D. l\lorrison John .\rmstrong 
,.. ,John H.1Tper.., "" .. ,John I)od 
, . , . Wm. Lyon :\lackenLie, , ' . . ' Franklin Jackes 
. . . ,James I.esslie . '" ,Colin I )rummond 
,Thomas Carfrae, .II' John Craig 
, Edw.lTd \ \ right ' (;eorge (;urnett 
,(;eorge ;\10I1/"0 .Wm. .\rthurs 
. (;eorge I )uggan, Sr, . I.anlner Bo
t\\ i('k 
. .. .1>1'. John Rolph. .' Joseph Tunon 
. (;eorge T. Denison, Sr. . . . . , , .. .',. James Trotter 
()n the 3 rd of .\pril, the ('ouncil met and elected, as the first ;\I.l) or of Toronto, \\"m. l.yon l\lacken/ie. The instal- 
lation of ;\1.\("kenLie into the ci\ ic chair W.1S naturall) looked upon as possessing some political 
ignirll'ance; it was a triumph, 
.It least, for the cause of Reform, l\lackenlie held office only for the year, hut within the period nnwh was done in the W,lY of 
puhlic improvements, The first thing to \\ hich the 
Council addressed itself \\as the mending and e:'\-- 
tending of the city's sidewalks and roads, To meet 
this necessary e"\penditure, an applic,ltion was made 
to the Bank of lJpper Canada for the loan of a 
thousand pounds, hut as the city was already a 
dehtor to the c:'\-tcnt of nine times this sum, the 
loan was timidly refused. .\ contemporary docu- 
ment shows, however, that an application to the 
Fanners' Bank was more su('cessful, though the 
money was had only on the personal security of the 
:\layor and City Council. The cily then mended 
its ways, In these days of liheral and suhstantial 
street pa\ements, it is not a little curious to con- 
trast \\ ith them the meagre and parsimonious 
sidewalks of the year of Toronto's incorporation. 
,\11 that was then allowed of a promenading area, 
were two twdve-inch planks, laid longitudinally on 
the chief stn:ets, 
The stati
tics of the period, in other direc- 
tions, shcm similar sharp contrasts het\\ een then 
and now. Into thcse we have not space here to 
enter, though it nuy he noted that the population, 
in 1834, was under 10,000, and that the value of the 
COIl I::C;F S Iia F I HAl'l IS r CH U I<CH. ratahle property \\ ithin the city limits did nut exceed 
three-qu,lrters of a million of dollars. The" leap
 and hounds" hy which the cit) has attained its present proportions, the 
reader ma) reali/e \\ hen it is recalled that the then area of Toronto was compressed hetween the I )on and Peter Street, and 
hetweLn Lot (or (Jueen) Street and the Bay. Outside of these hounds was an unkempt, if not impenetrahle, wilderness. 
or 
mu"t \\e forget onL at !Last. and the most dread, of the local causes of the time that retarded the city's alh'ancement. In the 
) e.lT of incorporation. Toronto suffered from a \ isitation of .\siatic cholera. Every twentieth inhahitant, it is recorded, 
hecame ,1 \ ictim to the fell scourge. 
I n spite of thi" cal.\Jnitou
 dispensation and the increasing political turhulence, the youthful city, impelled hy an internal 
torce of ih own, continued to make progress. Stores, hlock
. churches, and puhlic huildings were huilt; new streets and 
a\cl1UeS \\ere opened up; and man) f.lir family residences ruse solitary among the thick-set pines, upon what are now old city 

itl'". \ et, in appearance, much of the tcl\\n \\as still rude and uncouth, This we learn from a picture limned fur us, in 18 3 6 , 
h) \Ir
. J,une"on, \\ife of the then I'rp\incial \'ice-Chalwellor, though its luguhriou!' tone was douhtless the product of the 
.lrti
t'" depre
sed 
I'irits, Sa\" !\I r
, Jameson (vide "Winter Studies and Summer Ramhles "), "\\'hat Toronto may he in 

ummer, I cannot tell; they sa) it is a pretty pl.lCe. At present its appearance to me, a stranger, is most strangely mean and 
melanchol). .\ little ill-huilt (O\\n, on 10\\ land, at the hot tom of a fro/en hay, with one \ery ugl) church. without tower or 
"teeple; SClIlle (;0\ ernment offices, huilt of 
taring red hriek, in the most tasteless, vulg.tr style in1.lginahle: three feet of snow 
.111 around; and the grey, sullen, wintry lake, and the dark gloom of the pine forest bounding the prospect; such Seems Toronto 
to me no\\." rhis ill-used, unhappy lady, we are glad to rememher, has left us a later and hrighter picture of Toronto. 


ST. I ),\\ III'S. , . 


Sr. (;n>R(;I"" 


Sr. L\\\RF'\(T 


Sr. 1',\1 RIl'.....S. 


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THE RERELLIO,\
 TO THE UNH7JY OF THE PROrINCE.'''; 


31 


CIL\PTER \'[[1. 


THE Rr:J:EII.I<)\., TO THE In,lO\. OF THE !'R()\ïXCES. 


RrFOR\' I"IRF' OF ,\';lr\I"I()'\ \'\"I> RFSORIS 1'0 RI:J:I"II 10'\. \lTIITI>I'. OF rill: Rt'I.II\(; ['()\\FRS TO\\ \RTlS RFs\,O;l!sllJll 
(;O\FR'\"\II',\"I". R
'(;i'lr of :-'IR FR\'\"("(S HO'\II Hr\l>. :\1 \l"....1''\71 E...' SrI>II"IO\" ,\nPRFSs \'0 HIS FI"I LOW !'.\rRlors. 
1'\"("(111':\ rs OF rHI RISI'\l;, R \11 \ OF rHF Y'\"SI'Rl;F'\"TS \1" ;\10'\ I'I:<HIER\'''' T,"TR'\. ("ORO,\ 1'0 TIIRI'A'ITI\I'lI 
\:\n TORo'\ro (IFFL:\IHII, ()t I"I,\\\R\ OF r!lF RI"I:I"I. I.F,\lIERS. T!lF Rn:Flllo"l '\01' Wlrlloer ['IH)FIr. 


\; I) ES ['.\ 1 R of effectin
 rdorm through constitutional means, and e"\,l"perated 11\' the 
,lttitude of successin: (;on..:rnors, who thre\\ the pre,lige and influence of the ('1'0\\ n into 
the camp of irresponsihilit\, and pri\ ilq.:e, :\ lackelvic and the Radical section of his 
allies werc dri\ cn to the despcratc .lltern;lti\ I.' of rehellion. Only h) such a ('ourSI.', it 
\\ould seem, could the principles for \\ hich the Reformers contended triumph. and the 
defiant E"\ecutive he made amenahle to the popular \\ ill. Only thus was it possihle " to 
hreak up the Famil) Compact: to make tl1l' .\dministration röponsible to the repre- 
sentati\ es of the people : to s\\ eel' awa) the invidious pri\ ileges claimed by the Church 
of England: to promote a hetter ,;)':',tem of CrO\\ n I and manageml.'nt, immigration and 
settlement: to è"\tend èducation tu the children of the poorer cia sse!. : and. generall). to 
establish a less costh and more economical (;0\ ern mUll , that \\ ould spend less money on hi
h salaries, pensions and sinecures, 
and more on roads, canals, and other \\orks of public utility." ('onstitutional measures of redress had been long tried, and 
had signall\ failed. The popular Ch.lInher ('oulll do nothing, for its legislation was not only hurl-eel by the l'ppl.'r House, hut 
the E"\ecutive ('ouncillors snapped their fingers at the .\ssemblymen and disregarded censure and the appeals to the Lieutenant- 
(;on.:mor and the ('ro\\n, Xor was this done from mere \\antonness. nn the contran', Ihe ruling pO\\ers deemed it a 
patriotic duty thus to deal \\ ith disaffection, and to resist to the utmost \\ hat was termed the encroachments of the people. 
The integrit) both of the Crown and the Constitution, it \\as thou
ht, depended upon this course heing IJursued, 'loreO\'er, 
the contumacy of the electors in repeatedly returning the popular idol, :\lacl-en/ie. as a representati\e to Parliament, had to be 
repro\'ed : and this must be done, so Torydom reasoned though the hreaeh ):iwned hetween the Cro\\n and the Canadian 
people. Even in the :\Iother Country, Re"ponsihle (;0\ ernment was at the time 1:11' from the goal to \\ hich it suhsequenth' 
rcached. and rdorm had still Its hattles to fight. \\"1.' need not wonder. therefore. that in ih distant Colol1\' the popular 
liherties had to he \\ rung hy in- 
surrection from the grasp of pri\ i- 
lege, and that a nisis had to he 
passed ere the old Colonial system 
ga\e pl.lce to self'gO\ emment. 
:\latters were in no wa) 
imprO\ ed by the home authorities 
making a change in the Lieut- 
enant-(;owrnorship, In 1835, Sir 
Juhn Colhorne was superseded 
h) Sir Franci, Bond Head, who 
reached Toronto in January of 
thefnllo\\ ing year. ()n :-'ir Francis 
arrival. ecclesiastical jealousics 
had added fuel to political fer- 
ment. over the erection, hv his 
predecessor in office, of fift) -si"\ 
rectories out of the landed estates 
known as the" Clergy Reserves." 
Thi>; act raised the hostilit) of 
the denominations to\\anls the 
Crown, though among the Re- 
formers it \\,lS thought that the 
new (;O\emor \\as friendly to 
their views, and wuuld aid them 


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ST. GEOIU;E SrI{EEI, EA
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TIfE REBE1J10.\: TO THE CXIO \' OF TlfE PROl'L\'CE.')'. 


in the redru." \)f their grie\':"lI1ces, rime soon showed that this was a misconception, Xot only did the (;0\ ernor oppose 
the popular demand for an electi\e l.egislative Council and .1 responsihle E"\ecuti\'e, hut, failing in his attempt to hrihe three 
Reformers \\ ith "eab in the E"\ecuti\t
, he thre\\ himself, with foolish partisanship. into the arms of the Family Compact. 
I n the popular Chamher the natural re"u\ts follo\\ ed -the Rdurm dement denounced the (;overnor, and for the first time the 
Hotbe rdu"ed to \ote the supplies, Sir Francis rdorted hy disso!\'ing Parliament and unconstitutionally appealing himself to 
Ihe people. Every de\ ice \\as resorted to in the effort to prejudice the cause of Rdorm, The day \\as won by the Tories, and 
the (;0\ ernor. dated at his success, hecame a thorough partisan, ami still further widened the hreach between the (;0\ ernment 
and tilt: people. 
In 10\\,:[ (',mada, a somc\\hat similar state of things prevailed, and precipitated the rrisis that nU\\ fell upon the whole 
countn. In hoth I'rU\ inces. Imperial authorit) \\as renounced, disaffection dasped hands, and balked Reform slid into 
rehellion. In the dosing da)s of July, 1837, :\lackenLÏe organi/ed a .. Committee of \ïgilance," to guard the interests Reform 
had in \ iew ; hut the \ iolent appeals it issued soon inflamed the heart of sedition, and the ne"\t mo\ e was a hostile demonstra- 
tion and the attempt to erect a revolutionary government. rhat armed resistance to authority was now the game, is sufficiently 


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I\:NO"\ COLLFGt' (PRFSII\ fEIUAN), SPADINA A\'FNUt". 


seen from the inflammatory handhills \\ hich the leading spirit of the movement issued. calling upon his fellow "patriots " to 
rise and strike for freedom. Here are a few rather spicy e"\tracts : 
.. ('anadians: (;od has put it into the hold and honLst hearts of our hrethren in r ,ower Canada to re\'o\t-not again'it 
Ia\\ ful hut against unla\\ ful authorit). The Im\ says we shall not he ta"\ed without our consent hy the \'oice of the men of uur 
choice: hut a \\icked and t)rannical (;O\ernment has trampled upon that la\\, rohhed the exchequer, divided the plunder, and 
deci.lred that. regardless of justice, they \\ ill continue to roll in their splendid carriages and riot in their palaces at our e:xpense ; 
that \\e are poor. spiritless.. ignorant peasanb, who \\ere horn to toil for our hetters. * * You gi\'e a bount) for wo!\'es' 
"calp", \\ h)? Because wol\'es harass you. The hount)' you must pay for freedom (blessed word 
 ) is to give the strength of 
\ our arms to put dm\ n t) ranny at Toronto, One short hour will deliver our country from the oppressor, and freedom in 
religion, peace and tralllluillity, elluallaws and an improved country, \\ ill he the prize, * * \\ e have given Head (the 
(;O\ernor) and his emplo)ers a trial of forty-five years, five years longer than the Israelites were detained in the wilderness. The 
promised land is now before us -up then and take it -but set not the torch to one house in Toronto, unless we are fired at 
from the hou!,Lj, in which case sdf-presenation will teach us to put dO\\n those who would murder us when lip in the defence 
of la\\s. * * * 
.. \far!.. my \\ords, ('anaclians 
 The struggle has begun-it \\ill end in freedom; hut timidity, cowardice or tampering 
on our part, \\ ill only delay its dose. \\' e cannot he reconciled to Britain. \\0 e have humbled ourselves to the Pharaoh of 
England. te the 
lini"ters and great people, and they \\ ill neither rule liS nor let us go. \\' e are determined never to rest until 
indepcndence i" our" -the pril'c is a splendid one. .\ country I.lfger than Fr,Ulce or England, natural resources equal to our 



THE REBELllO
\
 TO TIfE [TlOX OF THE rROl'L"CE.
'. 


:
3 


mo
t boundless \\ ishes, a Government of equal laws, religion pure and undefiled, perpetual peace, education for all. millions of 
acres for land re\'t
nue. freedom from British tribute, free trade \\ ith all the world -hut stop 
 I never could enumerate all the 
hlessings attendant upon independence! 
"Cp, then, hr.l\'e Canadians! Get ready your rifles and make <;hort \\ork of it ; a connection with England would 
im'oh'e us in all her wars, undertaken for her 0\\ n advantage, never for ours. "ïth (;overnors from Engl.lI1d we will ha\ e 
brihery at elections, corruption, \il1ainy and perpetual discord in e\ery tU\\nship; hut independence \\ould gi\'t
 us the means 
of enjo\ ing many blessings. Our enemies in Toronto are in terror and dismay . they know their \\ ickedness and dread our 
\engeance. * * "'oe to those who oppose us, for 'l
od is our trust.' " 
The publication of this incendiary tractate, we need hardly say, laid its \\ riter open to the grim courtesics of the 1:1\\ ; 
and the. \ttorne) -l
eneral of the Province naturally informed the (
overnor that :\IackenLie should he proceeded against for 
treason. The l
overnor acquiescing, a warrant was issued for the rebel's arrest. But :\lackenLie had fled ere he could be 
apprehended, and \\as no\\ busy gathering the clans of revolt for the descent upon the capital. Besides :\lacken/ie, among the 
leading Cpper Canada plotters of rebel1ion, were :\Iessrs. '>an Egmond, Perry, Lount, Matthews, I )uncomhe, :\[orrison. :\Iont
 
gomery. Price. Gorham, Doel, Gibson. (;raham, ,\nderson. Ketchum, Fletcher, Lloyd, \\ ith other Toronto citi/ens and yeomen 
of the county. Other influential s) mpathiærs there were, such as Rohert Baldwin and :\larshal1 Spring Bidwel1, who stopped 
short, hO\\'e\ er, .1t actual and overt rehellion. Another name, that of Dr, John Rolph, is to he added to' the hlack list, though 
he belonged to the numher of astute rehels, in more or le<;s open disguise. The chief leaders of the revolt in Lower Canada, 
it i
 hardly necessary now to say, 
\\ere Papineau, Dr. \\'olfred l\elson, 
and Etienne Carrier. 
"ïth the incidents of "the 
risin
." we have sp.1ce only to deal 
hriefly. The seditious movement 
seems to ha\e dra\\n into its \'ortex 
the ) eomanry chiefly of \' onge 
Street, e"\tending from the northern 
:-:- 
hound.try of the city northward to 
.,... . 
Xe\\market and Holland I
'lnding. 
The ral1ying-place of the insurgents 
\\ e naturally find. then:fore, \\ as 
:\Iontgomen"s Tavern, on \' onge 
Street, situate ahout a mile heyond 
I ker Park, the northern suburb of 
Toronto. Here, in the opening 
da} s of I >ccemher, gathered :\Iac- 
ken7ie's rank and file, including the 
Toronto contingent, which used to 
meet clandestinely at Doers brewery, 
on Bay Street, with a sprinkling of 
moderate Reformers from other parts 
of the Province, nO\\ goaded into 
acti\ e rebel1ion. Arms and accou
 
trements had already been quietly 
passed ahout. and there was much leaden stir in the melting-pot to provide the requisite bullets. So far, Tor)dom in the cit) 
had not taken much alarm. \\'hat regular troops were in garrison had been de<;patched to lower Canada hy the (
O\ ernor. to 
the assistance of menaced la\\ and order in that PrO\ince. By the IJremiling indifference and limpness of official authorit), 
Toronto il1\'ited its doom, But its doom, ho\\ever sternly rebeldom had decreed it, was not )et. 
The date fi\ed for the descent upon Toronto was original1y the 7th of December. On Sunday, the yd, \\ hen :\lackenlÏe 
reached the appointed rendez\'ous, he learned with surprise that Dr. Rolph had changed the day to the -t-th instant. \\'hy 
this had heen done was at the time not clear, though it was surmised that it was in consequence of preparations being 
made by the authorities to put Toronto in a state of defence, and that delay would be bad for the rehels and good for the 
10) alists, The insurgent chief determined, however, to find out the real position of affairs, and \\ ith that purpose he set out 
after dark for the city, accompanied by three of his troopers a<; a bod\'guard. On the way they met two men on horseback. one 
of whom was :\Ir. John Powell, an Alderman of Toronto, who were proceeding a<; spies in the direction of the rebel camp. 
:\Iackenzie's party, being two to one, took the citizens prisoners and sent them on to :\lontgomery's, in the custody of two of 
the insurgents. But care, it seems, had not been taken to divest one of them at least of his concealed \\eapons. Taking 
advantage of this oversight, Alderman Powell, on the way, drew a revolver and killed one of the guard, then wheeled about and 
galloped for the city. Overtaking 
Iackenzie and his companion, shots were exchanged on the highway, but without effect on 
either side; and Powell continued his flight to the town, where he aroused Governor Head from his bed and with him routed 


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RESIUE:-'CE OF MR. C. \\'. BL =-1 I:-'G, \!L'EE=-'
 PARK. 



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TIlE RLHELLIO
'
 TO THE r..:_\70N OF THE FROrINCE.s: 


I tl riti" :lnd ,",ummoned Toronto to arm" :\Iid cbng;our of hells, news of the impending d:lnger W:lS speedil} 
lip t 1L Cl\ IC:lU 10 eS . ' . , .' 
 . I C ' ., . 1 1 
I I I \ t IIIU ,", t . 1' , d at the cit\ h:l\l and \\ere :lflned :lnd:l "trong pld-.ct W:lS desp:ltched)y 01. htlgl I IOn, 
Irmte( :I lout, \ 0 un eel''' ,e e . . . , , . . ' ' 
I \ I . t (' I to rU:lnl the cit\ on the north :-'0 n::l1 now W:lS the fflght. th:lt the 1.leuten:lnt-( rcvernor S f:lnllly 
leput\ (JUI.1I1 - ,L'ner:l, b' - '" , '. '. " ,'. , 
I d t I I' I ' ll tll . Ill rhour for s'lfe kee l )IIl". I he ne"\t d:l\, puhhc tremor contmued, :lnd It \\:lS mcre:l"ed 
\\en .,dll on 10:11' :I" e.ln e e. .. t> - , ' 
h ' II ' I' :1 " 1 (I I ' oroll\() tll 
 t l ' ll "" llùl ' lr ism \\:I,,:lt \\01'1. and that:l 10Y:lli"t h.ld heen shot hy the rehels, whlie on his 
\\ en IIlte Igence e.
' Ie .. 

 .' . . .' , , - , ,- , , , 
ft ' I '" ' . C I' tll . d ,c" n "" of tll " cit ) , The \Ïctlln W:lS LIt:ut.-( 01. ;\loo(l1e, of lZichmond H 1\1, a retired officer 
\\.1 \ to 0 er liS 'òef\ I( l''' 10 e elL 

 
 ' 
"f thL :lfllI\. 
In the me:lI1\dlile, the IIlsurgents continued to mass at \Iontgomery's, and thither. on Tuesd:lY, the 5 th , came Rohert 
B.lld\\in :lnù 1Ir. Rolph, on an emh:lss) from the l.ieuten:lnt,(;U\ernor. Being \\ithout written credentials, J\lacken/ie refused, 
hO\\e\er, to tre:lt \\Ïth them. Th:lt the) \\ere un:lccredited \\as probahl) due to the equinwal position Dr. Rolph h:ld :lssumed, 
,lI1d to a douht in the (;overnor's mind of that gentlem:ln's I>olla fides. Howe\-cr, nothing C:lme of the p:lrley. "'ednesday 



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P:l"""'ù \\Ïthout :In) action heing taken, the insurgents frittering away v:llu:lhle time in fruitless discussion. "ïth the morrow 
.Irri\ed ('olonel \:In Egmond, :In old French offi('er, who had sef\'ed under 
:lpoleon. and who was at once given the military 
. ..mmand of the rehel forcL Thi" old campaigner \\ent energetically to \\ork. He Sent p:lrt of the insurgents to the cast of 
the cit\ to dL'"tro) the I Ion Bridge, to cut off communication, and to endea\(lur to clivert to that quarter a portion of the force 
that ",h no\\ ha"tening from the \\e"t to the defence of Toronto. ()f the 1.ltter, a brge contingent had arrivcd from Hamilton, 
under ('olonel (:lftemanb Sir .\\lan) \l.l<"l\ah. 
( )n the ,,:lme d.l\ (rhur"d.I)) the m.lin column of the rehels, "omewhat 'ò11funken from its original strength of 700 men, 
pre".,...d fomard upon roronto. Simultaneou,,\) the \oyali"ts, in numher ahout 900, moved out from the city. rhe btter were 
, ommamled 11\ Colonel Fit/gihhon, \\ ith Colond ;\l.lC;\:lh at the he:lcl of .. the :\lcn of Core." Loyal contingents were :llso 
und, r tht' direction of ('o\onel" ('hi"llOlm :lnd Janis, :lssisteù h) J\lr, Justin' :\kl can. Between one and t\\O o'clock in the 
d.,\, thL t\\O force" confronted each other, The) confronted e:lch other, hut there was no engagement. H.ndly was there e\en 
a c- lIalt\. 1\\0 fielcl-plen" laboriou"l) dragged hy the 100.lli
b to the ground, \\ere hrought into requisition, but the insurgents 
dJ(1 not .,t.I' to seL thL "ullen fun. \11 there \\as to the fight \\a'ò a couple of random \olle)s of musketry, :lnd a promiscuous 
rctrl It 11\ the rehel.. to their ono' defl.lIlt he:ldquarter", the Ta\ern. Of cour
e, there was a speedy dispersion of the whole rehel 
.lfIl1\ \l.1cken/ie :lnd Rolph took to flight, the former, though outlawed and \\ ith a rew:lrd of L, I ,000 upon his head, con, 
tinum for.1 tim, (( 
ih' trouhle on the frontier. For two others of the in
urgents there was an unhapp) scquel. Outraged 
loyalt\, \\ hdl it had captured S.lInuei I ount :lnd Peter \btthe\\
, hanged them. 
rhu
 end'd, in .1 fiasco, the ri
ing of '37. But 111 other wa)s rehellion was not without profit. It hrought its 
rLform
. though at th, time it \\a,> freighted \\ ith e'òtranging pas"ion
 and "ucial disorder. \\ïthout it, political :lbuses might 
1I0t ha\L had" -I", ,-1\ .. n.:drc--. and more di"t.lI1t \HJUld ha\ L heen the morrO\\ that brought to the Colony the boon of self- 
':0\ ermnent. 



TilE C.J.YIO.\
 TilE RAIL 1I
1 r ER./, AXD THE FEXI,JX R.JID,...: 


35 


CHAPTER IX. 


THE UNI01'., THE RAILWA\' ERA, AKD THE FE
I \
 R.\I1>S, 


HE (;AD,S OF REIIEI.1.l0:>l. - LORD DURHAJ\I'S I\IASTERL\ RFPORT. (;"'110:>1 OF THF Two C<\:>I,\DAS. - l'OLIrICAI. (2l'ESnONS 
OF THE TnIF: DISPOSAl. OF POLITIC-\L PRISONERS, REIIELI ION LOSSES BII L, A:>IIJ RFPRFSE:"T,\TION 11\ POPUL\TIOX.- 
LORD 
1t:"rc.\1 FE A:"II TOR\ RULE,- LORD EU;IN ANII CO\lPLErE SE\.F-(;OVERN
IFNT. TORO'lTO YISI rFI' II\' FIRE 
A:"I' I'FSTII E:-JCE. - rHE RAILW.\\' ERA AND THE RECIPROCIrY TRFAT\'. FOl'NDI:"(; OF COJ\l\IO:>I SCHOOl. EDUC-\TION. 
_ THE 
IUXlCIP,\L SVsrF.:\1. YISIT OF THE PRINCE OF ".ALES. - THE "'AR OF SECFSSIOX ,\NII THE FFNI-\:I: R \I\JS. 


RITISH integrity and supremacy, though they were imperilled, were not overthro\\n in 
Canada, hy the seditious disturhances in the two old 1'1'0\ inces. Rehellion, while it was 
a vent for the discontent and disaffection of the time, was, in its national consequences, 
no more than this; though it hecame the means of social and political amelioration, and 
gave birth to a new constitutional era and a more prosperous period of industrial den.:lop- 
ment. It won for the political ahu
es, under which the people had long smarted. the 
attention of the Imperial authorities; and though the relief which \\as granted \\as at 
first an imperfect application of the principle, the ultimate concession was the hoon. in 
full measure, of Responsihle (;overnment. Besides the question of mini"terial account- 
ahility, there were other complications of a more or less emharrassing kind, \\ hich con- 
I"ed the main issue in the minds of British statesmen, and delayed for a time the fair \\Orking of the applied remedy, Of 
le"e complications, we need mention hut two: the Clergy Reserves imhroglio, and the racial conflict in the I.ower Province, 
here the British .1I1d Protestant minority had to fig:ht French nationalism, which thus early began, under British rule, to 
.huild French power on the St. I Ä'1\\ rence. These domestic complications for a time hewildered British administrations, in 
Il:ir conciliatory attempts to provide a legislati\'e modus vivendi, though Lord Durham's masterly Report, had it heen fully 
_'cepted and followed, would have made the way 
I.tin for English statesmen. But in the Old Land 
Ie day of liheral concessions to a colony had scarcely 
.:t come, while even in England there was much 
ill to achieve ere Reform could be said to have 
lere done its work, 
It was some time after the events related in 
ur last chapter ere the fever of political disrontent 
hated in Toronto. The troubles hrought in their 
-ain two topics which for a while kept the political 
ot simmering. These were the disposal of the poli- 
I'al prisoner
, and compensation, especially in the 
.ower I'ro\Ïnce, for the rehellion losses. Kor were 
latters quiet on the frontier. Canadian refugees. 
lstigated hy American ad\'enturers, there gave trouhle 
:1 the (;ovcrnment. Though the active spirit of re- 
.ellion was crushed, disaffection still smouldered. Nor 
".IS the feeling of insecurity and unrest allayed until 
;mernor Head had resigned, and his immediate 
uccessor, Sir (;eorge .\rthur, had come and gone, 
\ïth the appearance of Lord Durham on the scene, 
ff.'1irs hegan to mend. This nohleman had been 
ppointed (;0\ ernor-( ;eneral h\ the Liheral .\dmin- 
-;tr.ltion of I.ords (;rey and 
Ielhourne. and was to 
ct as High Commissioner for the adjustment of the 
mportant political questions that disturhed the t\\ 0 

anadas; and for this duty he was clothed \\ ith 
pecial powers by the British Government. For the 
)erformance of his high task he was admirahly fitted, 


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THE ['.\/0.\. TilE R.Jlf WI}, ERA. AXD THE FE1\7.4X R.t/DS. 


:1IId hi!-o delegated pO\\l'r
 he c"\erci
ed on the side hoth of mercy and of justice, Unfortunately, in the fulfilment of his 
dutie
, he \\.1'.. not ahle to satisfy hi!-o Iml'erialmasters. and, incensed at the opposition some of his act,; met with in England, he 
.lhrupth re..igned his officl' and \\ ithdre\\ from hi
 mi"sion. 
['he Durham .\dministration, however, brought important results. It was the turning-point in the political history of 
the ('anadas ; for while in the country his Lonlship had pfl:pared an elahorate report on the situation of affairs, and this states- 
manlike document he !-oulllnitted [0 the Home (
O\'ernment, and, in the main, his views were acted upon, In a dear, bold, and 
di!-opas
ionate manner, I oftl I }urham set forth the difficulties hesetting gO\'ernment in the Canadas, amI, with rare prescience, 

ugge!-oted a confederation of all the British 
orth American Provinces. Admitting that this project was too great for immediate 
fulfilment, he contented himself \\ ith pressing upon the Imperial (
U\'ernmcnt and Parliament a modification of his scheme, in 
Ihe I egi
lative l.!nion of C'pl'er and Lower Canada, This idea presented itself as a more feasihle one; and to givc it effect, 
the British Cmernment 
ent out to the colony the Hon. :\lr. Poulett Thomson (afterwards Lord Sydenham), who undertook, 
at a special council convened in lower Canada, to draft a hill uniting the two Provinces, and to ohtain the acceptance of the 
measure h) the t\\O political parties in hoth sections of the country. The di
tinctive pro\'Ïsions of the .\ct (of 18-1- 0 ) \\ere that 
the t\\O PrO\inces should be united under one (
overnmcnt; that there should he one Legislative Council and one Assembly, 
\\ ith equal representation 111 both branches; and that the E"\ecutive Council should hold office only so long as it, as a hody, 
commanded the support of a majorit} in the popular Chamher. Thus was gained \\ hat Reform had long and wearily contended 
for- government by the people, the 
essential principle of responsible 
political rule. The ünion Hill was 
passed in the Imperial Parliament 
on the 23rd of July, 1840, and it 
came into force in Canada in Feb- 
ruary of the following year. 
In the new political order of 
things, Toronto for a time lost th
 
nominal honours of the capit.l\. 
The first Union Parliament met at 
Kingston, that cit} being deemed 
mure central for cOl1llucting the ad- 
ministrative aff.'1irs of the United 
l'r()\'inces. But Toronto's prestige 
was not no\\' dependent upon the 
retention or thc removal of the 
l.egisl.1ture. I kspite the trouhles 
and distractions of the periud. the 
city had grown apace. Ten) ears 
after its incorporation the population 
had douhled, while its trade and 
co:nmerce had greatly ilH'reased, 

I:my of its first men were proud 
to sit in the ci\'ic chair, and the 
names of those it sent to Parliament 
became" household words." In 18-1-0, Toronto for the fir'it time lit its streets with gas, and four years later, Reform founded 
its long,time chief organ of journalism, The Globe, Contemporary with the latter, there were i
sued in the rapidly-developing 
city, eight or ten other newspapers, \\ hose names -the Patriot, 1I1irror, /Janner, Colonist, ExamlÌler, and ChrÙtÙI1l G-'uaJdÙI1/ - 
\\ ill be familiar to the old-time ritizen. To these evidences of progress has to he added tho
e connected with improwd 
facilitie<; of communication by land and water, hesides the huilding of churches and founding of schools. This period is 
.ll'io kno\\n a
 that "hich saw the erection of the l'ro\incial University. Occasionally, progress had its set-backs, such as the 
great fire in 18-1-9, which destroyed half a million of property, including the Cathedral Church of St. James. This calamity 
\\.'1'; follo\\cd by the second outhreak of Asiatic cholera, which carried off o\er five hundred of the city's inhabitants, most of 
whom \\ere lately-arrived immigrants. On the whole, ho\\ever, Toronto during this period made great strides. It generated 
the energies and ama-;sed the resources which found further and higher development in the next decade, kno\\ n as that of the 
Railway Era. 
r.arly 111 the "Fifties," Toronto and the PrO\ince began to reap the benefit!> of machinery and steam, which for the 
pre\Ïou'i twenty years had done 'iO much for the development of the :\lother Land. Hitherto they had been the servanh of 
man in the worhhop, the mine and the manufactory; now they were to be brought into play to carry him and his goods m-cr 
the wide stretches of Canada and the Continent. Railway enterprise had its inception in Canada in a project for connecting 
T
ronto fir
t with I 
'1ke Simcoe and the Georgian Bay, and afterwards, in the more gigantic undertaking, of connecting l\lontn:al 
with Toronto and the tm\ n<, of the" e"tcrn pcninsula. The fir
t of the
e enterprises was knO\\ n as the Ontario, Simcoe & 


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'
 TIlE RAIL 11: I r ER./, .IXD THE J.E,Vl.-L\' R.llDS. 


Huron Railway, afterwards and for long called" the Northern."' This road was "completed and opened to \urora in :\Iay, 
18 53. and to Collingwood in 1855, in which year also I"oronto ohtained direct railway communication \\ ith Hamilton, hy tht: 
Toronto .\: Hamilton (or more familiarly, the' (;reat \\'estern '), and with :\Iontreal hy the (;r.md Trunk. The latter line was 
later on extended west\\ard to Cudph, and soon after to S.unia, -, The "Creat \\'estern " road \\as also carried through to the 

iagara Ri\-er, in the East, and to \\Indsor and the St. Clair River, in the "'cst. (;reat \\ as the henefit to Toronto of these 
roads, for they laid deep the foundations of the commercial fahric which now arose in the capital, and furnished to the to\\ ns of 
the PrO\'ince a centr.!l emporium for trade. To the commercial development of the city. Reciprocity with the l7nited State". 
which had heen secured during Lord Elgin's regime, was very helpful; and Toronto and the Province were also to gain much 
hy the Ci\'il \\'ar which hroke out in 1861 in the neighhouring Repuhlic, calamitous as was that e\-ent to tho"e unhappily 
engaged in the strife, 
\\Ith the political devclopments in C pper Canada, from the period of the Rehellion, the annalist of Toronto has not 
much to do, s.'1\'e to record something of the general mO\'ements in the then United Province", in \\hich the city took p,lrt, or 
by \\ hich it was in some degree aided. Of these movements, two \\t:re to he distinctly helpful to Toronto, namely, the 
founding of a system of Common School educa- 
tion, \\ ith its higher extensions, in the way of 
(;rammar or High Schools, le.lding up to the 
Unin:rsity, and the creation of the municipal 
system of local gO\'ernment in rities, to\\ ns and 
villages, with pO\\er to levy taxes for local im- 
pro\ ements, to pro\- ide the ma('hinery and pay 
the co"t of local administration, The city was 
\
#(,. 
also more or less aided hy the Parliamentary 
appropriations of the period fur the extension 
of the canal system of the Province, the con- 
struction of coloni,ration roads, the huilding of 
puhlic works, and the annual dishursements for 
the encouragement of immigration. ,\nother 
gain of the time, from which Toronto and the 
country gencrally henefitcd, was the granting hy 
the l\Iother I and of Commercial Freedom to 
the Colony, and the opening of her ports, un- 
taxed, to its lumher, grain and other products 
of trade. 
In the Canadian Parliament, party had 
still its hurning questions to fight over, and 
keen and hitter \\as the strife and great the 
social agitation and discord. On the death of 
Lord Sydenham. came the hrief administration 
of Sir Charles Hagut, followed, in 1 R-t-3, by that 
of Sir Charles (afterwards Lord) :\Ietralfe. In 
assuming the (;Q\'ernor -(;eneralshi[J, :\Ietcalfe 
soon hdrayed the fact that he looked \\ ith dis- 
fa\'oUf upon Responsihle (;overnment, and that 
in the distrihution of patronage and appoint- 
ment to office he rigidly upheld the prerogative 
of the Crown, This attitude, with which the 
Draper Tory (;overnment \\as identified, was a 
retrograde step unpalatahle to Reform and to the I.iheral element in the country. FortUl1.ltely the régimc did not last long, 
fur, in 18 47, :\Ietcalfe withdrew in ill-health to England, and he was succeeded in office h) I.ord Elgin, a "on-in-Ia\\ of the 
Earl of I )urham, The administration of this statesman is marked hy the full development of Responsihle (;overnment, for 
his policy \\as not only conciliatory, hut it led him to pay deference to the wishes of th", (I",ople, a" e\pres"ed h) their 
I'arli.unentary representatives, and to guide himself by tbe counsels of thos", unly \\ ho enjoyed their confidence. His 
régime W.IS unfortunately marred hy factious opposition in Parliament. which then met at l\luntre.tl, and \\.IS the scenc of 
fren/ied riots alld incendiarism, and by much wild agitation in huth I'rminces, This arose oYer the passing, hya Reform 
. \dministration then in power, of the Rehellion Losses \Jill, a measure which authorited the (;on:rnment to raise 
L, 100,000 to indemnify I o\\er Canadians for their losses in 1837, hut \\hich was opposed hy the I'uries, on the ground th.lt 
the claims were preferred hy and the compensation was to be p.tid to "rehels," Not\\ithstanding this contention, the Bill 
passed, though it cost the country the loss of the Parliament Buildings, \\ hich the :\Iontreal ma\contems g.lye to the flames, and 
for a time !iuhjected I.ord Elgin, though unf,!irl), to public odium. Time, ho\\ ever, allayed the excilement, and Toronto once 


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Sr. j,UIES' S'}UAla; l'I<E"IIY rERIAN ClIlJI{CIl A!\IJ TilE COLLE(;
 OF PHARMACY. 



more hecame the seat of CO\ernment, though until OUa\\a \\a
 named hy Her :\Iajesty as the permanent capital, the city had 
to 
hare 1\ ith ()uehec the honour of housing the United Parliament. \\ ithin its halls, the last great question which agitated the 
countn', pre\ ious to the dehates which heralded Confederation, \\ as that of Representation hy Population. This measure was 
one \\ hich sought to increase the numher of C pper Canadians in the, \ssemhly so as to correspond \\ ith the increased popuJa- 
til'n in the Cpper I'rO\ ince The Reform \\as initi.ltec\ and accomplished hy the persistent efforts of :\1 r. (;eorge BrO\\ n, in a 
Parliament \\ hose chief no\\ \\as :\Ir. John .\, :\lanlonald, a name henceforth to he distinguished in the higher political life of 
the \OUllg nation. In ISS6. it is \\ortl1\" of note. the electi\e principle was applied to the I egislati\e Council, a reform which 
changed that formerl) ('ro\\ n-nominated hody into an electi\'C one, on the death of the then Crown-appointed meml>l.'rs. Two 
) ears pre\ioush', another di"turhing question had heen set at re<;t, hy the secul.ui/ation of the Clergy Resen'es. In 18S-1-, I.ord 
Elgin resigned the (;O\'Crnor-( ;eneralship. and was succeeded in the following ) car hy Sir Edmund \\"all,er Head. Si"\ years 
later, Sir Edmund surrendered the reins of (;(wernment to his "lJ('Cessor, Lord :\Ionck. 
I Juring Sir Edmund He.ld's occup.lI1cy of office. Toronto had the honour of entertaining the Prince of \\'ales, then on a 
tour through Canada. This nota hIe e\'Cnt o('('urred in the }ear 1860. when His Ro}al Highness was in his nineteenth year. 
.\('companied hy the I )ukc 
". of 1\ewcastle, Colonial Sec- 
retary, and a hrilliant suite, 
the Prince m:tde his State 
entry into the city, which 
had decked itself in gar, 
geous array to do honour 
to the occasion. N"ever did 
the (.Jueen City of the \\'est 
present a hrighter sIJectacle 
or sho\\ a more feT\'id 
loyalty. For fiw days, To- 
ronto ga\ e it<;df up to the 
delirium of enthusiasm, and 
the citiæns \ ied \\ ith each 
other in decking the town 
l\Îth hunting and, at night- 
" fall, in making the streets 
ahla/e with illuminations, 
Few who sa\\ the greeting 
at the landing-place, in the 
immense amphitheatre, 
temporarily erected at the 
foot of John Street, will 
forget the gar scene. Xor, 
J{FSII>EXCE OF 
I R. WIIIIA \1 CHRISTIE, QII EFI"S PARK. to all appearancc, was the 
Princc himself indifferent to the passionate enthusiasm \\ hich ga\'e welcome to Britain's heir apparent and Yictoria's eldest son, 
I n sharp contrast, unhappily, to this SCene of gladness and festi\Îty, was another gathering of the populace on Toronto's 
water-front six \"ears aften\ards. On that occasion the scene was one of weeping and \\ailing. The e\ening was that of 
Sunday, the 3rd of June, 18ó6. when the steamer, the Cl
J' /if 7ì'rOl//tJ, hrought haek to their homes the dead and \\uunded from 
the field of Ridge\\ay, \\ hich had witnessed the hrave deed of a handful of Canadi.lI1 \' ulunteers defending their country's soil 
from the desecrating imasion of a hand of Fenian maraullers, Two days hefore, these y(mthful patriots, members of the 
gallant cit) corps, the <)ucen's (h\l1 Rifks. had gone forth in the jO\ and lustiness of life, Sow they \\ere being received by 
their an"\iou<; or hereaved relatives and a whole cit) ful of people, \\ ho, with a common almost a di\ ine impulse, had 
g.lthered to do honour to thc memory of the fallen, and \\ ith a touching sympathy, eagerly sought to tend the stricken and the 
\\ounded. Scarccl\ Ie"s impres"ive was the mournful pageant, a few days afte\\ards, which wound its W.1Y through the streets 
of the cit\', mid the sorrow-stricken and re\'erent multitude, to the tomh. Thc suhject is too painful to linger OVer; hut it has 
it<; bright side, in the e\'Ïdence it furnishes that, sneered at as sentiment and patriotism may be, they arc ne\'erthcless active 
principles in the hreasts of Toronto's "ons and in the common heart of the youth of Canada, impelling them, in the hour of 
need, to be true to their manhood, and loyal and un
elfish in the sen ice they offer and render to thcir country. 


38 


THE C\10.\', THE RAIL T1'A} EN.!, ,-lXD TIfE foEXfAX RAInS. 


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COXFEDER.l TIOJ.V A.VD CIJ7IC EAP.-LVSI01\
 


39 


CHAPTER X. 


COXFEI>ER.\TIOX ANI> CInc EXP-\Jl.iSIOK. 


I>O\II'\IO
 Ihv ,\XII THF CH....X(;F IT CSH"'REIJ I
. LIBER \TIO'\" FRO\! THE POI.ITIC-\L I>F,-\DlOC..... THF CO'\"FFDER-\TlOX 
SCHE\I.... hlPORT \:-"CE OF (h T \RIO 1"1 I' HI'; C '\"IOX. - TORO;\!TO B...CO:\IES THE PRO" IXC!.\!. C \PIT \1 (;....IX
 OF rHF 
L\;;T T\IT'\" IV YE \RS. THE CITV" S IRWFS DI POPl'L\TlON A;IID RE-\I TY. ST,\TISTICS OF ITS CO\I \!FRCL\L I }f'VF!.OP- 
\II"'\" L I h' nFS OF rHE ('I nZF"I, AXI> I )FPF
I>I
G RFSULT
 OF CH \R....CTER IX ITS 1'1'lH.IC l\IEX. TORONTO'
 CHIFF 
:\L\(;(,;TR \l'ES SI'\"CE rHE CITY'S I;\'CORPOR \TIO;\!. 


'.:Ø':'
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::ir/ .;>) 

 N I HE 1St day of July, 1867, a change took place in the political system which had hitherto 

 
'

9 
 e'l.isted among the several Provinces of British Korth America, This came about, 

..;.:i:1 
 primarily, as the result of a deadlock in the two Canadas, in the Parliament of \\ hich 
'-= 
/lJ .\
".. I ' I ' I II L I ' d d I h ' " 

 · . egis atlon lal ong een 1111 ere JY t e stnfe of partIes, neIther of II hom could nOli 
-';', , command a sufficient majority to enable it efficiently to administer affairs. But union 
J was already in the air; for at the period the :\Iaritime Provinces contemplated a closer 

 
 '
;'f;o. 
 alliance al
long themselves. while r
aso
, as well as ,exp,ediency, su
gested th,at in t,he 

\. ,,..- broader lIght of a new day. and 111 vIew of complIcatIons that nnght possIbly anse 


. betlleen the :\Iother Country and the neighhouring Republic, as the out'come of the \\'ar 
of Secession. there should be a union of a more comprehensive kind among all the 
British communities of the Continent. This eminently sane and patriotic project, which, 
it will be remembered, was mooted by T .ord I )urham, had for some years been before the minds of the leading Canadian 
politicians, and by a fell of them had been discussed with British statesmen, From the first, the l\lother Country looked 
f.wourably on the scheme, for she saw her possessions in the N"ew \\ arid hecoming more hopelessly distracted by party conflicts 
and other internal dissensions, and without any bright outlook or bond of union, save that which English son
reignty in common 
supplied. \\Ïseh', therefore, she deemed the measure one Ilhich she could heartily enf'ourage, though the proposal, she properly 
conduded. must originate with the Colonies and not with the Crown. I ncreasing differences of race and interest in the 
Parliament of the old Canada,> at last precipitated a crisis, and brought Ilhat had heretofore been hut a vague idea into the 
arena of practical politics. "\t the period there Ilere seven distinct Colonies in British _\merica, owning allegiance to Britain, 
each if we e'l.cept the two Canadas ha\'ing its own political system and separate (;O\'ermnent. These were the Pro\ inces 
of Nova Scotia, Kew Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the t\\O Canadas, and the Crolln Colonies of Xewfoundland and 
British Columbia. The proposal was to fed- 
erate these, under a general (;overnment, 
with a suhordinate I.egislature in each I'rO\'- 
ince, h.lving jurisdiction over its own local 
affairs, The project continuing to engage 
the attention of Canadian statesmen, a con- 
\'ention of representatives from the various 
PrO\ inces met in I 86-l, first at rharlotte 
to\\n, r.E.I.. and then at Quebec, to discuss 
the feasibility of the scheme, and finally to 
arrange the terms of the contemplated union. 
In the following year, the Canadian Legisla- 
ture adopted the Cnion Resolution'>, which 
by this time, as we have said, had received 
the hearty support of the I mperial authorities; 
and the next move was a meeting of Pro- 
vincial delegates in I.ondon to arrange with 
the Home (;o\'ernment a formal basis of 
union. The delegates from Nellfoundland 
withdrew from the scheme. The final result 
was the passing in the Imperial Parliament 
of the British North .\merica . \ct, and the 
ratifying of the Confederation proposals. The 



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RFSII>ENCE OF DR. G, S, R\'F""Û:o., COLLF(;E 
rRf.Fr. 



40 


CO '-FEDERATIOX .IXD CINC E\PAX5iIOX 


lnion cmbraced, as all our readers knO\\. the four PrO\ inccs of Xo\'a Scotia, 
ew Brunswick, and l'pper and T .Ower Canada, 
under the desi
nation of the I )ommlOn of Canada. The namc of l'ppcr Canada wa,; ch:mgnl to Ontario, and th.lt of lower 
('anada to (
uebec, Pro\ \sion \\as at the same time made for the admission of olher I'rO\ inces, which might desire to come 
into the L'nion. .\rrangements \\ere suhsequently made fur the acquirelllent by purchase of the Hudson's B.l
 Company's 
interests in the \ast region of the 
orth-\rest, and for the construction of an Intercolonial Railway, connecting the \Iaritime 
Provinces \\ith the t\\O l'.macl.ls. I onl Monck became the first (;O\ernor-(;eneral of the I>ominion, while I ieutenant-( ;o\"efl1ors 
\\ ere appointed to the several PrO\ inces. Elections were at once held under the new constitution, and the first Dominion 
Parliament met. in 1X67, at Otta\\a, now the permanent scat of (;overnment, Sir Juhn .\. :\Iacdonald heing Premier. 
\\ e sh.lll but complete thc political summary. if \\e chronicle the fact that, in 11)71. TIritish Columbia entered Confedera- 
tion. though shc stipulated in doing so that it he connected \\ ith the East by a railwav across the ('ontinent. .\fter \"arious 
mis.1lhentures of a pulitical kind. which we need not here go into, this great undertaking was completed, in 1886, to \'ancou\"er 
.1Ild the se.I, and the P.lCific I'rO\ ince, with its \'ast resources. was thus hrought within eas}' reach of the older settlements. In 
d
ïo, \Ianitoba \\.IS carved out of the :-Jorth-\\'est ; and three )ears later, Prince Edward Island completed the chain, from 
on'an to ocean, of the Confederated British Colonies h) entering the I )ominion. 
In thio; :'\'orthern Empire of Britain, on the .\merican Continent, the PrO\ince of Ontario holds the chief place, and 
Toronto, its capital, h.IS a high and unchallenged share in its prestige and honours, It is perhaps not an exagJ.!eration to sa) 




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1I0R nCUl.fU RAI. GARDEJ"S A"'II !'A\"IL!O'" 


that Toronto has had much to do in making, at once, the Province and the I )ominion. From her loins have gone forth not a 
little of the brain and mu
cle \\ hi,'h have entered into both and contributed to their stability and greatness. So far as local 
gO\ernment is concerned, Confederation has conferred a boon upon both the capital and the PrO\ince. It has taken from 
Toronto some political importance, hut it has given it peace, and removcd from it the chief cock-pit of party estrangement and 
strife. That has gone to the other end of the Prmince, and ours to-day is the happiest of all histories, Only the ghosts of old 
factions now 
talk in our legislative halls, though we sometimes seek to reanimate them \\ ith the evil spirit of the past. But we 
haH" something better to do than this, On our people devohes the care of half a continent, \\hose resources arc illimitable, 
whose capahilities are untold. Ours is a noble heritage. In population, if \\t: have not as yet the numhers which betoken 
progress, \\e have a country \ast and productive enough to rear numhers, ]n our :\'orth-\\'ðt \\e have a belt of land which 
could proÙde sustenance, \\ ith plent}, for thirty or forty millions, ]n Ontario alone, t\\ ice the pre<;ent population of the 
\\ hole r )ominion could he comfortably housed and fed. 
\\ïth such a past and present, if \\c are hut true to ourselves, who can despair of what the future \\ ill bring? The past 
t\\ent)' year
' progre
" of Toronto is in itself sufficient to dispel all doubts, The de\elopment of the "ity is but a refte" of the 
de\ clopment of the nation as a whole, If thi
 i<; challenged, let the questioner look abroad, and if he has known what 
the countr} \\a<; a generation ago, he will, if a candid man, be convinced. 
or has the progress alone been malerial. Besides 
the ad\ance in \\ealth, and all that \\ealth has hrought in its tr.iÎn, there has been a steady rise in the moral and intellectual 



CO '"FEDER. 1 TIO
V AXD CI1'IC EXr.lX.\YOX 


-1] 


status of the people. The gain in thi,., direction is perhaps not all that we could wish it to have been, but the progress has 
been Uln,.ud : and the ascent has not been that of a class, but of the people as a whole, In our national outlook, there is not 
a little still to perple'l. and be" ilder: but there is also much to encourage and inspire. 
()nh optimistic can be the obsener of the recent growth of Toronto. Since Confederation. its strides in population 
and realt) out\ie e\-en the mushroom growth of the typical "'estern city, In 1867. the population was under 5 0 ,000, 
anù the re.llt) 20 million; to-day the population is in the neighbourhood of 200,000, while the realtr e'l.ceed
 a r 35 millions 
 
It is said that on one of our streets Toronto Street though only a hlock in length, the realty and persona It) are a,.,,.,es,.,ed, 
in round numbers, at one million dollars. The imports of the city, within the period, show a like man-ellous ad\ance. 
In 1867. the amount "as a trifle O\er se\en millions; in 1889, they approached twenty millions. Facts ,.,uch a,., these speak 
\-olumes, "'hen we consider not only this amaLing increase, in population and in the \alue of the city's ratable property, 
but the e\Îdences on all sides of solid prosperity and substantial comfort, and e\'en lu'l.ury, "e may \-enture to picture the 
['oronto of the coming time as a pI.lce of phenomenal importance, and wielding great influence m-er the:destinies of the 
country, :\Iuch in this respect will of course depend on 
the character of ib puhlic men, the repute and puhlic 
spirit of its citiæns. and the manner in "hich its aff.lirs 
are administered. Patrioti,.,m requires that a man shall 
work for his countr) and fellowmen as he "orks for 
himself. Self-seeking and the building up of the indi- 
\-idual at the e'l.pense of e\ ery other intere,.,t has heen 
too often the rule, and ci\-ic life has thus been depri\'ed 
of its animating principle, and the puhlic "eal has heen 
left to shift for itself. Cities, like nations, it should he 
rememhered, are Ii\ ing and gro" ing or atrophied and 
(h ing organisms; and the indi\'idual citi/en h.1S a pro- 
portionate interest in the life and prosperit), and a 
corresponding responsihilit) for the deca) and retrogres- 
sion. of the cit) "hich he makes his hahitatioil and finds 
his daih' hread. 
()f interest in any historical retrospect of Toronto's 
annals must he the list of her chief n1.lgistrates. There 
ha\e heen, in all, t"ent\-si'l. men "ho ha\-e filled the 
ci\"Îc chair since the cit)'s incorporation in r 83-l. Of 
the numher, most of them ha \-e heen her 0" n sons and 
sonw of them her best blood, 
 ot a few ha\-e sen ed 
her interests so well, that they ha\e enjo)ed a second. 
and e\'en a third, term. In the early day,." "hen the 
incumhent of office was elected hy the Council rather 
than by the people, some mayors have even done better 
than a third term. rhe list is full of intere
t for another reason. It marks out not only the men who have had the distinction 
of a high office conferred upon them, hut identifies with successive periods in the life of the city those" ho ha\ e heen 
instrumental in lahoriously and faithfully sen ing her. "" e append the list :- 


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RESIIJF,"CE OF :\IR. CHARI.FS RIORDAN, (
UEEX'S PARK, 


\1 \\ ORS OF TaRo;\; 10 SIXlÏ II s I '\l"ORT'OR \1'10"1. 


1 83-l' \rm. I.)on :\Iacken/ie, 
18 35. Hon. R, B, Sulli\.an, Q.l'. 
11)36, Thos. D. :\Iorrison, I\LD. 
183ï. Ceorge (;urnett. 
1838 39--l0. John Powell. 
I 8-l I. George:\1 onro. 
18-l2 -l3 '-l-l, Hon. Henry Sherwood, Q.c. 
18-lS--l6--l7, "OIn. Henrv Boulton. 
18-l8 -l9 - 50. George (;urndt. 
185 I 52- 53, John Ceo, Bowes, 
185-l. Joshua (;, Beard. 
18 55. Hon. Geo. \\'. 
-\l1an, D.C.L. 
1856. Hon, .I no. Bewrley Rohinson. 
1857. John Hutchison. 
1858, \\'m. Henry Boulton. 
1858, n. Breckenridge Read, Q.C. 


r 859 60. Hon. (Sir) ,\dam "ïlson, <-"C. 
J no. Carr. President of Council. 
186. 62-ó3. John (;eo. Ikmes, 
d,6-l 65-66, Francis H, :\lcdcalf. 
1867 6K James E, Smith, 
1869 70, Samuel It Harman. 
187 I 72. Joseph Sheard, 
I 8ï 3, .\Ie'l.ander :\lanning. 
18H 75, Francis H, :\Iedcalf. 
11)76 77 78. Angus :\Iorrispn, 
1879-80. James Beaty, D,<'.I.., {),c. 
1881-82. "-m. B. :\1c:\lurrich, \1. \, 
1883 8-l' -\rthur R. Boswell. 
1885. Alexander :\Ianning. 
1886 87. ".m. H. Howland, 
1888-89 -90, r:dward F, CI.1rke. :\1.1'.1', 



4:! 


TilE TOROXTO OF TO-DA J: 


CHAPTER XI. 


THE rcWOXTO OF TO-D.\\', 


I'ORO"l1'O Co:-.rRblTlI \\lrH 
lo:nRr\L ,\"111 (21-
BEc.-Irs (;RO\\rH I>FSPITF \\-\R A;IIn C1\ïLE
lIIROlL\IENT. -ToRoi'i1'O 
\ BRIrhH \'\1. I'Ron:!--I'.\:-'T ell\. In, I:-.rII\"SrRI.\L .-\/I.'V Son \1 E\ou'no;ll. R \pln .\lI\'.-\I\CE l:-.r l'opUI..\TlON, 
Rr \I.n \'\"1' C'O\I\IERCI.\L 1\lpOR 1'.\ '\"CF. .\ r rR.\CTlO:-'" ,b ,-\ I'I,\CI': OF RFSII>EXCE. CH \RI\l OF THF ISLAND ,\NO 
H ua:OCR, B....u. n OF Irs Rn.":-'T .\RCHITFC rURE. - KFW BnLLJI,,(; E" rERpRlSES,- Pup,( IC DRIVES A;IIV P.\RKS. 


A ...,,-rr, , ! ( HE history of Toronto, as those \\ ho ha\-e followed us through these pages \\ ill have seen, 
'-f
 1/: I" is pretty much the history of the Province, of which it is now the imposing metropolis. 
, 1.j! , The two come necessarily into close, occasionally into perilous, and, considering the 

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 public weal. not infrequently into disadvantageous contact. Especially is this the case in 
1\ 
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;, ...-. , '. the early anù meùiæ\-al period of the city's career. \\ hen the Province was being rough- 
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::' r",-a.,--"t.;;., he\\n out of the \\ilderness and its affairs administered by an E:\ecuti\-e "ho"e whole 
if .4- ,:r.itl]. ...... C;,,! 
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on:rl1lnent wa" centred in Toronto, anù whose servants were not alwa ) 's 


 

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 I <b. " esting local history of its own, not, it is true, like that of (.!uehec or :\lontreal, full of the 
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 _.:-- 
 , striking and picturesque elements which helong to the French régime of old Canada, with 
'. . :.- 

 
 ,- - 
- - -, - - :---- --- the soldier and the priest within its walls, and nature and nature"s sa\'age without. It 
knew no feuùal state, though it had an autocracy which for a time ruled it, and fettered its development, as though its govern- 
ment werc that of the :\Iiddle .\ges. But while Toronto has neither the history that attaches, say, to Quehec, nor the position 
that ha<; given that city its fame, her past is hy no means lacking in incident, though her annals, since the stirring era 
of 1812 and the trouhlous times of 1837, are mainly those of peace. The rise of Toronto, however, though chiefly, has not 
heen \\ holly, due to the enterpri"e of civilians, or to the undisturhed pursuits of a time of peace, The rude nursings of war, 
,1:> we have seen, cradled the city's limhs into lu
ty life, In its early days, its population had a 1.lrge military infusion, while, 
later on, not a little of its grm\th shot up during a lengthened period of civil emhroilment. \re ha\e seen also, that at the time 
of its incorpuration a" a city. Toronto's framework was shaken in its socket hy political strife, while its municipal system was 
founded amid the noi"e of faction anù with the hitterness of party contention, \' et what was done then, thc people enjoy 
to-day. 
In contrast to the citie" on the St. I 
'lwrence, Toronto is a British and. in the main, a Protestant city. "HO\\ English is 
Toronto :., is the common rem.lrk of the visitor, whether he COmeS from the Mutherland itself or from the Repuhlic to the south 
of us, English speech and English ways are 
the characteristics of our people, In face 
,lIld figure, too, our population confess kin, 

hip with the :\Iotherland aeross the sea, and 
hetray customs, hahits, and institutions here 
faithfully reproduced. E\ en the nomencla- 
ture of our streets, though not the rectangular 
method in \\ hich they are laid out, speaks 
eloquentl) of the Old I.and, whence came 
the sturdy life that reclallned them from the 
wilderness. 
The indu"trial and social evolution of 
Toronto, e"pecially \\ ithin the last two dL- 
cacle", is 
o remarkable as to be almost 
\\ ithout a parallel in the history of the com- 
munitie" of the :\"e\\" \\'orld, It is so grati- 
f) ing a circUlmtance that its people may well 
point to it with pride, \ \ hen it roo;e to the 
dignity of a ,it), its actual population was 
preci"e1y 9,2 5-l o;ouls; ten years I.Her, thc 
I'opul.uion had douhled; in another ten years, 
that again had douhled. In 1880, the popu- 
lation, including the suburhs, had risen to a 
100,000: to.day, as we kno\\, it is 200,000 ! 
rhe \aluc of .Issessahle property, within the 



 
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DU.R R
SnJE:<;CF. OF :\IR. JOIlS lIALLA
I. 



THE TORO-,-\70 OF TO-D.l J: 


43 


corporation, has also, of reccnt years especially, risen hy leaps and hounds. In 1879, the total realty was 50 millions: last year it 
ro
e to 1 3 6 million
! \\ïthin the same period, though the rate of taxation had been reduced from 1 ï!
 to 1 {'.! mills, the annual 
municipal as
esslllent had douhled, In I8ï9, the revcnue derived from taxation was, in round numhers, $900,000; last year 
( 188 9), it had riscn to mer $2,000,000! The city's 
trides in population and ta"\able wealth are matched by the grO\\Ìh of 
its domestic trade, as well a:< by thc increase of the volume of ih foreign imports and exports, High also is the status to which 
Toronto has risen as the great mart and distrihuting centre of industry and commerce. To it, the rich Prm ince of Ontario, 
\\ith not a little of the great Xorth-\\'cst, is tributary. It has hecome a vast commercial emporium, a great railway and shipping 
centre, the literary' hub' of the Dominion, the }'Iecca of tourists, an Episcopal and .\rchiepiscopal See, and the ecclesiastical 
headquarters of numerous denominations, the seat of the I a\\ Courts, the Provincial Legislature, the Uni\'ersities, Colleges and 
great schoob of learning. In addition to all these it has hecome a most attractivc place of residence. 
The charm of Toronto, 111 this latter respect, i
 great. and each year adds to its attractions. The shaded streets, the 
park,;. the dri\'es; the cool hreeæs from the lake, with a pull to the Humher; the ferry p.lssage to the Island, or to the many 
accessihle resorts on the water-front e"\tending east and \\ est of the ('it} : yachting on the lake, an afternoon trip to 1'\iagara, 


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TOR ON 1'0 GENI<.RAL HOSI'I L\L, GERRARD STRH I' EAST. 


( " I H ' I St ( ' th 
 I ' ll .. or a rUll UI> ()\ ' er Sunda y ' to the :\Iuskoka I ahes and the (;eorgian B:n', makc a 
ulllmer 
,runs )\' ami ton or . a "r e", , ..' , '. . 
residen

 in the I'rO\ incÎal metropolis a joy and delight. 
 or are the means of pa
sing the winter enjo) ablv and IIlstructl
 ely- 
\\ith access to libraries, museums and art-galleries, besi(les the attractions of lectures. concerts, operas, etc. Ic,ss plea
lIlg or 
ahundant. K or should the attractions of the ., Fair" time, for a fortnight each autumn, he forgotten, durmg 1\ hleh the 
Industrial Exhibition Association lays e\'ery acti\ ity under trihute, not only to present the visitor \\ itl
 a pleasing an,d instructi\'e 
spectacle, hut to foster the agricultural and manufacturing industries of the Province, to afford c\'ldenee of their mane\lous 
"rowth and to display the manual achievements or the natural products of the year. ,. . 
'" '...' . h I ' I ' t f th ' t the ' I ' orollto of t o-d'l } ' owcs an } .thin'T to it
 natural position. In this respect It IS 
nelt er t le oron 0 0 e pas nor .' . to .. . ' 
unlike :\Iontreal, <,!ucbec, or even Ottawa; it is no city 
ct upon a hill. Its one glory IS 
b harhour, whH"h IS not only, l
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1 
I t I ' f I ' I ' h ' , b " , re ' n " d I ' rolll the l a ke b } ' a fine island fender, a delightful summer resort of the clt17cns, 
JU )eautl u , IS spacIOus aSIl1 IS sc C 
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on which may be seen numherless picturesque cottages, \\hile on the h.1Y thsport e\'ery speCies of S:llhng, steaml
lg a,lHI ro\\lng 
craft. The city itself lies on a flat pJain, \\ ith a rising indin.ltion to the northw.lrd. It CO\'crs an arca fivc mlks III hre.ldth 



(i.c. p.lr.ll1d I\ith the lake) hv three miles in depth (i,(', 1\. and S.. or running back from the w::lter-front). Bevond the \Ihaf\'es, 
ri"ing up from the ha\, are tllfee hundred miles of hranching "treets. \\ hich intersect each other, generally 'at right angles, 
.1Ild in \\ hich "Ii\ e. mo\ e and ha\ e their heing" two hundred thuusand souls, The chief streets de\ oted to retail husiness are 
h.ing and (2ueen. running parallel \\ ith the bay and a fell hlocks nurth of it, and Yonge Street, clea\Îng the city in t\\ain and 
e'l.tendin
 to it
 northern limits and be}ond them. The area of the business portion of the city occupied hy the large \\holesale 
hmb ,the hanks, financial institutions, loan and insurance companies, the (;0\ ernment and :\1 unicipal Offices, etc., may he 
imlicah:d a... that bct\leen Front and the Esplanade and .\dclaide Street, and het\\l:en York Street and the Market. The 
n:"idential part of the city lies chiefl) to the north and 1\ est of the husiness sectIon. ::Ind is \\ ell set off and ornamented by neat 
\Î11.1<; and ro\I" of detached or semi-detached houses, \Iith boule\"ards, l.ll\nS and fine shade trees, \\ hat the city lacks in 
picturesqueness of "ituation is well atoned 
for in the evidences that e\"erywhere meet 
the eyc of cultivated æ"thetic ta"te. Thi:> 
finds e'l.pre
sion in the pleasing rc\"i\"al of old 
English architecture in, the nuny handsome 
\ illas, churches and public buildings of the 
city. Nor is this taste less apparent in the 
mammoth stores and I\arehouses of com- 
merce, the hanks, insurance and financial 
establishments, which ha\'e heen erected in 
recent years and \\ hich have been largely 
brought \1 ithin the sphere of art. \\"e have 
now less flimsy sheet-iron or wood ornamen- 
tation. and more of decorati\T \Iork in stone. 
Indi\ iduality is as"erting itsdf. also. in the 
designs of man} of the stred fronts. which, 
though they afford little room for the more 
amhitious comhinations of the architect. 
present sufficient scope for the display of 
taste and the a\'oidance of weary repetition. 
Colour, especi.ll1y in stone, is heing effectivel) 
introduced and adds much to the grace and 
cheerfulness of the new e'l.teriors. This is 
particularly to he noticed in the many hand- 
o;ome recent churches. .\rchitecturally speak 
ing, Toronto has of recent years put on a 
new face. and it is the face of comeliness 
and heauty. 
The acti\ ities of the past fe\\ years 
arc happy augurs of the acti\ ities of the 
_ . future. From what Toronto is, we may judge 
what Toronto \1 ill he("()\l1e. \ t pre"cnt there 
- 
arc vast huilding enterprises under Ilay, II hich 
soon will add immensely to the artistic hcaut}" 
ao; well as to the suhstanti.ll wealth of the 
city. \\ e ha\'e just seen completed the 
new and imposing offices of the Canada l.ife 
\"...urance Co., the suh<;tantial hanking house of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, and the artistic home of the Bu.ud of 
Tr.lde. Be...ides the...e, i... in course of erection the splendid pile of the Confederation Life Insurance ('0" with other huge 
financial and mercantile edifices. .\nother great hotel huilding \Ie helieve is soon to go up, and ere long we may look for 
the ri.,ing of the new Cit) Hall and Court House, The fine Parliament Buildings are now taking form and shape, and the ne\1 
homt of Cpper Canada College is about completed. \\ïth these and other new architectural achievements, including a 
resurrected University, and a new home for the denominational uses of Victoria College, Toronto's outlook is bright for the 
increa...ed decking of herself in the early coming years. The prospect is enhanced in atlracti\"encss hy the promise of additions 
and imprO\emcnh to the city's public IKlrb and drives, 


-U 


THE TOROXTO OF TO-DA J: 


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.'.;QJEE .1.\'PECTS OF THE JEODER.LY CIT}: 


CHAPTE R .xl J. 


SO:\IE \SI'ECTS OF THE :\[()I>ERN CITY. 


.\ RLrROSl'f.cr. THE ('In OF '1'0-1'-\\ CONIR,-\SrFD WITH THE CITY OF A GFI'I:R,\TIO"l Af;O.- TORONTO'S 1..\:-1 II:\L\ R....S, 
()LV ANII :-';1 W. HFR EARl y CHI'RCH EIIIFlCES \:\ID THEIR l\IODFR:-I Cox rR,\STS,- THE NI'\\' ARCHIrECTUR.\L 
ER \.- hII'RO\ I'D PCBI.lC BUll L>I"I(;S .\1'11 I;o.;CRF.\SED SCHOOL ,\cco:\nIOl>.\ nON, - THE CI n '5 .\I>OR:-I\IE:\IT.- 
l'RO(;RF,.,,., IN HER SOCI \1, I'HII,\XTHROI'IC, \1\1' INIIu:-rRI \1. LIFE. -THF Clnc .\L>:\I1:\1ISTR-\TIO:-l A:-il> ['HE 
:\ICI'IClP\T. OF!:r. 


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,; H ERE can be few hetter ways of illustrating the progress of Toronto or of marking thc 
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sing, years h:l\e 
\Tought, than to turn th
 eye of memory hac
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n some aspects o,f the 
Ity a generation ago. Most of us 1,Iv,e I
owada):s so hurned a 

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 have httle. lelsu.r
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;\ and nCIssltude, to wl1lch cities as well as human e:-'lstenCe are suhJcct, are 111 the mall1 
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- lost upun us, But it is well now and then to take a look hackward, that we may corrcct 
, - !C any tendenc) to despond or he influenced hy the luguhrious pessimism of the age, 
either \\ ith regard to our material or our intellectu.11 and social advancement. The old resident who recollects the city of "the 
fifties" and knows the city of to,day will, if his heart he right, appreciate what the years have done for Toronto during the 
inten'aI. The pre"ent writer can well rememher his 0\\ n impressions of the place when he first camc, a youth of ninetcen, 
to the city in the .mtumn of 1858. The 
treet railw.lY was not yel in operation; nor had we those useful adjuncts of our 
modern ci\ iliL.ltion telephones, coupes, and the electric light. The opera houses and art galleries, which we havc to-day, 
were not then huilt; nor had \\e many of the puhlic resorts, parks and drives, or thc myriad island ferries which the later- 
day resident re\e1s in. Concerts and puhlic meetings had then no pa\'ilion or mammoth rink for the comfortahle housing of 
nightly multitudes. The hest edifices we then had for puhlic lectures and entertainments were the St. Lawrence Hall, on I--:.ing 
Street East, and the :\1 usic H.III, on Church, over tht. present Puhlic Lihrary. In the former, we first heard Thomas I )',\rcy 
:\Ic(
ee, <. 'al1.lda's silver-tongued orator, who hy the way on that occ.lsion could not get heyond the exordium of his e'l.tempor- 
i/ed address, ha\ing dined that evening" not wisely but too \\ell." Our memorie!-o of the latter arc connected with \'andenhoff, 
the elocutionist, Ch.lrle
 Kingsley, the Rev, I>r. :\IcCaul, his snuff,ho'l. and red pocket handkerchief, and l\lrs. John Beverley 
Rohin
on and her dosing function, the singing, with thrilling fen'our, of the National .\nthem. For 
sm.lller gatherings, there was.a Hall on Temperance Street, in which we remember to have heard Emerson 
lecture, amI also the Ropl Lyceum on King Street \\ est. in the immediate pro:-.imity of the Romain 
Buildings, but a little south of the street. Here we used fre(!uently to spend an e\ening enjoying the lyric 
drama, m. rendered by the Holman Sisters, or delighting oursdn;!> with the personations in light comedy 
of Charlotte Kiekinson, hetter knO\\n tu a later generation .IS Mrs. l\Iorrison. 
The passenger station at 1\ hich we landed 
was an open, and some\\ hat !-otraggling, one, of 
very modest pretensions; for the (;rand Trunk had 
not long heen in operation and that road and the 
(;re.lt \\'estern ha(l, overlooking the b.IY, a sort of 
11.1\ ,ide terminus in common. Two landmarks 
there \\ ere on the I :spl.made, at either end of the 
tl)\\ n, \\ hich \\ ere among the first ohjects to strike 
our e)e on arn\lI1g. I'hese \\ere the old \\ indmill 
and County Jail, on the East, and on the \rest, 
the' ne\1 ' l'r)stal \'.1 lace, or I'rmincial E'l.hibition 
Building, a glittering edifice built on the line!> and 
.lfter the !-ot) Ie of Its great I.ondon protot\ pe in 
H)de Park, The dingy old P.lrli.ul1ent Buildings, 
"'AH..NoTD..... 
\\e remember, \\ere an attraction to us, more how- 
e\ er for historic than for æsthetic reasons, The 
ga)est thing \\e can recall ahout them was seeing 
the Ro)al Standard, on the occasion of the \ isit of the Prince of \\ ales, fluttering over the pile, though the whole was dominated 
b) the loft) .md spaciou!> drill-!>hed adjoining. .\s an old officer of the militia force, we h.l\'C proud memories of that great 
drill-shed, in connLction \\ith our \olunteering da)s, during the e'l.citing era of the Fenian Raids. It has long since been 
dcnlOlj
hcd, ib immen., roof hm ing f..lllen in \1 ith the aCl'umuJated burdell of a lOll/-( \\ inlt-r's SllmiS. 


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SO. lIE ASPECTS OF THE JIDDENIY CITY 


-tï 


Other landmarks, familiar to us in our early rambles through the city, have also disappeared. Of these we recall the old 
Globe Office, on King Street ""est, and the Leader and Colonist offices, on King Street East. Then there were the Registry 
Office, on Toronto Street, and, a little north of it, the .\dclaide Street l\lethodist Church, and round the corner, eastward. the 
church known as Old St. .\ndrew's. Three other sacred edifices have also passed out of sight. namely, Zion Church, at the 
corner of Bay and Adelaide, the Hay Street L: nited Presbyterian Church. and the old-fashioned structure, with its (;recian 
affectations, long used by the :\Iethodist body. on Richmond Street. The modern huildings that OCCUPY the sites of these old 
landmarks are emphatic reminders of the real ,Uld suhst.\I1tial progress of Toronto. The" then and now" present many curious 
contrasts, which one could pursue for pages without stint of matter. Perhaps the most striking of these is that which might he 
dra\\n hetween the imposing \\arehouse of \Iessrs. \\yld, (;rasett oS.. I Jarling, on Hay Street, amI the old Mercer cottage which 
it displaced, 
But not all of the old landmarks have been swept away: many yet remain and hold their heads high, In" the 
fifties:' a number of tasteful and suhstantial huildings \\ere erected, which do no discredit to-day to the architecture of the time. 
The prevailing fashion of that er,l was for the neat, and indeed elegant, Italian t} pc of public huildings. Of this type, or akin to 
it, are the :\Iasonic H.dl, Toronto Street, the Romain Buildings, King Street "'est, the St. Lawrence Hall, King Stt'eet East, 


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and the edifice now used by the Public Library, ()f the (;recian and I )oric orders, are the old Post Office (no\\ the Receiver- 
(;eneral's Office), Toronto Street, and the E'l.change Building (now the Imperial Rank), on \\'ellington Street. Belonging to 
the era of I\'hich we speak, there were then, as there arc still, a number of prominent public buildings, \\ hich \\ ere the" show 
places" of the period, and which to-day maintain their attractions, despite accident and the tooth of time. These arc the 
Uni\ersity, the ",onnal School and Education OffiCl:, Osgoode H.III, Trinity College, Cpper Canada College, and St. James' 
and St. Michael's Cathedrals. To these, the city has added in recent years an almost countless number of architectural 
attractions, chiefly in the way of churches, In the m.lÎn, the style of huilding has radically changed. Of the oJd orthodox 
t} pe of npensive church edifice with its tapering spire, which has gone out of fashion, Kno'l. (Presbyterian). (;ould Street 
(Catholic .\postolie), St. George's (.\nglican), and a few others, remain. The recent structures if not more solid, are more 
ornate and imposing. The number of them (now upwards of ISO) is a wonderful showing for a city like Toronto. Their 
beauty is in many instances remarkable, the denominations seemingly \ icing with each other as to which of them shall adorn 
the city \\ ith the most costly and attractive edifice. Many of the old ones are dear to us. in having survi\'ed decay, and resisted 
innovation and the march of improvement. .\mong Episcopal churches. we recall a few in the once-outlying parishes which 
time has \'enerated, \\ hile they retain their old lineaments. Of the numhcr are St, John's, St. Stephen's, St. Paul's, St. Peter's, 



t,-: 


SO lIE .-J."'PECTS OF TilE .I/ODERX eITJ: 


.md I iure Trinit\. rhough in the heart of the city. the Church of the Holy Trinity ha" also escaped change, while it has 
.ldded to ih associations with age and good \\orks, The other denominations can abo count their early out-post churches in 
('oronto. "ome of which howe\Tr ha\'e heen modcrni/ed or rehuilt, or ha\'e passed into the possession of other ecdesiastical 
hodie", In onL or t\\O instances, in the change of hands, the church huildings ha\'e hecome seculari/ed. [n the increase of 
dcnomin.ltion" and the multipl} ing of churches, we seem still a long \\'.lY from the unit} of ('hri"tcndom, though h.1ppily there 
.1rc signs in our da} that "peculati\ e dogma is hecoming of less, and practical morality of more, importance. In the long run, 
the result must he to hring the various chun-hes more dosely together. 
('he increase in the numher of school huildings in Toronto, and their substantial outfit and artistic adornment, arc further 

ratihing features in the city's recent career. .\ quarter of a century ago, if our memor} is not at fault, there \\ere not more 
than eight or nine city schools, besides the Provincial, Xormal and Model Schools, chiefly for professional training. To-day the 
numher has increa"ed to forty-eight, while most of the old ones have been rebuilt and enlarged. The school equipment has 
.1]SO greatl} improved, \\ hill' the character of the training has advanced, The city has also added to the number of its colleges 
.md scats of higher education for hoth se"es, In this and other ways, Toronto has added great]} to its attractions as a place 
of re"idence, particularly for those ha\ ing families to rear and educate, 
'" the e}e ranges O\er the immense area which recent years hm"e hrought within the city's cmhrace. onc notes also \\ ith 
pride the e\'idences of a higher ideal in the comfort and lU\ur} of li\ ing, :\'" ot only does the \"ast numher of elegant \'i]las and 
"emi-detached houses on our chief residential streets denote an increase of wealth and the enterpri"e horn uf its pos"e""ion, but 
it is an indication that \\e h.lve refined our taste in domestic .Irchitecture and heightened and heautified our manner of life, 
Thi" is also shO\\ n in the tasteful surround- 
ings of our homes and in the houlevarding 
and tree-planting of our !'.treds. The recog- 
nition of the need for puhlic parks and drin
s 
.Ihout the cit}. and \\hat we ha\e already 
.Ichie\ed in this direction, .Ire further pleasing 
features in Toronto's socia] alh'.lI1cement. 
'\01' in this enumeration must we overlook 
the additions \\hich phi].mthropy has of recent 
\ cars made to the number of hospitals, chari- 
tic" and other deemos} nary institutions in 
.111 parts of the city. The g.lin in this respect 
has heen large and gratifying. In these pro- 
flbe evidences of practical henevolence there 
is proof that the hearts of Toronto's citi/ens. 
\\ ith all their \\ calth, have not hardened. 
\\ hat is seen in the way of improve 
ment in Toronto'" domestic and socia] life 
has its counterpart in Toronto's manufactur- 
ing and business life, The dingy and cramped 
e"tah]ishments of other da\" have been re 
placed by those of spaciousne"s, loftiness and 
light. 1 f one wants to see the e\ idence of 
Ihis, let him look in at the mammoth \\are 
rooms of our merchant princes, at the no\\ 
hright and room\' fal,tories, at the palatial 
h.mking houses, and at the imposing offices 
of the great in"urance and loan companies 
and other home
 of indu"tr} and commerce. .\re there many places, obo;erves Toronto's venerable historiographer, where the 
multiform affairs of men arc carried on under conditions more fa\ourahJe, on the whole. to happiness, health, and length 
of day
? 
"ot less worthy of comment, as marks of the cit,,'s progress \\ ithin the past h\ 0 or three decades, is the c"telbion of the 
v.mou" agencies of the civic administration, and notah]y those of the Police Force and the Fire Brigade. The growth of recent 
\L.US of both of these departmenh is another indication of the city's de\"dopment: and the growth i" not more rcm.ukahle than 
i... the practical efficiency. \\ ith the enlargement of the municipal area. absorbing as it now docs the onee-out]ying suburhs uf 
Brockton, Parkdale, Seaton \ïllage, Y orkville, and Deer Park, there ha
 of neces"ity heen a considerahle addition to the city\ 
debt. But to,day the deht doe
 not exceed t\\ehe million" of dollar!'., and it is amplv covered by the value of the enlarged and 
improved city property. 
Iuch, of course, requires still to be done, and large sums ha\"e yet to be e"pended ere Toronto's city 
father!'. and the public generall} shall be content with the sanitary condition and the æsthctic appearance of the town, But 
what has been accomplished inspires confidence in \\hat will be accomplished, and gives assurance that Toronto will continue 
to add to her greatnL"" and to the material and moral enrichment of every phase of her ci\ ic life. 



 


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II>EXCE OF :\IR5. JOHN I{IORDAN, (2UH:N'S PARK. 



TORV
VTO, TOFOGR.-lFHIC.IL .-lXD DESCRIFTlI E 


49 


TOROXTO, TOPO(;R.\I'HIC.\L .\:-.;n IJESCRIPTIYE. 


CHAPTER X[ll. 


.\ R \\IBI I' Rot'" II '1'0\\ ,\", rORO'HO FRO\l THF H \RBOeR, THF ('I n ,\:0.;11 HO\\ TO SEE I r. 1'L \CFS OF Pn:J Ie 
1'1 FRF"'" THI' SI(;HT-SII'R"s I l1'\"I:R \RL THI" ('I n, \"'1 IT" CHL RCHFS ,\
/I E/lLC.\I'IO.\ \L \.\() O,./fI'R 1,,,,.,,'1" 
nu,,,. Irs I>RI\FS, (;\RI>I'....S, 1'\R...." \,,1> ('F\lFTFRIES, TORO
TO OYERIF\I'I:o.;(; 11'; :-'ORTHFRI\' I.l\llfS. OCCl- 
VI'r\I. TORn,ro. THE <,>eITS'" P\R.... -\"'11 ITS OB]FCTS OF IXTERL"T. -THE STRITTS (a\ I'" UP TO CO\I\lFRCF. 
-THE _\,'\"E\.III \\ EsrFR'\" St:ßURBS. HI<;H I'-\R..... THI" E\.HIIJITlO.... (;RoeSIIS, .-\'\"II 1HF (;,\RRISO.... < 'O\I\IO'\". 


I.THOC(;H nnt a picturcsque city, Toronto is not lacking in natural and artistic heaut\", 
Its chief adornment is its \later-front, as seen from the harbour and island, or the lake 
beynnd. The approach by \\ater, either hy the gap or hy the western entrance to the 
harbour, is singularly fine. The spires, to\\ers and cupolas of its churches and puhlic 
buildings, \\ ith the imposing array of suhstantial \\arehouse" that line the shore-from, 
afford an agreeable contrast to the confused mass of the cit), "Ioping up in the distance, 
and mar\.. it as a place of wealth and enterprise. The impression is heightened when the 
visitor passes from the steamer and is instantl} confronted \\ ith the traffic of the street:-. 
and the noise and mO\ ement which are its cea"e1ess accompaniments. It is computed 
that there are 3 00 miles of streets within the compass of the cit\., The name" of many of them, as we have already observed, 
bespeak our English origin, to wit King, Queen, .\ddaide. Xdsnn, \\'ellingtun, Richmond, \ïctoria, .\Ibert and I oui"a Streets, 
besides those that commemorate an carlier HanO\ erian era. Those in our immediate \Îcinit}, it \\ ill at once he seen, are given 
up to commerce, The residential portion of the town lies to the northward, branching off Y onge Street, its main a,is, to the 
east and \lest. Tu see Toronto in its pictorial aspects. let the \'isitor take a carri,lge at landing and make tno tours, starting, 
sa\, from the intersection of Yonge and Front Street,,- one embracing some of the sights of the city to the east and north, the 
other all that is important to the west and north. In these tours, the following itinerar} may prove of interest. 
.\t the starting.puint named, three fine buildings, fairl} typical of the city'" wealth and enterprise, \I ill he sure to attract 
the tuuri"t'" attention. These are the Cu,;tom House, the Torunw Branch of the Bank of :\Iontreal, and the ne\lly-en:cted 
home of the local Board of Trade. The interior as \lell as the e,terior beauty of the.,e three buildings is a matter of just pride 
w the citi/ens, From this point radiate 
the business streets, whose massive nare, 
houses may be seen on every hand, each 
house or firm seeming to \ ie \\ ith its 
neighhour in the erection of elegant and 
commodious premises, \I ith the best f.1cili- 
tics for doing business. To the west\lard. 
a block and a half distant. is the well- 
known hostelry of .. The ()ueen's." .\ 
little be}ond the latter, on the Esplanade, 
is the Cnion Station, the joint terminus 
of the two great railway corporations of 
the J )ominion. the (;rand Trunk and the 
('anadian Pacific. X ear 1)\", are the old 
Parliament Buildings, \I ith \I hich Time 
 
deals gently. pending the erection in the 
',JueelÙ Park of more imposing halls for 
the 1'rO\ incial I.egislature. Proceeding 
north\\ard, on \' on
e Street, \\e pass suc- 
cessi\ eI) the Bank of British 
 orth 
.\merica, the Trader's Bank, the offices of 
the Toronto General Trusts Co" the new 
home of The Globe newspaper the chief 
organ of the J jberal party in Canada 
and, at the intersection of King and \' onge, 


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]ARY/S SrRUT (\YEST Sll>F), 
EAR BLOOR. 




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TOROXTO, TOI'OGR.II'HIC.-lI. AXD DE.\'CRII'TII'E, 


the fine huilding of the Dominion H.mk. On Wellington Street, which we haH' just now passed, arc the headquarters of the 
financial corporation-. -the Standard, Ontario, roronto, and Imperial Banks, the local hranches of the ;\lerchanÙ; Bank and 
the Cnion n.m\.. of Canada, and t\\O Canadian :lI1d .\merican 1\Iercantile .\gencies, together \\ith the offices, surrounded by 
congeries of \\ ires. of the (;reat K orth-\\ estern and the Canadian I'.lcific Telegraph ('ompanies. .\t the intersection of Yonge 
.md \Zing Streets, we reach the commercial hub of the cit\", round and about \\ hich re\ 01\ e Toronto's chief trading and manu- 
f.tcturing industries, in cluse touch, at all hours of the da), with its professional and social life, Here, as \\e haye ob!teryed 
elsewhere. the dense tr.lffic and throng of \ehicles will not permit of more than a moment's pause. thuugh the yisitor \\hu is on 
fout \\ ill no doubt be tempted tu turn aside to have a look into the shups or the shop windows, the contcnts of which furnish 
impres"iYe proof of the city's wealth and buying c.lpacity. as well as of the enterprise and taste of its native manufacturing and 
importing houses. 
Proceeding eastward on \Zing Street, we pass many uf the finest ret.dl stores in the city. including the handsome Creùit 
Yallt
) brO\\n stone buildings occupied by the Upper Canada Furniture Company and the Carpet \\'arehouse, Pre"ently we 
reach Toronto Street, at the northern end of 
which is the Toronto (;eneral 1'osl Office, a 
handsome edifice, huilt of richly-wrought 
Ohio stone, with a findy caT\'ed facade and 
high mansard roof. On this street, also, is 
the Receiyer-( ;eneral's Office, and a number 
of the leading financial and other flourishing 
institutions of the Provincial Capital. Near 
b), is the local Scotland Yard, the head- 
quarters of the Police Department, :ind of the 
city's Fire Protection service. Continuing our 
way eastward. we reach at the corner of 
Church Street. St. Jamcs' Cathedral, a fine 
historic edifice, \\ ith a massive tower and 
graceful spire, which rears its finial ornament 
"OIne 300 feet from the base, The Cathedral 
has a grand nave and spacious aisles, with 
apsidal chancel, underneath \\ hich, in a crypt, 
sleep the fir!'.t Bishop of Toronto, Dr. John 
Strachan, and its long-time rector, I >Can 
(;rasett. In rear of the Cathedral grounds, is 
Toronto's Free l'ublic Library, under the 
intelligent supen-ision of its chief librarian, 
1\1 r. J ames Rain. This useful institution, \\ ith 
its branches, is maintained by a direct muni- 
cipal tax amounting to about $30,000 a ycar, 
and is an agency of much value in contri- 
buting to the intellectual life. as well as to 
the literary recreation. of the citi/ens, 
In our rapid tour of the city we shaH 
nut be able to U\ertake all its puints of 
interest, and must narrO\\ the area of uur 
sight-seeing, l'nder this compulsion we sh.dl 
therefore ,\enù our way nnrth\\ard, by \\ay 
of f'huTC"h Street, looking in for a brief while 
at thc .Museum, ,\rt Callery and Library uf 
the Education I >Cpartment, situate in the fine enclosure of St. James' Square. Here are the headquarters of the educational 
system of the Province, under the administration of a l\1inister uf Educ.ttion. The .\rt (;allery and :\Iuseum contain a large 
and mi<;cellaneuus collection of pictures and st.ltuary, copies of the old masters and other famous paintings, with models of 
.\ssyrian and Egyptian sculpture. The adjoining buildings are used as a :\Iodel Schuul for the youth of both se"cs, and a 
NUl mal School for the professional training of teachers. In the square immediately to the south which we haye passed on 
the way to the Eùucation Office, stands one of the largcst ecclesiastical edifices in the I >uminiun and a special adornment to 
Townt!), the :\Ietrnpolitan (:\Iethodi
t) Church. The church owes its e\istence to the denomill.ltional/eal and ability of the 
Rev. I>r. 'Iorley l'un"hon, who for some )ears made Toronto his home and did much for :\Iethodism in Canada. The interior 
of the building is elegant a<; \\ell as spacious, and the whule structure excites admiration for the harmony and effectiveness of 
it!'. general design. Close by, on Shuter Street, is St. :\Iichacl's (R.C.) Cathedral, a massive structure \\ith a fine tower and 
!'.pire, and adjuining the Cathedral is St. :\li,:hacl's P.da!"e, the .\rl'hiepisl'op.ll See Hou"e. 


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UY rRRIA:-i CHURCH, GR0SVFNOR S rRn r. 



 


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TORONTO, TOl'OG1UPHICAL AND DE.\'CJUPTlrE. 


Turning eastward, we may pass into one or othl:r of thl: tno principal residl:ntial strects of the eastern IJart of the city _ 
.Ian-is Street .md Sherbourne Street, On both the visitur will find some ornate villas, set out with well-kept grounds and plenty 
of be.mtiful shade trees. Here he will abo fll1d "ome channing specimens of ecclesiastical architecture, a particularly attracti\ e 
one being the Jan'is Street Baptist Church. In J.ln-is Street is situate the I'oronto Collegiate Institute. one of the best of the 
secondary schools uf the Province, under its efficient rector, _\rehibald :\Iael\Iurchy, ;\1..\. Occupying a square ahuut ten .Irres 
in è"tent, flanked hy < ;errard, Carlton and Sherhourne Streets, are the heautiful Horticultural < ;ardens and l'a\'iliun, a shrine 
of Flora much frequented b) the citi/ens and the wheeled cherubs of the home. The grounds arc laid uut with gn'at taste, 
and with an artist's eye for floral allurnment. In the north-east corner of the town overlooking the heautiful vale of the 1><>11, 
are the city cemeteries, where sleep" the rude forefathers of the hamlet" -the old-time" Little York" with their offspring of 
a later generation. Across what is known as the Rosedale Ravine, which is connectcd with the city hy two ornamental bridges, 
e\tends to the northward a new and picturesque suburb of Toronto. This section of the city should he seen hy the visitor 
who has an eye for the he.mtiful. There are pleasant drives in the neighbourhood, and the whole region is taken in by the new 
scheme of a Belt Railway round the city, and by a cordon of public drives and parks. 
'\"e shall now turn westward along Bloor Street and take a glance at Occidental Toronto. For nearly a couple of 
generations, Bloor Street was the northern limit 
of the city, and for long more than one-half of 
the area to the south of it was covered with 
\Îrgin woods. To-day, not only has the city 
heen huilt up to the erst-while bounds, but it 
e\tends far beyond and is now climbing the 
ridge, the ancient marge of the lake, and on 
this high elevation is hranching out into vast 
extensions of the ton n, Here avelllles and 
streets are being rapidly opened up to the west- 
ward of Decr Park and Y onge Street, the real 
estate agencies giving an impetus to the ci\ ic 
de\c1op1l1ent. In a heautiful situation on this ., 
high ground, thirty acres in extent, is being 
erected the new hume for Cpper Canada Col- -.=- 
lege. . \ half mile or 
o to the eastward is the [
 
pretty woodland remetery of :\Iount Pleasant. 
Pursuing our westward route on Bloor we come 
to the upper boundary of the <2ueen"s Park. on 
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the northern alignment of which is situate :\Ic- 

[aster Hall, the denominational college of the 
Baptist body, It is built of a rich dark.bro\\ n 
stone, with dressings of hlack and red hrick. 
The college is the gift of the donor whuse name 
it bears, and it is affiliated with the Toronto 
Cnivcrsity. On Bloor Street will be found a 
continuous chain of churches, called into e,,- 
istence by the recent extension to the north- 
ward of the residential area of the city. rheir 
elaborate architccture and elegant roominess 
within are indicati\'e of the general opulence of 
the neighbourhood. 
Turning into the Queen's Park, a short 
drive will hring the visitor to the precincts of Toronto University. \\'e say precincts, for unfortunately this grand Norman 
pile, which was justly deemed the flo\\er and glory of Toronto's architecture, fell recently a prey to the fI.uncs, I.u\lily its 
outer walls, anù particularly its nohle front, were saved from destruction, and the beneficence which the calamity called forth 
may he experted soon to restore the building to its uscs. Though in partial ruin, the heauty of the structure and the harmony 
of its design arc not concealed from the admiring spectator. .\cross the lawn from the University will be found a grouJl of 
buildings, au"iliaries of the Collcge, viz. ; the new Biological In"titute, thc School of Practical Science and the l\Ieteorological 
ObseT\'atory of the Province. In rear of these are Wycliffe College, the theological hall of the e\'angdical "eetiun of the 
.\nglican Church, and the fine auditorium of the University Young l\Ien's Christian .\ssociation, The parent home of the 
Y. 
L C. .\. is in Vongc Street, a little to the south of the College .\venue. In the Queen's Park arc in course of ercrtion the 
new Parliament Buildings, a vast pile which is now beginning to take nohle form and shape, though a questionahle intrusion 
on the recreation grounds of the people. In the vicinity will be found a fine brÜl1/e statue of the late Hon. (;eorgc Brown, 
and a monument in memory of the volunteers of the city who fell at Ridgeway, on the 2nù of June, 1866, in repelling invasion. 


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"OA"I ANDS," RFSIDFNCI'. OF THE 1 ATE SENATOR JOHN I\IACIJONAIIJ. 



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TOROXTO, TOFOGRAFHICAL .A.VD DE....;CRIFTJ/'E. 


On the ea
tern flan\.. of the l'mk may be seen St. Michael's (R.C.) College, which is in affiliation with the Xational Cniversity. 
.\ little to the westward of the Park, loo\..ing lakeward on Spadina .-\xenue, is Knox College, the training institution of the 
ministry of the l're
b) terian Church, Tu the nurthwestward. in a further and recent extension of the town, is the partÎally- 
erected ('athedr.tI ('hurch of St. \Jbans, This beautiíul edifice attests the apo
tolÎc 7eal and faithfulness of I)T. Sweatnun, 
the .\nglic.lI1 Bishop of Toronto, under whose fostering care the Cathedral has so far been reared. On College Street will also 
bl' found an almo
t continuous line of churches, all of which possess good claims to architectural beauty, 
The return to the business portions of the city may be made either by the throng of \"unge Street, on the East, or by 
the spacious high\\ay of Spadina .\venue, on the \rest. It may be more convenient, however, to drive down the intermediate 
exit from the P.uk by way uf College .henue, with its double line of fine chestnut trees, tu Queen Street, and there t.lke .l look 
into ()sgoode Hall, the seat of the great law courts of the Pro\ince. Here the Law Society uf l'pper ("anad.l has its home, 
To those who know the majesty of the law, only in the person of the constable, we wuuld recommend a visit to olle or other 


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MOUNT PIÆASANT CE1>IEfERY, DEER PARK. 


of the courts, sitting in Banc, or a ram hIe through the Lihrary, Convocation Hall and the corridors, and up and down the great 

taircases, upun which and upon the visitor the grave and learned judges look forth from their frames with august and 
impressive mien, 
Turning eastward, on Queen, to regain V onge Street, we reach the site, at the head of Bay Street, of the future Municipal 
and County Buildings, now in course of erection. The site is a central and convenient one, and when it is cleared of the" old 
rookeries" and other dilapidated rclic
 of a hygone day, which at present occupy and surround it, the ne\\ and handsome pile 
to he devoted to the use!. of the County and City will ha\'e an imposing appearance. The striking feature of the huilding will 
be the massive and lofty clock tower, which, in the plan, forms the front façade, and presents a graceful and symmetrical appear- 
ance. The "hole structure, which is modern Romanesque in style, will be a great ornament to the city, and, with the r\'ew 
Parliament Buildings, will vastly increase its attractions. Close by is Knox Church, one of the earliest places of \mrship in the 
cit) connected "ith the Pres!>) terian denomination, and at the head of James Street, somewhat hack from Y unge, is the 



TOROXTO. TOFOGR.-lPfliCdL dXD DESCRiPTiVE 


:i;\ 


,\nglican ('hurch of the Huh rrinit\. From the head of H.l\ Street. the \Ï...itor 1'.111 see. at the corner of Richmond. the suh- 
stantial edifice erected recenth h\' the ('ouncil of the ('ollege of Phvsician... and Surgeons. From \ unge, after passing the new 
,ite of the .. Confederation I.ife" huildings and \ onge Street .\rcade..l glimp,..e mm he had of .. rhe (:rand .. and Toronto 
Opera Hou,..Ls; \\ hill' .1 le\\ steps oll\\.ud... \\ ill hring u,; OnCe more tu the interse(,tion of Y onge and King. Proceeding we,..t- 
\\ard on the 1.1Iter ...treet, the \Ïsitur \\ ill he struck \\ ith the line a"'pect which the halllbome offices and ,..tore,.. present. the sk \ 
line heing agn-'e.lhl
 hroken 11\ the impo,..ing- and loft
 'tructure just erected for the Canada I.ife ,\ssurance ('0.. and h\' the 
to\\er and pinnac\ed roof of The .1r.uï Printing Compam. The Canada I.ife building, with its "well "-indented fron;, is a 
nm eI departure in the cit) 's 
architectural de,..igns. and 
is the cynosure of all 
pa'...ers 11\ on the !'otreet. 
- \nother \ en h.ullhome .ld- 
dltion to this portion of 
King- Slreet, and a great 
ornament to rorunto. b 
the ne\\ banking-hou,..e of 
the Canadian Ban\.. of 
('ommerce. ,..ituate at the 
corner of Jordan. Oppo,..ite 
to it is the :\lanning \rcade, 
and at the corner of Ua\. 
the printing hmbe 01 the 
Toronto E7'alÎlIg Te/e.erom. 
I n rear of the latter, is the 
:\Tational Club: \\ hile. on 
\\ elling-ton Street, arc the 
Reform ('Iuh and the To- 
ronto Cluh, ()n ('olhurne 
Street is the home of 
another ,..ocial and ljuasi- 
political organLlatiun. 
knO\\ n as .. The ,\Iban)'" 
On King Street \\'.. are the 
Carl.ldi.1I1 Pacific R'
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t'e.... and. he\ond York, the 
rumnto .\rt (;allen' and 
,\eadem\ of 
Iusic. _\t the COrner of \ urk. ,..tands une of the chIef hotels of the city. the" Rossin Huuse; another 111m be 
found in the .. \\ alker Hou,..e. on \ urk Street, near the Cnion St.llion. I'roceeding westward. on King. \\e COme to St. 
.\ndre\\ 's Church, \\ ith its e1ahorate :\1 inster front and high Kurman tower. the chief \\ orshipping-place of I'resln terianism. of 
the Old Scotch I:stahlishment t\ pe rhe huilding is one of the grand ornaments of the cit
, \djoining it. on the ,..outh-west 
corner of Simcoe Street. is the elegant residence. in 
a charming setting of floral terraces and 'p.Kious 
\awn,... of the [ ieutenant-( ;0\ ernur of the I'w\'ince. 
rhe ,..tvle of architecture is the modern French. In 
the grand hall, dining-room and h.lll-roum ma\ be 
...een many life ,..i/e portraits of the old (;mernors 
of Cpper ('an.ld.l and tho"e uf a later regrlPe. 
. \crn" from the (;uhernatorial residence, a little 
hack from Kin,!!; Street, is the old hi"toric home of 
C pper Canada College. rhi,.. fin ourite educational 
institution of the I'rO\ ince, \\ hich \\ as moddled 
\'IF\\ I Rü\1 lIlE ARI.OXAVT Cr vn IIOl"F. after the great Public Schools of England, and has 
had a famous rerord. is, as \\e ha\'e ,;.lid. about to be removed to a new and ,;pacious site in the northern suhurhs of the cit\'. 
Turning north\\ard from King. on John Street. and skirting the College cricket-g;rounds on the one side and .. I'he 
-\rlington" Hotd on the other. \\e pass Be\'erle\ HousL. the old-time resiùence-' of the late Chief Juslice. Sir John He\erle\' 
RohÎINon, At the head of the 'treet. just be\'ond St. (;eorge.... Church. we see .. The (;range," another hi,..toric rl.,..idence the 
oldest and most attracti\'e in the Clt\". This famous manor hou...e \\as built a little o\'er "event\ 
ear,.. agu In the late Judge 
Houlton, and i,.. 
till in the possession of a member of his f.unil) 11\" marriagl the \\ite of I'r"fe"sor (;ulth\in 
mith. In the 
beautifull)-kept grounds. ample and \\ell-trimmed lawns. \\ ith .1Ilcient ehlb pl.tcidly loo1-.ing do\\ n up"n the scene. .. The 
(;range" recalls a plc.l'ant hit of Old Fngbnd. 


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hall complete Ihe circuit of the city if we continue our dri\ e west\\ard to the flourishing suhurbs, now included in 
corporation limib, of Parkd.lle anll Brockton. with their busy separate e"\t!:nsion of \\'est roronto Junction. .\s we procecd in 
this direclion. 'i.'ia Queen Street. \\e shall pass Spadina .henue. the lower portion of which, long known as Brock Street, com- 
memorates in ib familiar appellation the hcro of ()ueen
ton Heights, This spacious avenue. which is douhle the width of the 
ordinar
 streets. is fast coming under the dominion of commerce. and \\ ill soon form another great trade artery like Y onge 
Street. P.lssing 
till \\est\\ard. we come to Trinity University. a fine ecclcsiasticallooking edifice. set in a park of twenty acres, 
\\Îth a background of romantic beaut\.. The College was founded, in IHS2, uy Bishop Strachan. in consequence of the abolition 
of the theological chair in Toronto C niver
it
. at the time known as King's College. and with the Ùew of supplying the Province 
\\ith an in
titution \\hich should be stricth' Church of England in its character. The College buildings were designed hy 
Ir. 
Ki\as Tull) , and are in the pointed st\'le of English architecture. The convocation hall and chapel are later additions to the 
College equipment, Just be
ond Trinit
 College. in a plot of land originally fifty aeres in extent, stalllis the Provillcial 
I.ullatic ,\s
 lum. soon we belie\ e to be remO\'ed out of town. To the south of the .\sylum are the Central Prison and the 
\Iercer Reform.Hon, :-'till \\estward are the Orphan's Home and the Home for the Incurables, and one or t\\O other refuges for 
the cit
 's sick ;:.nd suffering. or the erring and the homeless. South again of the Cel)tral Prison, 011 I )ominion Ordnance rands 
by the I ake shore, are the Old 
and the :x e\\ Forts, and the 
barracks of .. C" School of 
Infantrv, rhe men attached 
to the :\lilitary School form a 
section of the skeleton army 
of Canada. known as "regu- 
lars." The School, which is 
under the command of I ieut.- 
Co\. Otkr. Deputy Adjutant- 
(;eneral, is hou
ed in the Kew 
Fort. The Old Fort, which is 
historically identified with the 
beginnings of Toronto and 
with the incidents of the \\'ar 
of 181 2, has long since lost its 
acti\ e military character. U n- 
trodden grass and weeds now 
cover the old parade ground, 
and encircle with the symhols 
of peace the Russian cannon, 
the wooden barrad.s, and the 
embrasureù clay parapet \\ hich 
commands the lake approach 
to the harbour. From this. 
poim an excellent \'iew of the 
the \\ïman Baths, with the flitting 


,-,-I 


TOROXTO. TOFOGRAPHICAL AND DESCRIFTfT'E. 


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Island is to ue had, as far east as the club house of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and 
summer traffic of Toronto suþer mare, 
\ little distance \\est\\ard, \\ ithin spacious, well-kept grounds, overlooking the lake, is a \ast congerie of buildings 
de\oted to the objects of the Industrial E"\hibition .\ssociation, Here gather for a fortnight e\ery autumn an aggregate of over 
3 00 ,000 people, to \ iew the displays of the I'roÙncial and 
Ietropolitan manufacturers, the art e"\hiln(s, (, 'anada's flllest breeds 
of horse
 and cattle. and the bountiful arra) of her horticultural and agricultural products. West and north of the E\hibilion 
Park lie the recently annexed suburban villages of I'.ukdale and Rrockton, and the further city-o\erflow, \\ est Toronto Junc- 
tIon. The rise of the'te new and populous Torontos, within recent years, has seemed magical, for \\ here but yesterday was an 
almost unbroken furest of oak and) ellO\\ pine, there is now a vast net\\ ork of streets and a\ enues, \\ ith hanùsome villas or rows 
of comiguou-; houses. Before returning to the city proper. the \ isitor. if he wishes to see something of the syh'an beaut}' of 
roronto\ imnwdiate surroundings, should cuntinue his dri\'e alung the lake shore to the Humber Ri\ er - the famed" Pass II by 
roronto. Here he might branch northward, tu take in High ParI-., the beautifully \\uuded resort of the citi/ens, and the 
munifil'ent gift of the late 
Ir. J. (;, HO\\ard, an old resident. If there is leisure, the drive might be c"\tended, with quiel 
enjo) me nt, by \\a) of the ne\\ a\ enues or the old concession ro,tds, so that more of the city's picturesque em'iron" may be 

een. Or should there not be time for this and the \ isitor return at some future day, he ma)' then, we hope, overtake the 
('ircumna\ig.niun of the cit} from the pleasant outlook of a car-\\ indow on the completed Toronto Belt Railw..!.)'. 



THE ''l'FLIC IIL.\ OF TilE FROJ'I.\'Cl.JL C.JI'IT.JL 


c
 
..h) 


THE PLïH.IC :\11::', OF THI: I'RO\î
TL\1 ('.\1'1 L\L. 


CHAPTER XI\' 


PRO\IIXFXT CITlLtX
: GO\'FR:\\IF:\f\I, .\V\II:\lsrR\TI\E. Jl"lIlCl\I, ECCIFSI.\STlC\I, :\IFflIC\1 EI'l"l.\rIO'\-\I, :\IIIIT-\R\, 
CO\l \1 ERCI.-\I , ,\ ';V OTHFR RFPRF
E:\ f\T!\ E '1'\ PFS, 


HE fdl nigencies of 
p.lCe haw compelled the projectors and editor of this \'olume to 
limit the representation of the puhlic men who ha\e made or are making Toronto, in the 
main, to contemporaries. The space taken up \\ ith \ icws illu"trati\ e of the city, pictur- 
esque and historical, including the churches. public buildings, educational and deemosy- 
nar) in
titutions. \ illas and pri\ ate re
idences, \\ ith some indication of Toronto's industrial, 
financial and commercial enterprise, has necessarily narrowed the space to be gi\ en to 
the portraits and brief hiographical sketches of the citiæns. \\"hat scope there was, it 
\\.1S thought better to utiliæ it in confining the muster-roll to li\ ing Torontonians. who, 
in large measure. reflect the spirit, genius and life of the communit\, and to those \\ithin 
as \\ ide a classification a
 the design of the \\ ork \\ ould permit. This being the plan 
decided upon, the following pages \\ ill seek to preser\'e for the pre"ent and coming gener- 
ations some pt.n-and-ink sketche" of the citiæns uf to,da), gathered from the profession" 
and frum business and lay cirde
 in the community- -embracing di\Ìnes. judges. doctors, Im\ 
 er
, politicians. educationists, 
manufacturer", .md men of commerce, I n a 
 oung cuuntry like Cal1.lda. \\ here indi\ idual ef!ìlrt seems to tell immediately in 
the building up of the industrial and social fr.1me\\ork of a nation, it cannot hut he important that ,",ome record should be 
preser\'ed of the career of prominent citiæns, and treasured. for it<; historical \'alue nu less than for it
 inspiring effect upon the 
)oung, among the general annals of the people. \\ïth this purpose in \Ìew, the present collection of biographies has been 
made: and though, in some measure, it ma
. at the present era, be of chief interest to the subjects of the sketches themseh-es, 
or to their immediate rdati\es and friends, it must certainl), in the coming time. prow of much wider and more general historic 
interest. Had \\ e detailed records of the social life of the 
mall communit) of .. Little York '. from which the present city has 
sprung, how gladly, how interestedly. should 
\\e now look into them, that \\e might know 
the .. men of the time" better, and see more 
clearly what \\as their daily toil and what . 
manner of li\es they then led. In like man- ') 
 
.f 
nero b) generations to COme after us. these ... 
pages 1113.Y he 
canned, to glean SOlue record · 
of the men \\ ho are identified \\ ith the pre- 
sent era of Toronto's social life and progress. 
and perchance to contra"t the er.l and it!; .. 
human t) pes \\ ith those of a later and doubt- 
less higher stage of material and intellectual 
de\elopment. \\'hat change E\'olution is to 
bring in the ph) sical structures and mental 
capacities of ages of unborn citiæns. \\e, 
being no 
eer, ha\'e it not in our power to 
sa\', .\11 that it is gi\'en us to attempt. is to 
deal \\ ith the present, and to open. \\ ith the 
pardonable com iction that the e\.hibit. pic- 
torial and hiographical, is not unworthy of 
critical inspectiun. -the portrait-galler) of 
"ume of the pre"ent-da) public men of the 
PrO\'incial Capital. 
The Hon. Sir .\Ie\.ander Campbell, KT.:\U;,. (2.C.. !'.C.. has de"en'edh' \\un the high pll
ition he holds in the com- 
munity. of Lieutenant-Gm LrnOT of the I'rm ince of Ontario, H is many ) ears' unobtrusi\'e yd impurtant public ,",en ice" a", 
a \Iinister of the ('rown in Canad.1, and for long the trusted leader of the Consenati\'e Part\" in the l'pper uf the t\\O 
Hou"es of Parliament, before and SInce Confederation, hme earned him the respect and apprm'al of the country as \\ell as 
the regard and attachment of hi", many personal friends. 
ir .\Ie\.ander is uf Scotch descent. though an Englishm.1I1 11\ birth, 


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36 


THE PUBLIC .lIE.\' OF THE PROT In.:IAL CAPITAL. 


His father \\a
 the late l>r. James Camphell, of the \ïllage of Hedon, near IZingston-upon-Hull, in the east riding of Yurkshire, 
There Sir .\Ic"ander W.IS born in the )ear 1:)21. \\'hen ahout t\\U years old his parents emigr.lted to Can.lda and settled ne.lr 
lachine, \\here the future Pro\'incial (;O\ernor spent his )outh, receiÙng his education there and at the R. C. Seminar) of St. 
Hyacinthe. His f.uuily subsequentl) remO\ing to IZingston, 1.'.('" his education \\as completed at the Royal (;ramm.u School 
of th.lt town. In I ð3 X , determining to follow law a
 a profession, :'Ilr. C.IIIlphdl passed his prdiminar) e\amination, and in the 
following \ear entered the otìice of :\Ir. now the Hon. Sir J. \. \Iacdonald. \\ here he n:mained as a student until his 
.l(lmi
siun a
 an atturney in I Kp. 
He then formed a partner
hip 
\\ ith his principal \\ hich laskd 
for many years, :\Ir. Camphell 
hm ing meantime heen called to 
the Bar. In 1856, he was created 
a (2ueen's ('ounsel. Two years 
later, he enkred public life as 
representative of the ('ataraqui 
I >i\'i
ion in the I.egislative ('oun- 
cil of the l'nitcd Canadas. I"rom 
IXSð tu Confederation, :\IT. 
('amphel! sat in the I .egi
latiH' 
('ouncil and was for twu years 
Speaker of that hody. I Juring 
the :'Ilacdonald-Taché adminis- 
tration, he held the portfolio of 
( 'ommis
ioner of Cro\\ n lands. 
I n the Confederation mo\'ement 
he took an active part, aiding it 
hy hi
 ad\ iee and occa
ional!) b) 
a weighty and dfecti\'e speech. 
\\'hen <. 'onfederation W.IS con, 
summated, he was nude a mem- 
ber of the Privy ('ouncil, and 
from T X6 7 to I Xi 3 held succes' 
sively the portfolios of the Pu
t- 
master-( ;eneral and :\1 inister of 
the Interior. I Juring this period 
:\1 r. Campbell was the (;overn, 
ment leader in the Senate, and 
throughout the :'Ilacken/ie 
regime led the Opposition in the 
same ('hamher. Cpon the ac- 
cession of the ('onservati\e 
Part) to power, he accepted the 
portfolio of Receiver-( ;ennal, 
and a )ear afterw.uds e,,('hanged 
it for that of the Po
tmaskr- 
(;eneral. From IX80 to IX:)i, 
when he retired from the Senate 
to accept the I.ieutenant-(;O\ er- 
nCJTS hip of () n tario, he \\ as 
successi\ ely I'ostmaster-( ;eneral, 

I inister of :\1 ilitia, 
I inister of 
Justice, and again Postmaster- 
(;eneral. In :\1 a)', I :)79, he was 
created a IZ. ('. :\1. (;., and in 
:' une, I XXi, \\a
 appointed Lieuten.lI1t-( ;0\ ern or. For some time Sir .\le"alHler Campbell \\.1'0 l>ean of the Facult) of I aw 
III (
ueen\ ('ol!t.
e, hingston, and has ah\ays taken a W.lTIIl interest in (Jueen's Cni\ersity. He i
, <,x cljzèi(l, a Bencher of 
the I a\\ Snciet\, In lXXi, Sir .\Ie"ander attended the Imperial Federation ('nnferellC"l' in London a" the repre"entative of 
Canada, and is understood to take a he.Hty intere!-.t in the Federation of the Empire, His puhlic c.Heer. though unC\entful. 
h.IS heen hoth honourahle and u"eful. Though hy no means eluquent, Sir .\Ie"ander is a guod, .1I1d on on"lsion can be .m 



 
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Sr. jA\H,S' CATIII'IIRAI, COI'''ER 1\.1"'11; \"1 CIII'''("H SI'l'FFrs. 



,[ () If f\ 'l....TR.-l Tn E AXD Pl RIJC OFFICER.\ Ere. 


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effectin:. 
pl'aker. In P:uli.1mL'nt, he \\as ahl:t\" knolln a, a lo)'al friend. a true 
gentleman and an honour.lhle opponent, In hi
 present ex.llted office. though he 
ha" not courteù popularin. he has not di
dained it. and he has \\on the respect 
and good\\ill of the people. 
rhere arc few men in the political arena. p.lrticularl) of this I'rO\ incl'. \\ ho 
h.lve lIon, anù de
enedly lIon. a higher name than h.1s the .\ttorne\-(;eneral .md 
Premier of Ontario, rhe cl.Iim of his friends for him of heing ".1 Chri
tian poli- 
tici.m ,. has in !-'ome quarters. it i" "aid. heen 
neen:d at. But thi
 surely is 
incorrect. \\ hat ha, heen deemed a "neer mu"t. Ill' think.. h.lve heen mi
taken 
for a 
milc of incredulit\. for incredulous ratllLr th.1I1 nmtemptuou
 must he the 
feding \\ ith \\ hich one loob to find .1 lofn ethical ide.11 among the influencing 
motil'es and life-gO\ erning principlt." of a mudern politician. H 0\\ ever this ma\" 
he, there can he no que
tiun a" to the high char.1cter hurne 11\ the honourahle 
gentleman. huth in hi
 official and in his pri\ate relations. The II itne
s to this i
 
the all-hut-uni\ers.lI .Is
ent of the puhlic mind and judgment. rhi
 estimate has 
heen formed. not upon a fe\\ \"ears of dexterous yet unscrupulous partl' rule. hut 
upon the more nitical and severer tc
t of tll enn long \ ears of ahle, economical 
and patriotic administration. The H(m. OIÎ\er 'leJ\\at wa, horn. uf Scottish 
parentage. at Kingston in 1820, .\t school, it IS said. he had for hi" felluw-pupil 
the present Premier of the Dominion. \\ huse Ia\\ office he afterward
 entered and 
studied for his profes,ion. Called to the Bar in dtp. he commenced practice in 
Kingston. hut soon afteT\lards removed permanenlh' to Toronto. Here he formed a partner
hip. fir"t \\ith :'.Ir. (after\\aTlb 
Ju,ticc> Burns. and secondh' with \Ir. (aftemarùs Chancellur) \ .1I1J..oughnet. I juring the nistence of these and later partner, 
ship
. he rose rapidl) in his profe

ion and hecame one of the hest J..nU\ln men at the Chancer) Har. In 1856. he \\as 
created a (Jueen'" ('oun
eI and acted .1'..1 commissioner for consolid.Hing the Puhlic C;eneral Statute, of Canaù.1 and Cpper 
Canada, I n the follOlI ing \ ear he entered Parliament as memher for South (hford. II hich con
tituenc)' he represented until 
1 X6,J. \\ hen. after the fall of the S.mdfield :'.Iardonald Coalition C ;o\'Crnment, in \\ hich he held the portfoliu of Postmaster- 
C;L'neral. he accepted a \ïce-Chancdlorship and \\ithdre\\ for a time from political life, Before hi, e1e\"ation to the BL'nch, 'IT. 
\lo\\at took part in the Cnion ConferencL' at Quehec, at which thL' Confederation scheme was framed. In Cktoher. 1872. he 
resigned the \'ice-Chancellorship to form a ne\\ admini"tration in ()ntario on the retirement of :\Ies
rs. Blake and :\Iacken/ie 
to the Otta\\a House. o\\ing to the provision of the Dual Representation .\ct, \\hich prelented memhers sitting at the same 
time in the local and Federal \"semhlies. He took his seat m the Ontario Legisl.lture for 
orth (hford. and hecame 
\ttorne\-(;eneral and a memher of the E"ecuti\e Council for the I'rO\ince. Since ISi2. he has continuousl) represented 
:\orth (hford and held the Premiership in the Local .\,,:,emhh'. ,\s the head of the PrOlincial admini"tration. \IT. .\Iowat ha" 
won the full confidence of the countn. 11\' hi
 \I i
e and economical management of its affairs. hy his industry and great capacit.
 
for business. h
 hi, judicitJu
 settlement 
of mam trouhlesome and comple" ques- 
tions. and hy in
tituting mallY reforms and 
initi.tting much and beneficial legislation. 
He has moreover signali/ed his career in 
the Local House by man
 act,; \\ hich 
belong to the higher realm of ,wtesman- 
ship, and b) hi!' intimate knowledge of 
judicial matters and constitutionalla\\. U) 
these he has been enahled on se\ eral im- 
portant questions to \\ in hon(lur
 for the 
Pre\ ince as \\ell as to \ indicate ih righh, 
rhough a staunch upholder of part\" gOI- 
ernment and an uncompromising l.iheral. 
\Ir. :'.lo\\a1's political \'Ìe\\ 
 are hroad and 
cOl1lprehen,i\ e. and his actions, for the 
mo
1 part. are reasonable and just. 
()f the bright roll of the nati\ e 
judiciary there i
 no one 11'110 has more 
\\orthil) helped to gile character to the 
('anadi.m Bench. and at the same time to 
shed lustre on the profession of la\\ in 
this Prm ilH'e, than has the present Chief 
Justice of Ontario, It is now fifty \ ears 


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DOOR\\ AY OF TOIW...,TO L 'I\'FR
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THE I'rRLIC lIE" OF THE FROl'h\'CIAL C-lI'ITAI. 


...ince the Hon, John Haw
ins H,lgarty, I). C. 1... \\a" called tu the Bar of l'pper Canada. and for the space nO\\ of a generation 
has he sat upon the Bench. In thl' half-centur}'s inteT\'al, the s,md in the hour-gla"s of almu"t all his professional contem- 
porarie
 ha
 run out: while man\ e\ en of th<Jse who had seats on the Bench when he was first elevated to it ha\'e preceded him 
10 the tomh. The halls which th e\" trod, and the courts in \\ hich they presided, resound no\\ only with their spectral voice and 
tread. Only out of the frames that rim their pictUTl'd faces in the 
corridors of Osgoode Hall. do they now look upon us, and the his- 
toric memory is fain to he thankful that en
n this much is left as a 
memoria] of their lives and work. Chief Justice Hagarty, like many 
of his eminent colleagues on the Canadian Bench, is an Irishman. 
He was born in Duhlin in I H I Ó, his father heing Registrar in His 

lajesty"s Court of Prerogative for Ire]and. .\fter receiving his early 
education at a pri\ate schoo] in Duhlin, the future Chief Justice 
entered Trinity College in his si:\teenth year: but while still an 
undergraduate he ahanùoned his academic course and came to 
Canada, He had, however, received an excellent training in Classics 
and English suhjects, and \\hen he hecame a resident of Toronto in 
I H35, and proceeded to the study of the law, his future eminence in 
that profession was at once assured, \\ïthin five years he was called 

 to the Bar, and in the legal circles of the time he forthwith took a 
high place, Before he was five-and,twenty, he hac! hegun to make 
a mark among his contemporaries, and the ease with which, even at 
that early age, he won distinction is an evidence of the gifts, natura] 
and acquired, with which he was endO\\eù, Besides a well-stored 
mind, he had attracti\e socia] qualitie", fine literary ta"tð, a bright 
mother wit and the hearing and manners of a gentleman. To this 
earlv period in l\1r. Hagart}"s career, attaches his fame as a poet, 
for while acti\'Cly pursuing law, in Ihe partnership which he had 
formed \\ ith the Hon. John Crawford, late I.ieutenant-(;overnor of 
Untario, he was fain to dally with the Muses, In 1850, he was 
created a (-2.C., and in 1856 was appointed to a judgeship in the 
( 'ourt of Common Pleas, Once on the Bench, preferment was rapid, 
for he had in an unusual degree the qualities that well fitted him 
to fulfil its high duties, In IHó2, Judge Hagarty \\as transferred to 
the <}ueen's Hench, and six 
year
 later he was raised to 
the Chief Justiceship uf his 
old court. In IX7X, he 
gained the Chief J ustice- 
ship of the Queen \ Hench, 
and in 188{ \\as cle\'ated 
to the Chief Justice
hip of 
Ontario. The learned 
gentleman, in his private 
and professional capacity, 
is de"ervedly held in the 
highest esteem, He is a man of many parts -a scholar, a poet, a \\ it. and an accom- 
plished juri
t. He is at the same time a man of sterling character, of high principle: 
,md infle"ih]e honour. <)n the Dench, while he is uniformly courteous and considerate, 
he is also eminently just, and unflinching in the discharge of his duty, In IR55, the 
lJniversityof I'rinit\. College, Toronto, conferred on Chid Justice Hagarty the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of laws, Knighthoud, it is understood, the Chief Justice has 
declined. 
It \\ ill hardly, we think, he said that we have reached in Toronto the ideal of 
municipal gmernment. The strings of the ci\ ic administration in many of the depart- 
ments, unhappily, still" hang loo"e." Kor do \\e ah\ays ma
e sure that we shall get 
either as chief magistrate or as aldermen, men rigidly selected on the ground only of high per"onal qualifications or of moral 
fitness, The municipal administration, too often, has been enn:lupcd in an atmosphere of morals neither clean nor wholesome. 
\Iatters, it i" true, might he worse: we might, as in sOl11e other cities, have not onl) inl'apacit\", ignorance, and dereliction of 
duty, hut gro"" hreachc" of trust and a municipal reign of Ikdzehuh. "\pathetic and inùifferent [tS our pt:oplc, for the most 


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ÁI) IIIXf.\;TRATIVE AXD PUI/LIC OFFICER.<;'
 ETC. 


fl9 


part. .m:. it i,; .1 \\ollll"r that the ci\ ic administration is as good as it is, and that \\e h.ne not to compbin of gr.l\"er muni('ipal 
maladi.:s. The trust no\\'-a-tbys is a v.:ry important and responsible on.:, for \\e have made great stride
 sinc.: the .:ra of incor- 
poration, In JX3
, th.: popal.ltiJn W.1S not much o\".:r I},o:>o; and th
 v.llu.: of the cit
 'sass.:ssable property. \\Ïthin its then fi\e 
\\ards. \\.IS und.:r three-quarters of a million 
 En
n twenty years later. the city directory does not re\'eal a \en man'dlous 
ad\ance, In 1856. the number of ha\..ers in the city was not more than 37. of hutchers 66, of plumb.:rs 16, of bankers I I, of 
clerg\'111en 57. of dOt't/)rs 3ó, and of law
.:rs 108. E\en thc number of cIer\..s. usu.llly a numerous array, \\as onl) III}: :\Iodest 
as arc these figurl's. the soci.11 condition then of the tU\\ n was not a matter to boast of. for the Police statistics of the period 
sho\\ that of the total population, in 1857. 01lt' Í11 t'7't'r}' /lint' appears on the criminal records. On the score of morals there has 
manifesth' been imprO\'emcnt, whate\'er nee,} there may he for other reforms, including sanitary renO\ation. The d.:mands. too, 
are no\\ great upon the Executi\'e Offic.:rs. Chairmen and the practical heads of departments. If we want efficient administra- 
tion we must soon come to a paid Ex.:cuti\"e, and economy here \\ ill be fatuous anrl ine\cusahle \\Ïth the cit
 's brge and 
e\"er-gro\\ ing interests. honest and cfficient administration can only be s.:cured b
 perm.lI1ence in office and liheral remuner.ltion. 

o man of sense who has al1\' notion of \\ h.lt is no\\ d"m.lIlded of the :\Iayor and E\ecuti\ e heads of departm"nts \\ ill hene,,- 
forth \\ ithhultl either. In 'Ia)or ('I.u\..e. justice requires it to be said that he has pro\"ed an honest and efficient administrator. 
His \\'orship, Ed\\ard Frederick ('I,lr\..e, :\1. 1'. 1'., ;\Iayor of the ('it) of Toronto, was born in the ('ounty of c'nan. 
Ireland, .\pril 2.j.th. 1850. While quite a youth he came to l'anad,l, and for a time resided in :\Iichigan, L',
., though" the 
si\tics" found him a resident of Toronto, pursuing his a\'ocation as a printer. For some years. he \\as engaged on Th,' (;Iol>e 
and TIlt' Lib,'ral newspaper
. and 
\\as abo on The Illlil staff as com- 
positor and proof reader. In JX77, 
a compan) \\as formed, for the pur- 
chase of TIle Sell/lilt'!, the organ of 
the ()range hody, and 1\Ir. Clarke 
was chosen managing-editor. H.: 
aftemards hought up the stoc\.. and 
became sole proprietor. :\Ir. Clarke 
has ah\ays ta\..en an acti\e interest 
in secret societies. especially, we -: 
helie\ e, in the C nited \\" or\..men. 
Freemasons. and Lo)al Orange .\s- 
sociations, In the latter organÏ/a- 
tion, he \\as in 1887 elected, at the 
annual meeting held at Belle\ ille, 
Deputy Grand :\Iaster of the Order 
in British America. I n 1886, he 
first entered political life ås the 
nominee of the Liheral-('onsenati\'e 
party in Toronto in the ()ntario 
Legislature. .\t the general elections 
in the present \ ear. he was again 
returned one of the three cit\ mem- 
hers. In the House, he is an ani\\:: 
and useful repre"entati\'e, heing \\ ell 
informed on the political questions 
of the day. and a Auent and rearl) 
spea\..er. In 1888 he \\as first returned for the :\1a
ora1ty of Toronto, and 
high office he has the qualifications of industry, energ), and an intIJnate 
enhances these qualifications 1)\' honest), discretion. and a good address, 
Colonel Sir Casimir Stanislaus (;w\\s\..i, K.C.:\I.(;.. .\. D.C.. etc.. is dcscend.:c1 from an ancient Polish family, \\ hi('h 
was ennohled in the si"\teenth century, and whose r.:present,ltin:s hdd high positions in the State. H.: is the son of Count 
Stanislaus (;wwski, who was an officer in the c'mr',; Imperial Cuard. Sir ('asimir was horn at St. Petershurg on the 5 th day of 
:\larch. 181 3, and as a youth was destined for a military career. In his ninth year he entered the :\rilitar) Engineering College 
at Kremenct/. and in 18 3 0 he graduated and passed at once into the arm). .\t this period an insurrection hroke out in 
Poland, in \\ hich nohle and serf. ci\'ilian and soldier, rose to overthrow the t
 rannical rule of Constantme. Throughout the 
futile rising, the young officer of Engineers took a prominent part with his ('om patriots in the struggle for freedom. He \\as in 
man) engagement!; and \\as se\era[ times \\ounded, and \\a!' present at the c\puJsion uf Constantine from \\'.usaw at the clost' 
of the year 18 3 0 . \fter the hattle of HO\emd, the divi!;ion of the ann) to whi('h he was attached retreated into .\ustrian terri- 
tory, where the troops surrendered. The rank and file were permitted to depart, hut the officers, to the numher of ahout 600, 
were imprisoned and afterwards e"\iled to the \.Jnited States. Young C/owski, with his fdlm\ c"\ilcs, arrived at XC\\ \ ork in 


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ROSSIN JlOU';E, COI<'EI< OF KIN(; AXil YORK SrREEIS. 


has suhsequently heen t\\ ice re-c1ectn1. For this 
acquaintance with the city's affairs, :\Ir. Cl.Irke 



110 


TilE /'CH/jC I/E \' OF TIlE I'IWI'I\'Cf,LL CIPIT.-ll. 


I 
33, .1I1d four )ear' .1IIef\\anb pas
ed into ('anad.1. Thoughan e"\('ellent linguist, he W.1S not familiar \\ ith the English 
tongue: hut his re
id
'rK
 in th
 
tatcs f!:nL' him the opportunity. \\'hik tc.uJling thL' continental languages, to a('quire it. He 
arri\ ed in Toronto in 1 K.p. and at once too\.. up his engineering profession, For some ) ears he was attached to the Puhlic 
\\'or\..s I >epartment of the L" nited l'.lIladas and !'>peedil) showed his ability in his 
offici.ll reports of \\ ork
 in connection with the I'rO\ incial harbours, roads and hridges. 
"ïth the opening of the faihla) era, \Ir. (;Lolls\..i, who soon associated himself with 
his life-long partner, 
I r. (now Sir) 1>, I.. :\!acpherson. thre\\ himself into the practical 
operations of a raill\.IY contractor .1I1d engineer. In I
53, his firm ohtained the con- 
tr.let for huilding the line of the (;rand I'runk from Toronto to Sarnia, and in Ihis 
.md other lucr.Itill' contracts he J.1id the foundation,; of his pre!'>ent .1I11ple fortune. In 
18 57, hi.. firm also estahlished and operated for 12 )ears the Toronto Rolling 
!ills, 
· for ,upph ing fai]\\a\, with f.Iils and other materials empJo) eù in their "olhtruction. 
His chief profes
ional e"\ploit is. howe\er. the construction of the InrernationaJ R. R. 
hridge which ..pan!'> the '\ iagara Ri\'er bet 1\ een Fort Erie and Buff.1.Jo. In this entef- 
prisl\ which cost a million and a half of dollars. the young Polish engineer showed 
his ..\..ill in 0\ ercoming gre.lt lL'dmic.d diffi('ulties Since the completion of that \\Ork, 
<. 'olonel (;/owski has practicalh' retired from his arduous profession. He has since 
t.Iken an ullhu
i.lstic interest in Cmadi:m riflemen and in the efficiency of this arm 
of their sen'iCl:. For mam ) ear,; he was President of the I )ominion Rifle, \ssociation. 
and \\'a
 instrumental in sending the fir,;t ('anadian team to \\ïmh]edon, Ill] 87 2 . he 
I\as appointed a l.ieut.,Colonei in Ihe ('anadian :\Iilitia. and in 1879 \\as honoured 
hy heing made an aide-de-camp to Her Majest). J a
t year. he was created a hnight 
Commander of the Order of St. 'I ichae] and St. (;eorge. a di
tinction at the hands 
of the Cro\\ n \\ hich his puhlic sen ices in Canada \\t,'11 merited, Sir Casimir is one 
of the ht:st known and most highly respectt:d of Toronto's citi/ens. He is a man. not 
onh' of spot Ie,.,,, reput.ltion, hut of slt:rling integrit) and chi\'alrous honour. HL is a loyal Churchman, of the E\'angelica] 
t\ pe. and has het:n a princely henefactor to \\ )Tliffe College and to the \"arious t:harities of the city. Though he has always 
eSf'hewt:d puhlic life, his wise counsels and calm, dispassionate judgment. \\e su"pect, h;1\e frt:(Juently been at the sen'ice of the 
State, hoth in Canada and in the 
lotherland. In manners, bearing. and character, Sir Casimir (;/owski is a fine type of the 
old-timt:, high-,ouled and courtly gentleman, 
To tOIl nsmen as well as gO\\ nsmen, thert: are in Toronto ft:w better \..no\\ n figures th.1I1 that of the \'ent:rah]e and 
much-re'pectt:d President of L" ni\'er- 
sity College, To kno\\ the man is 
10 ]O\'e him, and large is the circle 
of those who so rt:gard him, and 
who as his friends or his delJtors 
hold him in the highest esteem. 
Xor arc his admirers counted onh 
among the Glllm/li of Toronto Cni- 
\'ersit), or Jimitt:d to the ranks of 
nati\'e scientists and educ.ltionists. 
He is known and estet:nwd among 
the sm'G/lls and lillérakl/rs of hoth 
hemi!'>phere
, for both hemi"phere" 
have profited hy his sen iccs to litera- 
ture and scienct:, ;-.. or is it the It:ast ... 
of hi'i honours to say, that he i
 
\"\1(1\\ n to and hdo\'t:d by the To- 
ronto !'>trt:ct arab and newshoy, for 
whose welfare he has toiled long and . ;., t ... 
spt:nt himself in much Christian and 
philanthropic \\ork. Sir I ).1Ilid \\ïl- 
son \\as horn at Edinhurgh, Scot- 
land, in I
I6, anù frorn an carly CA"
 
.1ge he de\otcd hi" life to literary 
and scientific pursuit!'>, "'hill' hUI 
a yo
ng ,man, he had earlwd a Europt:.111 rqlllt.nion for his rest:arehes into the archæolog) of Scolland. and fi.lf his Ie.lrned 
cOIll
lb
tlOl
S ,on that and the kllldred subjt:ct of ethnology. ,\t the age of thirty,st:wn, \\ hile ardently pursuing his special 
studlt:
 111 bhnburgh and .IC,ting .IS st:tTdary 10 thl' Scotti
h Socid\' of ,\ntiqu:Jries. he ref'ei\'ed ,lI1d an-cpted the appointlllt:nt 


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.-/ /).1/1 \'/.\1"R.-/ TI1 E ,1-\ n f'CRJ./C OFHCEN.\ ETe. 


to the chair of H i
tof} and English Literature in L' ni\ er
ity College. Toronto, In this sphere hL entered upon his arduous 
and life-long \\ or\... Ho\\ faithful ha\ e been his \.lbours and real his intere
t in roronto L' 11i\ ersit\,. with \\ hat Leal he ha... 
de\oted himsdf to the subject
 he ha
 so ably and 10\ ingh taught in the College. and how inspiring and de\'ating ha
 been 
his influence upon the student life under his care. there is no need here to rdale, Xor is there need to sa\' a word. to al1\ 
gr.1duate of the ('ollege at al1\ rate. of hi;, e\'er,read) courte;,\'. of his kindness of 
he.ut. of his simplicin of ch.u.teter. or of his high moral worth. Te
timol1\ to 
these qualities is as abundant a;, testimol1\ is emphatic to the learning and geniu;, 
of their gifted posse
sor. ,\mong Sir I Janiel \\ïlson\ published \\orb. be;,ide;, a 
\\hole libr.1r) or contributions to the proceedings and tralhactions of learned 
societie;,. are the foJlo\\ing: ":\Iemorials of Edinburgh in the Olden rime." (I
;'H): 
"Prehistoric. \nnals of Scotland:' ( 1851 and 1 g63); "\'rehi
toric 'Ian: Researche" 
into the Origin of Ci\ iliLation in the Old and the Xew \\'orlds." (d)Ó3): "ChattertlJn : 
a Biographical Study:' (1869): "Calib.m: the \Iissing Link:' (lgj3): "Spring \\ïlcl 
FIO\\l'rs," (a volume of \'erse): .. Reminiscences of Old Edinburgh," (18j8); and 
.. \Iemoir of \\'m. ?\dson:' Publisher. (1890). Besides this mass of Iiterar) and 
...cientific \\or\.., Sir I Janiel has contribUled important papers to the TramactÍolls 
of ,ht' R(1)',1l SUcitl)' of Canada, of which he has been President. to other Canadian 
periodicals. and to the ne\\ (ninth) edition of the Ellc..rdo/,tcdia flrita/ll/Ít:a. In 
18g9. President \\ïl"on had the honour of Knighthood conferred upon him. 
There are few men in the communit) \\ ho, as cititen;,. better deserve the 
be
t that eulog\ could ;,a) of them than :\1r. <':old\\in Smith. \\ïth his political 
opinions we ha\e here little to do. s..'1\'e to note the fact that e\en those who do not 

ee e)e to e)e \\ith him in the \ie\\s he so fearlessh propounds, gi\e him credit 
for the disinterestedness of his motiVes, and pa) tribute to the literar) charm, as 
well as the force and lucidity, of his writmgs, \ et it i
 not in a negath'e. but in 
a positi\'e. aspect that \\e are compelled to \ iew the residence of one of the greatest 
of modern Englishmen in our midst. For nearl) t\\enty year!> -"Ir. (
oldwin Smi!h has resided in Toronto. and to the cit) 's 
charities he has gi\'en not a little of his substance and to the countn' at large much of the ripe fruit pf his thought. For 
thi". Canada o\\es him a hea\')' debt, for he ha" been one of the true
t and staunchest of her friends, and perhaps the most 
helpful. as \\ell as eminent, of her adopted ;,ons. :\1r. Cold\\in Smith \\as born at Reading. England, on the 23rd of .\ugust. 
1823. Hi;, father \\a" a practi;,ing plnsician. well-kno\\ n and esteemed throughout (hfordshire. Like mal1\' other distinguished 
Englishmen, :\1 r. (
old\\ in Smith received his earh education at Eton. from which he passed to (hford. where he conferred 
honour on both school and college h) his brilliant L' ni\ er;,it\, course. . \t the L' ni\ .:rsity he gained the Ireland and Hertford 

cholarships. the Chancellor's prite for I Á'1tin \"erse. and for English and I Á'1tin prose essays, and graduated \\ ith flrst-dass 
honours, '1'\\ 0 years aftef\\ards he accepted a Fellowship of L'ni\"ersit\, College, for 
a time became tutor, and. in 1851). \\ a;, elected Professor of :\Iodern H iston, 
\\'hile at (hford. he serwd on t\\ 0 Ropl Commi...sions to inquire into the general 
administration of the C ni\ ersin, as \\ ell as to e\.Ulline into the condition of both 
higher and popular education in England, \lcal1\\ hilc hi;, able alh ocacy of liberal 
reforms in matters educational. rdigiou" and political. \\on for him a \\orld,wide 
name. and when he \i...ited \merica in IS6-t- he \\a
 warml) \\elcomed and n:cei\ed 
from the Hro\\ n C nh er"it) the degree of I I .)), From hi" 0\\ n C ni\ ersit) of 
O\ford, he "uhsequenth' had conferred on him the degree of I J.( ',I.. In a later 
\ i"it to the C nited State", his staunch adHlCacy of the 'I; orthern cau;,e throughout 
the war. and his great reputation as a scholar, led to the offer of a professorship in 
Cornell C ni\'ersity, The chair. \I hich 'Ir. (;old\\ in Smith accepted \\ ithout pa). 
\\as that of English and ('onstitutional Hi;,tor
. 1'hi;, post he still holds, though 

ince 1 8j 2 the learned gentleman has made his abode in Toronto, Here he ha" 
gi\ en prestige to Canadian letters 1)\' his connection \\ ith man\ literaf\' under- 
t.lkings, .md at the same time has done much to e1eyate the tone of, and hring 
into 13.\'our independent, journalism. and \\ in full freedom for !>peech. His industr) 
is as marked as are his ahility and independenct' as a thinker and \\ riter, This is 

hown. not only in the \\ork he has done for Canadian )lcriodicals. hut for the 
English and ,\merican )In,,,s, ('an,1dian. a;, he no\\' 100es to call himself. l'rofe;,,.,or 
(
old\\ in Smith is still an Englishman. and he retains in his heart an ardent affec- 
tion for the Old I AUld, and a real, if restrained, enthusia...m for all th.lt touches the pride and rouseS the ...pirit of a Briton. 
['Iually hear'" is his interest in the well-heing of humanit\ on thi;, continent. Be
ide" the great \ olume of his journali...tic and 
magaLÌne work. -"Ir. Smith ha!'. issued at \'arious times the follm\ ing puhlications: "Three English St.He
men 1') m. Crom\\ell 
.1I1d Pitt ;" "1 ectures on the Stud) of Hlston :' .. The Empire": letters addres...ed to the london Dail.J' _ \
 ;,',': "Iri
h History 


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THE PURLIC JIEX OF THE PROrIXCIAL C-/PITAL. 


amI Irish Character; .. I ife of the Pod ('01\ per: ., :\Iemoir of the N O\'elist, Jane ,\us\en;' ". \ l'rip to England:.... The 
Political I >estin) of Canada;" and" Bay I ea\'es" Tr,Ulslations from the I atin Poets. In private life, 
Ir. (;oldwin Smith is 
,\ fine t\ pe of the courteOUs and hif!h-hred as \\ell a
 accomplished English gentleman. rho ugh a man of wealth, he is perfectly 
unostentatious in the display of it. In the lihrary of the old English manor 
house of .. The (;range," he Ii\es a life of literary toil. brightened h) pleasant 
social inkrcourse with his friends, and, h) \\ ide reading and an extensi\'e 
correspondence, keeping himself in active and s\1lJpathetic touch with the 
\\ orld, 
rhe Hon, Edward Blake, I',c., Q,C., :\1.1'.. etc., is a Canadian hy 
hirth and education, and hy all the ties that connect a puhlicist and man of 
affairs with the national life of the country. If one were to take :\Ir. Blake's 
name and sen'ices out of the political, the legal, and the academic world of 
Canada, there would he hlotted out much that has shed lustre upon the 
nation, for as 
tatesman, jurist, and scholar he has not only won distinction 
and honour himself, hut conferred distinction and honour upon the country. 
Xor has he risen, as he might, to all the heights which \\ere \\ithin his 
attainment a
 the meed of hard-\\orking industry, de\'otion to the puhlic 
sen'ice, and talents worthily used in the furtherance of a laudahle amhition : 
for :\Ir. Blake has refused knighthood, put from, it is understood, the I >om- 
inion Premiership, and declined the highest offices which are the cO\eted 
priæs of the legal profession. :\Ir. Blake is the eldest son of the late Hon. 
\\'m, Hume Blake, a distinguished jurist of l."pper Canada and at one time 
Chancellor of the I'rmince, He was born in the Township of .\Jelaide, 
County of :\Iiddlese" Ont., in 1833, and fCceived his education at l."pper 
Canada College and roronto C ni\'ersity, where he graduated with honour
 
in 1853, .\fterwards he studied law, was called to the Bar of l.'pper Canada 
1(1 18 5ó, and made a Queen's Cuunsel in I 86-t-. He is a Bencher of the I aw Society and Chancellor of the C ni\'ersity of 
l'oronto. He entered the political arena in r8ó7, heing returned for South Bruce in the Ontario .-\ssemhl)', and for Ihree 
\'Cars was leader of the Opposition in that hody. In r872 he succeeded the Hon. John Sand field :\Iacdonald in the I'n:mier- 
ship of the Ontario Legislature, and held the office of President of the E\ecutive Council until 1
74' For a numher of ,ears 
he also represented South Bruce in the I>ominion Parliament, and at one time sat for \\'est I>urham. In Xov" 1873, he was 
lIude a memher of the Canadian I'ri\y Council, and joined the :\lackell7ie .\dministration, in which, for various periods, he 
held the :\linislership of Justice and the I'residency of the Council. For a time ill-health withdrew him from puhlic life, and 
the same cause partly ohliged him to refuse the Chancellorship of Ontario and the Chief-Justiceship of the Supreme Court of 
the I >ominion, which were successin:ly offered to him. In 1876 he \'isited England 
on puhlic husiness, and three years later re-entered the I >ominion Parliament as 
memher for \\'est I >urham, \\ hich he continues to represent. J\I r. Blake is an Inde- 
pendent-I.iheral in politics, and was until lately leader of the Opposition in the 
I >ominion Parliament. .\mong the puhlie men of the Dominion he holds the foremost 
place, hcing alike distinguished for his ahility and his high character. 
:\Ir. \\ïlliam Ralph, :\Ieredith, Q,C., :\1.1',1'. for london, Ont., and leader of the 
()ppo
ition in the PrO\ incial Legislature, was horn in the Township of \\' estminster, 
Cu, 'Iiddlese\, Ont" in I 840. His father, a native of I>uhlin and graduate of Trinity 
Colleg:e, was for many years Clerk of the I>i\'ision Court for Co, :\Iiddlese"\. :\Ir. \r. 
R. \Ieredith was educated at the London (;rammar School and Toronto Cni\'Crsity, 
In the latter he graduated in law, with the degree of LL.B., and \\as called to the Bar 
of the PrO\ ince in r 861. Since then, he has practised his profession ill London. Ont" 
though he is a familiar figure, and resident during the Session, in the Pro\ incial 
Capital. In his profession I\lr. :\Ieredith occupies a prominent place among memhers 
of the Chancer) Bar, \\ hill' his knO\dedge of Common Law is also e\tensi\'e and 
sound, In 1871 he \\as elected a 13encher of the I aw Society, and in r87ó was 
created a (l.C. In 1872 he first entered political life, as memher for london in the 
I'rO\ incial I.egislature, and has continuously sat for that constituency. .\s a man of 
marked ahility and a ...taunch Conservati\e, he naturally leads the Opposition in the 
Local House, His knO\\ ledge is large and intimate of the puhlic affairs of the 
PrO\ ince and Dominion, and high office. it may safely he predicted, will some day be 
\\ ithin his reach, I n the political arena, though he is master of the situation, he can hardly be said to he an adroit or suc- 
cLssful, hecause he is not a corrupt and an unscrupulous, leader. On the contrary, he is a gentleman of the highest character, 
and .l
 an opponent, though he at time
 hits hard, he is more chivalrous than sometimes just to himself or his cause. In the 


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'III.. \\"\1. R. 'IEREIJITII, (
.C., :\1.r.l'. 



.-/TJJfI\7.\'TRATII'E AXD rCBLIC OFFICERS, ETC. 


6:
 


political game, hi
 mO\e
 are ah\a\'s ahove hoard, and his opposition is ne\'er factious, In the House. his follo\Ùng too often 
le.ne him to pia\" a lone hand. :\Ir. :\Ieredith is a memher of the Senate of Toronto L'ni\'ersit): in religion, he IS an 
I'pi.;cop,llian, It is understood that the honourahle \Iemher for london is ahout to hecome a resident of Toronto. 
The Hon, Frank 
mith. l'ri\y Councillor and memher of the Dominion 
Senate. \\as horn at Richhill, .\rmagh. Ireland. in 18.!."? When ten years of age he 
accompanied his f.lther to Canada, \\ ho 
ettled near Toronto, I >uring the Rehellion 
of 1R3ï, :\Ir. Fran\.. 
mith, though onl) in his si"\teenth Year, sened in the militia, 
ht.'ing t.'ngaged chiefl) in earn ing despatches. From sir Edmund Head's adminis- 
tration his st.'n'ict.'s gained him a C"ommission as a captain. ,\fter the period of the 
Rehellion, :\Ir. Smith t.'ngaged in commerce and was \ery successful in that wal\.. of 
life. From 18-l1} to 1867. he carrit.'d on a large IJU
iness at London, Ont., hut 
af!ef\\ards remO\ed to Toronto. \\here he continues his e"\tensi\'e \\holesale grocery 
trade. \rhile a resident of I ondon, 
Ir. 
mith sened that city as .\Iderman, and 
in 18ó6 was :\Ia\'or. In other \\a)s :\Ir. Smith has heen a useful citiæn and an 
acti\'e and 7ealous officer in many husiness entt.'fprises, He is President of the 
Home loan Co., of the l.ondon &. Ontario Investment Co.. 'ice,l'rt.'sident of the 
I >ominion Ban\... and a I >irector of the I >ominion Telq
raph Co., of the Toronto 
Consumers' (;as ('0" and of the "orthern :x Pacific Junction R. R.; also a Director 
of tht.' Canadian Board of the (;rand Trunk. He was Pre<;ident, too, during it, 
e"\istence, of the :\ orthern E"\tension R, R, Co" and has still a large intere
t, it is 
helie\'ed. in the Toronto Stred Railwa\' Co. rhe Hon. gentleman, \\ho is a Con- 
sen'ati\'e in politics and a Roman Catholic in religion, \\as called to the Senate in 
18ïl, and in IR:-I1 was s\\orn of the Pri\y Council. In 1851, Senator Smith 
married the daughter of '1r. John O'Higgins. J.P., of Stratford, Ont, His Ottawa 
address is Rideau Cluh; his home. at Toronto, is .. Ri\'er :\100111," Bloor Street East, 
rhe t\\O men in the Ontario Legislature who may he regarded a!' :\Ir. :\lo\\at\ right and left hO\\er, are the Hon. :\Ir. 
Fraser and the Hon. :\Ir. Hard). Both are politieally well-equipped, and hoth are kno\\ n to he men of great force of 
character. Intellectualh spea\..ing, perhaps the stronger of the two is the Hon, the Commissioner of Puhlic \\'orks, Xotwith- 

tanding a somewhat \\eak frame, :\Ir. Fra
er is an indefatigahle worker in his exacting department, and a doughty antagonist on 
the hustings. in committee, or on the floor of the House, In the I'rO\ inci,ll Executive, :\Ir. j:raser is the representati\'e of his 
co-religionists of tht.' Roman Catholic Communion, :\Ir. Fraser was horn at Brock\"ille. County Leeds, in the )ear 1839, and is 
of Celtic origin. Like most men who have made their way in the \\orld, \Ir. Fraser's \'outhful da) s were days of ad\,t.'fsity, 
what he gained of education heing the result of his own toil. ,\t an early age. he was an employee in the printing house of the 
Brock\'ille Recorder, and from there. in 1859, passed into the law office of the Hon. .\. X. Richards. late I ieutenant-(;o\"ernor of 
British Columhia. Here he pursued his legal studies \\ith earnest assiduit). and. in 1865, was called to the Bar. He hegan 
the practice of his profession at Broc\..\'ille, and \\as soon looked upon as a rising 
man, He had good mental abilities, and these he zealously culthated, From 
the first, he took a marked and li\eh intere
t in politics, st.'e\..ing. laudahly, at once 
to athance himself and the ecclesiastical cause \\ ith which he was identified, In 
18ï I, a \acancy occurring in South (;rem"ille, :\Ir. Fraser came out a
 a candidate 
and \\as returned a memher for that constituency. On taking his 
eat in the Legis, 
lati\c ,\ssemhly, he was not long in displa)ing those qualities \\hich ha\e made 
him noted in the House, and which soon gained for him the portfolio of I'rO\ incial 
Sccretaryand Registrar. In 187-l, he e\changed this portfolio for that of the Com- 
missionership of Puhlic "'or\..s. From 18ï 1 to 18ï9 he continued to represent 

outh (;remille in the I egislaturt.', hut in the latter )ear he \\as returned for 
Brock\ ille, and has since sat as member for that city. I hIring eighteen \'ears of 
acti\\
 political life, he ha!'> sen'ed the Pro\ince \\ ith exceptional ..eal and ahiht\ 
and heen the hard,working and most efficient chief of his department. In the 
House he is a ready and po\\erful speaker, e\er alert and sometimes aggressi\'e, 
particularly \\ hen the administration is challenged, or when he, himself, or his col- 
leagues ha\e to he defended. He has initiated much and useful legislation, and in 
this has been true to the \\atchword, as \\ell as to the principles. of Reform. 1.Ir. 
Fraser is a famurite \\ ith his political friends. and though a hard hitter in dehate, he 
enjoy!' the esteem and good-will of the House. In private, he is knO\\ n to he a 
sincere, warm,hearted, genial and loyal friend. 1\Ir. Fraser is a 1 >irector of the 
(>ntario Bank. and for many years has been a Bencher of the Law Society. 
For administratiw ahilih. political sagacity, and ready command of the \\eapons of Parliamentary debatc, the Hon. ,\. S, 
Hardy is, if we e'\cept his colleague. the Hon. Mr. Fraser, \\ithout a peer in the Provincial Legislature. He is one of the ablest 
men in the House and a power in the Ontario Cabinet. Mr. Hardy was born of r. E. Loyalist parentage, .It l\Iount Pleasant, 


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110,\, SF'õATOR FRAJ\h S\1I11l. 


110". C. F. }o'RA
ER, Q.c., \1. P.P. 



li-l 


TlIF; /,,./111(' IlL \' OF TIfF; l'ROIINCI,1I C.-ll'lf
lI. 


COUnl) Br.mt, in the \e.lr 1X3i. There, and at the Brantford (;ramn1.lr Schoo] and the Rockwood ,\cadem), he \I.IS educ.lted. 
I'a\..ing up la\\ .IS a profe"
ion, he read for it at Br.1I1tfonl, suhsequently completing his legal studies at roronto in the office of 
'Ir. (aflem.lrdo; l'hief Ju
tice) H.lrrison and I1lOn1.lS Hodgins. Q.C, In l
ó5. he was called to the Klr, and began practice 
in his home. at IIrantlord. 1'\10 \ears later, he \\.1-; appointed solicitor for that cit), and b) the force of his natura] talents 
soon made his \la\ to the head of the profession in his county. I n I Xi 5. he was 
elected a Bencher of the I aw Societ\" and in the follo\l ing \"ear was created a (J.e. 
In 1Xi3. 
Ir. l-LIrd) first entered 1'.lrliament, succeeding the late Hon, E. II, 
(aflen\ards Chief Justice) \rood in the representation of South Brant. This con- 
stituenn' he ha,
 since continued to represent in the Ontario I egislature. In IX77, 
he \\as appointed I'ro\ incia] Secretary and Registrar. and un the resign.ltion, in 
I XXI}. of the late Hon. \1 r. Pardee. he sucCl:Cllcd that gentleman as Commissioner 
of Cro\\ n lands. .\s a ]egislator. 1\Ir. Hardy has taken his full share of wor\... 
The ()ntario 
t.ltute Buok owns his hand in nun\" imponant measures. while the 
Liber.11 Party in the l'rO\'ince find in him a staunch champion and a /ealous and 
a(.ti\'t
 worka. In IR7o, \Ir. Hardy married a daughter of the late Hun. Justice 
:\Iorrison, In religion he is a memher of the Church of England, 
rhe Hon. (;eo, \\ m. Ross, 1.1.. B., .\1.1'.1'., :\Iinister of Education for Ontario. 
is a m.1I1 of many parts, and in a distincti\'e scnse has been the unaided .Irchitect of 
his 0\\ n fortunes. Though not } et fifty} ears of age, he has had a \\ ide and \'aried 
acquaintance \\ ith men and things, ha\'ing been a schoo] teacher and a journalist, 
.1I1d now is a la\\)er. a politician. a cabinet ;ninister and an acti\l: and hard-I\or\..ing 
administrator of the 1'1'0\ incial Educational system. In those \"aried spheres no 
little is required of a man in these <la\'s. and it is not little that 1\1 r. Roo;s has gÏ\ en 
to the public sen iet; in the fulfilment of the duties that helong to them. :\1 r. 
Ross sits in the Ontario Legislature as member for "'est :\liddlese\, in which 
county he lIas horn in I 8,p. He recei\"ed his early education in his nati\"e county, 
and, later on, completed his studies at the Xon11al Schoo], Toronto, at \\ hich he secured a first-cbss Pro\ incia] certificate. 
From .\Ibert Cni\ersit\", in 1:-1:-13. he rel'ei\ed the degree of LI ,B. In lXiI, he was appointed Inspector of Public Schools 
for the Count\ of 1..1I11bton, and subsequently acted in a similar capacity for the towns of l'etrolia and Strathroy, \\'hile a 
resident of Strathro), 'Ir. Ross W.IS interested in the editorial management of the Olltario Teacher and the Strathroy Age, and 
at a later period \\.IS part proprietor of the Reform journal, the Huron Expmilor. His acti\e interest in education led him 
to ach'ocate \\arm]) the establishment of county model schools, of which he was for a time inspector, and gained him an 
appointment. \\ hich he held for four) cars, as memher of the Central ('ommitlee, an ad\ isory body attached to the :\Iinistership 
of Education. 'I r. Ross first entered political life in the Dominion Parliament. where he sat for \rest :\Iiddlese"\ from I R7 2 to 
IX
3. Ha\ing lost his scat in the Commons in that year he was appointed :\Iinister 
of Education for ()ntario. as successor to the late Hon, ,\d.lm Cro(Jks. (2.('" .1I1d. 
to qualify for holding the portfolio, he \\as returned member for \\'est :\1 iddlesl'\ in 
the I oc.ll Legis]ature. since that period (I X:-I3) he has sat for that constituelK) 
.md held. \\ ith much credit to himself. the important office of \I inister of Education. 
\Ir. Ros" bring:s to the administration of his department the pO\\ers of a \igorous 
mind, a "tore of practical e\perience as a teacher. and much enthusiasm in the 
cause of popular education, In the House and on the p].ltform. :\Ir. Ross is a 
forcihle and eloquent spea\..er. 
I ieut.-( 'olonel, the Hon, Juhn :\Iorison (;ihson, :\I.P,I'.. PrO\incial Secretar). 
\\as horn in IKp in the I'o\\nship of Toronto. County of Peel. He was educated 
.It the Hamilton Centra] School and at I'oronto C ni\ ersit\, of \\ hich he is a B.. \., 
\1..\. and II..B. He had a distingui
hed Cni\'ersit) career, hming \\On the silwr 
med.11 in I'lassics .1Ild modern languages, \\as prÏ/eman in ()riental languages and 
.\Iso Princt' of \\ .lleo; pri/eman in 1863, He is also gold med.lllist in the F.ll'ulty 
of I all. Called to the Bar in 1X67. he shortly aften\ards joined :\Ir. Franci
 
:\Iac\..elc.m, (2.( '.. in a la\\ partnership in Hamilton. and \\ ith th.lt gentleman has 
since carried un an extensin' legal husiness. For many years :\Ir. Cihson has 
heen a member of the BO.lfll of rduc.ltion of 1I.\lllilton. and for t\lU \ears lIas 
Chairman of the Board. He is also Preo;ident of the St. .\ndrew\ SocÏet\" and of 
the .\rt School of that cit\, and is a memher of the Senate of Toronto Cni\"ersity, 

inLe IXÓI. \11'. (;ihson has been connected \\ith the volunteer force of Canada, 
and for man\' \ ears has heen I.ieuknant-Colonel of the 13th (Hamilton) B.lttalinn. 
For three years. Colunel (;ihson \\'.IS Pn:siclent of the Ontario RiAl' . \ssociation, has commanded the \\Ïmbledon te.\l11, and, 
as a marksman himself. ha
 won many trophie'i in rifle contests. \\ hen in command of the \\Ïmu]edon contingent he was 



 



 



 


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HON. G. \\. Ro..", :\/.1'.1'. 



-ID III \'ISTR.ITIIT I YD PCRUC OFFICER.'>: ETe. 


(;5 


in...trunwnl.11 in the k.lIn's \\inning the Kolapore Cup for the ) ear. Col. (;ibson 
has held high positions in the ran\..s of :\tl"'OIlr). He is a Past I hstrict I >epUh' 
(;rand :\l.1ster, and a l'.lSt (;rand Superintendent of Ro) al . \reh :\Iasonry in the 
Hamilton I >i...lrict. He is also an actin: member of the Supreme ('ouneil of the 
:'cottish Rite for ('anada, ('olone! (;ibson first entered political life in I XiI). 
\\ hen he \\as returned member for Hamilton in the Ont.uio Legi...\ature, .\fter 

piritl.'d contests in e.lCh case he \\as re-elected in I RX3 and in 1 Xð6. though un- 
fortunately defeated in the general election of 1 ð9o. Though lempor.lrih \\ ithout 
a se.H. there is little doubt that Col. (;ib...on will speedily find one. for he has mam 
\\ann per"onal and political friends. In the meantime he continue'i to hold the 
portfolio uf the I'rO\incÏal Secretanship. to which he was appointed in IXX9' \\'hile 
in the Huuse. Colonel (;ib...on h.lS acted as Chairman of the I'ri\ate Bills Com- 
mittee. and been a ...trong supporter and acti\'e colleague of \Ir. :\Io\\at\ adminis- 
tr.Hion, In religiun. the Hon, :\Ir. (;ib...on is a I'resb) terian. 
Lieut.-Col. the Hon, ,\Ie\, 'I. Ro"s. late :\1.1',1'. for \\ e...t Huron and 
è\-I'ro\'incial Trea...urer. \\.IS born at I )undee. Scotl.lIld. in 1 ð21}. \\'hen onh fi\'e 
\ e.lrs old. he came \\ ith hi... f.unih to c'lIlada, settling in the Tu\\ n of (;oderich. 
Here he. \\as educated, and in his twentieth ) e.u entered the ...en ice of the old 
Ban\.. of Cpper ClIlad.1. In lðS6-i. he acted .IS pa)master on the Buffalo & I a\..e 
Huron R,R"and in lðSX \\as appointed 
rreasurer of the ('ount) of Huron. a 
post he held for five-and-twent\' ) ears. From I R66 to 186<). Colonel Ross \\ as 
'Ianager of the t;oderich branch of the late Rmal Canadian B.lIlk. and on that 
institution \\inding up ib affairs, he recei\ed thl.' appointment of :\tlllager. in thl.' 
s.lIne to\\ n, of the C.lIladian Ban\.. of t 'ommerce, The latter position he held till 
1 ðð3. \\ hen he \\as appointed 1)\' the t )nt.lrio (;0\ ernmLllt I'rm ineial Tre.hurer. 
ha\'ing sat for \\ t'st Huron in the legislature 'iince 1 Xï S. I n the pre"ent \'ear 
( 18 9 0 ). he resigned the Trea'iurl.'rship of Ontario on account of f.liling health, and .lS 
the hone"t re\\ard for his long service in public life he \\.lS appointed 1)\ the I'ro- 
\inei.ll (;o\"ernment Cler\.. of the Count\ Court. Toronto. SincL IX61. Colonel 
Ros", has been actin'h identified \\ ith the Canadian :\Iilitia. ha\Ìng org:ani/ed and 
commanded .111 .Irtillen compan) at (;oderich. and. for "ome months in 1 S66. \\as 
on frontier ...en'iee \\ ith it during the è\citing period of the l'eni.1I1 Raids, I n the 
latter ) ear. the \ arious \ olunteer Comp.1I1ies in Count\ H umn \\ ere organi/ed into 
a battalion (the 33rd). .1Ild Colonel Ro"" W.IS appointed to its comm.lIld. 
rhere are fe\\ Canadian politinans, and \\L should 'ia\ ...till fe\\er alumlli of 
the Xation:tI l' nh'ersin', who do not \..no\\ the I iberal member. in the House of 
('ommons. for Xorth Yor\... and the learned and popular \"ice-Chancellor of the 
Cni\"ersin of Toronto. \\ïlliam \Iuloc\.. \\.IS born at Bond Hl.'ad. ('ount\ of Simcoe. 
in 18,lJ. HIs father \\as the late 1'homa' 
H, \Iulock, ,1.1).. T.c.n.. a nalin: of 
I )ublin ; and his mother. a daughter of 
John Cl\\thra. formerh of \ or\..shire, EngI.lIld. who settled at Xe\\mar\..et, and \\a... 
in I ð29 Reform member for the ('ounty of Simcoe, in the I egislati\ e \ssembh of 
l'.c. \"ice-Chancellor :\Iulock \\as educated at the Xe\\Inar\..et High School and 
Toronto C ni\ ersit\. \\ hert' he graduated. \\ inning the gold medal in modern 
1.lIlguag:e". in 1X63. .\fter graduating, he too\.. up Ia\\ as a profession. and W.J<; 
called to the B.lr in 1868. ha\Ìng passed a highly creditahle e\amination. His legal 
.lttainments led to his appointment as an E\aminer for four \ears in the 1.1\\ 
Societ\, of C,C. and as one of the I eelurer... upon Equin. From lði3 to 18ïX. he 
"en'ed his C ni\'ersity a, a Senator. and in 18X I, was elel.ted 'ïù,-Chancellor. rhe 
latter office he ",till hold... .1I1d admir.lbh performs its high dutie... In 1 XX2 he 
entered polilical life. for \\ hich he has much aptitude. 1)\ accepting the nomination, 
in the Reform interest. of :\ orth \ or\... and continues to ...it for that conslituenn 
in the Dominion Parliament. In the House of Common... he brings to the ...enin 
of his part\ 100al adherence to Reform principle.... much political sag.l,'in, abound- 
ing energ\. and read) po\\ers in deb.lte, He i... a dear, logical and comincing 
rt.lsoner. and while he delights those of hi" 0\\ n political \,ie\\.... he .llwa\'s compels 
the attention, .1I1d not unfrequenth' \\ ins the applau"c. of his opponents, I n religion. 


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JInx. ,-\. :\1. Ro,s, 1-"\.,\1.1'.1', 


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(;6 


THE /,['1I1IC JIEX OF THE PROrIXCL1L CAPITAL 


:\Ir. :\Iulock is a memher uf the Church of England. His legal finn is :\Iessrs, 
is prominentl} conneckd with se\eral finanrial and other enterprises, being a 
p.m\". and President of the Farmers' Loan and Savings Company of this city. 
The Hon. Charles ,\Ifred l>rury, E"\-:\I.I'.P., late !\Iinister of ,\griculture and 
Registrar,( ;eneral for the Province of Ontario, "as horn Sept em her ,J, 18,J,J, at 
Cro\\n Hill. County of Simcoe, Ont. He was educated at the Puhlic School and 
al the Barrie High School. Has followed farming successfully as a business, and 
very naturally was called to a Seat in the Ontario Cahinet, as a representative 
farmer, on the creation of a :\1 inistership of . \griculture in the year I HH8. :\Ir. Drury, 
in 1877, was elected Ree\'C of the Township of Oro, and held that office continu- 
ously for twdve years, He has been a memher of the Council of the .\griculture 
and .\rt!-. .,hsociation of Ontario from 1876 to the present time. and also has heen 
for four years a Djrertor of the Ontario Fruit (;rowers' .\ssociation, In Octoher, 
[XX2, :\1 r. Drury was elected to represent East Simcoe in the Legislati\ e ,\ssemhl}' 
of Ontario, and on !\lay I "t, I 888, entered the Ontario (;on:rnment as 1\1 inister of 
,\griculture, He has since retired from puhlic life. In religion. 1\1r. Drury is a 
:\Iethodist, a Prohihitionist and a memher of the Order of Cood Templars, 
The necutive ahilit\. of Ex-I )eputy .\ttorney-(;eneral Johnston has, in recent 
years, at least, contrihuted in no small measure to the success of the :\Iowat admin- 
istration, Born at Old {'amhus. Scotland, in [850, Eheneær Forsyth B1ackie 
Johnston receiwd the rudiments of his 
education hefore he came to Canada, He 
\\as in (;uclph when called to the Har of 
lJpper {'al1.lda and practired in that city 
long enough to attain a leading position in the profession, \\'hile in (;udph he held 
the offices of Chid of the Caledonian Society: Secretary of :\Iasonic Lodge, Xo, zSH; 
Secretary of the South \\ e1lington Reform \ssociation, and President of the Liheral 
Cluh. In 18HS he \\as appointed I >Cput} .\ttorney-( ;eneral for Ontario. Resigning 
this important office in 18S9, he re-entered his profession and also accepted the position 
of Inspector of Registry Offices. :\Ir. Johnston has successfully conducted a numher 
of imp
)rtant criminal cases. He represented the Crown in the prosecution of Harvey 
in the celehrated triple murder case at 
(;uclph. For personal reasons. :\Ir. J 0111:- 
ston declined the l.iheral nomination for 
South Wellington. \\ hich was offered him 
in I H86, He was appointed (}ueen's Cour:- 
scl in 1X89. \Ir. Johnston is a Preshy- 
terian, and prior to his appointment ao; a 
( ;0\ ernment officer \\ as an ad\'mlced 


1\Iulock, :\liller, Crowther & :\Iontgomery. He 
Director of the roronto (;eneral Trusts Com- 


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I/o". C. A. VRUR\", Ex,:'.!. 1'.1' 


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Liheral. 
:\Ir. .\rchihald Blue, Deputy :\Iinis, 
ter of .\griculture and the efficient and 
industrious chief of the Ontario Bureau of Statistics. \\as horn of Highland Scolch 
parents on a farm in the Township of Orford, County Kent. ()nt.. Fehruary 3rd. 
I H,Jo. He received a good elementary education in a schoul in his nati\ e village. 
and was afterwards for some time a teacher in the same seminary, For filUrtcen 
} ears he pursued the profession of a journ.llist at St. Thomas and Toronto, during 
elu'Ln years of whieh he edited the St. Thonl.ls jo"rnal, In 18HI. he was ap' 
pointed Secretary of the Bureau of Industries, \\ hich he ahly org.mi/ed, and in 
I H8,J surceeded the late Prof. Buc\..Iand as dcputy head of the I )epartment of A,l!ri- 
culture, and still holds and faithfully fulfils the duties of the t\\O positions. !\Ir. 
Blue marshals and corrdates facts as a gener.11 marshals and strategicall} moves 
his army. Xothing could \\ell he more useful to the puhlicist than the mass of 
well-classified and carefully compiled facts to he found in the statistical literature 
issued by his Department. E\er} onc interested in agricultural operations, in 
fmaneial, industrial and commercial interests in the PrO\ inl'e, must be :\1 r. Blue's 
dcbtor for the 
ef\ ice he renders in the \arious periodical issues of the Bureau, as well as in the more ambitious annual reports 
and occa
ional compilations \\ hich appear from his hand under the authority of Royal Commissions. He has a special talent 
for the worJ.. he performs, .1Ild hIs gifts are those bcst known and appreciated hy journalists and puhlic men who are 


:'.IR. E. F. B. JOII
STO". Q C. 



 


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'IK. ARCIllIt\1 D I3L1 F, 



.-lD.lIIXISTRATIrE AXD PCRLIC OFFICER."': ETC. 


(Ii 


accustomeù to quarry in the literature of the Bureau. :\Ir. Blue \\as a memher and SecrdaT) of the Ro}al ("ommis
ion 
appointeù h) the <;0\ ernment of Ontano to inquire into the :\1 ineral Resources of the Province in 1 ð88. He is a Fello\\ of 
the .\merican .\ssociation for the .\lh'ancement of Science. and a memher of the ,\merican Economic ,\
"ociation, of the 
,\merican .\eadem\ of Political and Social Science, and of the -\merican .h"ociation of ,\Iining I:ngineers. In religion, :\lr. 
Blue is a Baptist: in politics, he is a I.iheral. 
\1 r. Charles Lindsey, F. R.S,c., the X estor of Canadian journalism, and son- 
in-I.1\\ of \\ïlliam I.}on \1.ld,enÚe, \\as horn in I.incolnshire. Engl.md, in I
Lw, 
\\ hen he had passed his t\\ enty-first year, he emigrated to < 'anada, and in 1 ð,J6 
joined the staff of the Toronto Exami/ler, a ne\\spaper \\hich had heen founded 
ahout the Rehellion period hy the late Sir Francis Hincks, to ad\ocate Responsihle 
<;o
ernment. In IgS3. '.Ir. Lindsev hecame editor of the Toronto Lt'ader, the 
then chief PrO\ incial organ of the Tory part} in ('aJ1.lda, This journal he edited 
\\ ith conspicuous ahility, rendering importam sen ice to the country, as well as to 
his party, at a fnnnati\e period in their common histor). In Igó7 he relinquished 
acti\"t
 journalism on heing appointed, 11\' the late Hon, J. Sandfield :\l.lcùonald. 
Registrar of the Cit} of Toronto. a position he still holds. In 186.2. :\Ir. Lind"ey 
puhlished the" I ife and rimes of \\'m. I.)on :\IackenÚe, with an .\ccount of the 
Rehellion of lð3ï:' a \\ork which is recognited as the chief anù authentic repository 
of f.tets connected with that distracted era. ,\nother \'aluahle .lI1d \\ell-knO\\11 
\\ork from '.Ir. l.indse\''s pen is entitled .. Rome in Canalla: the Cltramontane 
Struggle for Supremacy O\er the Ci\il Po\\er." l'his. too, is a great repository of 
facts respecting the aggression of the Romi
h Church in <luehe(' and its menace 
to ci\'il liberty. Other puhlished \\ ritings of :\Ir. Lindse\'s are, a .. Statement of 
the CIcrg} RL
eT\'Ls <}uestion :,. "The Prairies and the \\ e,tern :-;t.1tl'S;" and a 
historical re\ iew of matters connected with the long-disputed .. Korthern and 
\\ estern Bounùaries of ()ntario." \Ir. I.indse\' is understood to he one of the 
chief \\ riters on our great journal of commerce, the .Iftmetm)' TÙ/les, and his ahle pen is recogni/ed in other influential 
journalistic 4uarters, chiefly dealing \\ith financial and Canadian historical topics. on \\hich he is a high authority, :\Ir. I indse) 
is a member of the Ro)al Society of Canada. 
.\mong the chiefs of commerce in l'oronto no one has stood higher in puhlic esteem than the late Senator John '.I.lc- 
donald, For fort} ) ears hi, name has heen a synon) m for husiness intq
rity and high personal \\ onh. Hi, lamented death 
removed from the ran\..s of industr) one of the most honourahle and upright men who ha\e heen connected with the commerCe 
of Canada. He was one of the few enterprising and successful men \\ho. if their modest) \\ould permit. could d.lim \\ith the 
hest right to the appellation the honourable designation of merchant prince. ,-\mong his mam heneíactions. one of the latest. 
before he \\as ta\..en hence. was the donation of $,Jo,ooo t()\\ards the erection of a ne\\ city hospital. as a memorial of a deceased 
daughter. \Ir. '.Iacdonald \\as horn in Perthshire. Scotland. in I 
.2,J. and \\ hen but 
a lad came to Canada. His father seT\ed in the XCIII (Sutherland) Highl.mders, 
and in the school of the regiment the son recei\ed his early education. e\tending it. 
later on. at H.llifa"\. X.S.. and at Toronto. ,\t an earh' a
e he entered mercantik 
life, though he had alwa)s a leaning to\\ards the ministr), and in the :\Icthodi
t 
Church. to which he helonged, he \\as wont to act as a Ia
 preacher. In hi
 youth he 
filled se\ eral positions of trust in business house
. and in 1 ð,JY commenced busme"s 
for himself. From the first, his wish was to prosecute an e\c\usiwl) dr) -goods 
husiness. and to conduct it in complete and distinct departments, each under ih indi- 
\ idual head, In this, his energ} and fine lJu
iness hahits, coupled \\ ith his high moral 
\\orth. made him successful: and from step to step he \\ent (JIl. e\'Cr huilding up a 
large and more IUCrali\'e trade, Soon his firm grew to he one of the largest wholesale 
importing huuses in the I >ominion. ,\fter he had well e,
tablished his husiness, he 
ga\'e leisure tu puhlic claims upon him. and sat in the old I egislati\'e .\sseml11\ of 
C.mada for \\ cst Toronto, up to the period of Confederation. For three \ears 
(I S7 5,R), he sat also in the Dominion Parliament for Centre Toronto, In politics. 
:\1 r. :\lacdonald \\ as an Independent Liheral, discarding the Part\ \ ote \\ hen it 
tra\'ersed his personal com ictions, He too\.. a deep intercst in all puhlic questions. 
and his \oice, his purse, and his pen were alwa\s at the seT\ ice of a good cause, HL 
W.1S an acti\e member of the Board of Trade. a Senator of Toronto L'ni\ersit\,. a 
\ isitor of \Ïctoria College. interested in the Bihle Society, the I:\"angclical .\lIiance, 
the Temperance organiLation, and the Young .:\Ien's Christian ,\ssoci.nion. In lð87 he \\a
 appointed .1 SelJ.\tor of the 
Dominion. In Fehruary of the pre;,ent 
 ear (I ð9o), he died. much and \..eenly regretted. 


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CII.-\PTE R X\'. 


THE IJEKo:\II;\,\TIOXS .\;\1> THEIR P,\:-;TOl{S. 


BI<IFF :-;....FTCH OF I'HE Ioc\1. RISE \:\IJ (;1<0\\ I'H OF THt. RI:PI<ESEXT\f1\'E CHI'RCHFS, THE El'bCOP\[ 1.\]1;, Ro\I.\
 
C\I'HOIIC, I'I<I"Sl:\l"1"I<I.\'\. \l1:I'HOI.br. B,\l'rIsr. ,\'\1> CO:'(t;R
:<;\TlOX.\I. BULlIFs, PI<O\I:,(CI.\L I'IO;\I':ERS OF REII<;IO:o.I, 
Ecn FSI\STIC\I ,\'\"'\",\1 S \'\1. Sr.\rISI"lLS. 


T H 
ï: there is no State Church in 
'anad,a, 
nd no State aid given to am' denominati
n is, if we e'cept the peculiar 
pnnkges guaranteed to Roman ( atholics III (Juehec, hardly the fault of the early .. rench rulers of the country, or 
e\en of those, la\' and cleric, of British origin who laid the foundations of the I'rO\ince, It is unnecessary here to 
refer to that hone of contenlion, the ('lergy Resef\'es, and to the attitude of the early Provincial E,ecutive, who sought 
to e,c\ude all denominations hut the Church of England from participating in the prO\'ision made h) the State for the main- 
tenance in t.:pper Cmada of the Protestant religion, This action, it is well-known, was long and hitterly contested hy the other 


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.. denominational hodies, \\ ho were adi\'cly pursuing, in thl: face of 
gnC\'OUS oÍJstacles, thcir c\angcli/ing work in \\hat was thcn a wiklcr- 
ness, and had indisputahlc claims to share in the land grants of the 
Crown, The matter was, in 18,Jo, happily laid at rest h
 admitting 
the claims of the Church of Scotl.md, the :\Iethodist hody, and one 
or t\\ 0 other denominations, and h
 the later scculari/ation of the 
hulk of the \.inùs, ch:efl) for the purposes of education. B
 right of first occupancy in the ficld, thcre was, howe\ er, some 
justification for the claim aù\anced hy the .\nglican Church in the I'rovince, for the dcnomination had a church in \ ork 
(Toronto) as earh a, I H03, \\ hich h) process of e\olution. suhject to the set-had,s of lire, has come to he thc C.1thedra\ 
Church of St. Janks of to-da) ()f thi'i church, the Rev. (;eo. Okill Stuart was the incumhcnt, and among Episcopalians he 
is kno\\ as fìr'it R..:ctor of I'oronto, as well as ,\rchtleanll1 of Kingslon. :\Ir. :-;tuart was shortly aftcrwards succeeded hy that 
doughty champion of the long domin.mt church. the Re\'. John Str.wh.m. 1).1).. who in I H39 hccame first Bishop of the I )iocese 
of Toronto. \\ hen this I )iocesc \\.lS constituted, its area \\.IS the whole I'ro\'Ïnce of C ppcr ('.mada, Portions of the territory 
were suhsequentl) hrokcn off into other I>iocesan organi/ations, \ i/.: Huron in I XS7, Ontario in 1862. ,\lgoma in 1873, and 

iagara in I S7 5, To,day, the fi\'e hishops of these se\ eral dioceses administer the aff.lirs of what \\as originally one See. In 
I Xr.,. the Y l'n..:r.lhl..:. th..: lirst Bishop of Toronto died, anù W.1S sUlT..:uIed hy Bishop Bethune, and h..:, in turn, W.1S followed, in 


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1'01<0:0< 1"0 l'j\ 1\ I, 11.'11 \. 



THE DE \'0 1/11 1 ,'.-1 TIOX\' AXD THEIR F-lSTORS. 


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I xiI). I" Dr. :-;wealman. the present Bishop of the I >ioce...e, To-da\, the position of the Episcopal Church \Ùthin the hounds of 
the :-;ee is most gratif\ ing. I n Toronto, there are no" more churches and congregations of the denomination than there were 
parishes at the original cn.\Jtion of the hishopnc. \\'hen Ilr. Slrachan first hecame Rector of \ ork, there were hut five 
l:piscop..1.1 clergyman in the whole of l'pper 
Canada, \\'hen he hecame Bishop. thl'ir 
numher had risen to se\el1t)-one. To-day 
though five dioceses have heen carved out of 
the Pro\ inn\ there are one hundred and si'\ty 
c1erg\ men lahouring in the Toronto Iliorese 
alone; and of thi
 numher nearl) one-half 
hold pastorates or college profe"sorships, etr.., 
in the city, The mother church of the Eccle- 
siastical PrO\ ince is the Cathedral Church of 
:-;t. James, It has had an unusually e\ entful 
history. From the unohtrusive "oaden huild- 
ing, erected as a I'arish Church in \ ork at 
the opening of the cenrur), it has" ith mam 
\ icissitudes de\ doped inro the statdy huild- 
ing "e "no" to da). In a cr)pt. under the 
chancd, is the dust of him \\ ho through a 
long and stOrI11\ \ife "atched mer its e\ery 
interest. as well as the interest of that nohle 
adjunct of the Church, the l'niversity of 
Trinit\, College, "hich he founded and tended 
"lth loving care. 1'0 other faithful hands in 
the Episcopate has heen handed down the 
tru...t to which he did justice. "ith the incen- 
tives of fervent .leal and loyal ùe\()tion to 
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OAK S (REF I I'RE"R\ rERIA:-' CIIl'RCH. 


The Roman ('atho\ic ('hurch. though not.l large or \ en' influential hod) in Toronto. po,
se""ö a good deal of wealth, 
and" ithin the sphere of its operations docs much for religion and not less for charin, I n another PrO\'ince it has a much larger 
hold, and its ecclesiastical operations e'\tend OVer the whole Ilominion, :\ early t" 0 millions of the ('anadian people are of this 
fold, and the Church counts among its clencal "orkers a Cardinal, eighteen Bishops, and about tweh e hi.mdred clerg\. In 
Toronto it o"ns ten churches and three chapels. hesides the mother church. the Cathedral of :-;t, \Iichael, 
a ('ollege, and a numher of !-ochool". charities and convents. ,\ fourth of the centur) had passed a"ay 
hefore the Roman Catholics possessed a church in the cit\. Their first !-oacred edifice was St. Paul's, on 
I'o\\er :-;treet. which was built in I ð2Ó. The street on which it is erected recalls the first prelate of the 
diocese. Bishop I'ower. "ho in I ð-1-7 fell a \ ictim to the cholera. "hen :-;t. \Iichaer
 Cathedral "as nearing 
completion. His successors in the See h.lve been Bishop Charhonnd, .\rchhishop I.)nch. and the present 
"orthy prelate. ,\rchhishop Walsh, ,\s an indication of the phenomenal gro\\th of Toronto, it is worth 
reminding the reader that when St. \Iichael's Cathedral "as heing erected, Bishop Power "as taken to task 
for planting a church in "hat "a" then a dense hush. far from the centre of the city. I.'jft\ years. after, we 
ha\e seen a Bishop of ,mother communion rear a ('athedral fulh' three miles further into the hush. and 
e\ en then far" ithin the Corporation limits. 
From an early period Presh) terianism ohtained a foothold in 
roronto. and ha" gro" n marvelloush' "ith the march of the ) ears. 
rhe first minister of this hody to settle permanentl} 111 the C1l\', \\a!o the 
Re\', .I.Hnes Harris. \\ ho came to Canada from Beltast as a :\rinister of 
the Presh) terian Church in I reland, B) the 
munificence of the late :\Ir, Je",.,e Kdchum. 
the site \\as donated, in 18:?!. for tbe .. \'ork 
Presh
 tcrian Church,"" hich "as erected in 
the follo\\ ing \ ear, and did dut} for the 
denomination until 18-1- i. "hen Kno'\ Church 
"as reared in its place, Before this happened, 
ho\\ ever. thos,- "ho clun
 to the traditions 
of the Scotch Establishment had 
eparated 
themsehes from those who s\mpathiLed with the Disruption, and formed the old Church of St. .-\ndrew"s. with Dr. Barclay as 
their pastor. From 18-1--1- to 1858. Knox'" had the benefit of the ministration" of the Rc\. Dr. Bunb. From the I.1tter period 


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TilE DEXOJIIX..4 TIOA:S AXD THEIR PASTORS. 


to 1879. the Re\', Dr. Topp mini
tered to the congregation in sacred things, In 1880. a new régime was begun with the 
indut:tion into the pastorate of the Re\. Dr. Parsons, With the years ha\e grown the Church\ membership. Since 1858. the 
roll has increased three-fold, Into the records of the other city church organiLations, which have com", into union under the 
,'omprehensi\'e fold of Preshyterianism, we ha\", not space here to enter. The edifice built 
in IX31 on Church Street. near the corner of .-\ddaide, and long known as "The Kirk" of 
Toronto, has p:lssed from the J...en of the modern citi7en. Its traditions are, however, trea- 
sured by two !>trong and influential congregations, known as "Old" and "Xew" St. .\ndrew"s. 
Both churches are notable adornment" of the city. and their pa
lors Rev. (;. 1\1. :\Iilligan, 
\1..\.. and Re\". l), J. :\lacdonnell, B.I>. -are men find) equipped for their work. Cooke's 
Church, on (.!ueen Street East, n:presents, traditionally at least, Irish Preshyterianism. It 
was erected in 1858, and was long under the pastoral charge of the Rev, \\'m. (;regg, )J.I>., 
the learned historian of Presb) terianism in 
Canada. In 1886, the Re\. \\'m, Patter- 
son, a natiw of County I )erry, succeeded 
to the pastorate. Presbyterianism is now 
well-grown in Canada. The denomination 
has o\'er 900 clergy, nearly 1.900 churches 
and stations, with close upon 160,000 
cOlllmunic..lnts. In Toronto, there are 
now t\\ entv-fi\ e churchcs connected with 
the body, and two \\ell-established weekly 


newspapers. 

Iethodism can point to great sue 
cesses in the cit), \\ here it has thirt) -four 
congregations, and, architecturally, some of 
the most beautiful churches. Far down in its Canadian history, :\Iethodism in the PrU\'ince was an outpost of the I\lethodist 
Episcopal Church in the United States, From the earliest period its itinerant preachers tra\'elled over the rough and sparsely 

ettled circuits in Cpper Canada. Not till about 1818, howe\er, was there any church organÏLation in York, In that year a 
frame building was erected on King Stre
t, where the Bank of Commerce now stands. Before this, York was served hy 
preachers and e'\horters, who \\ere assigned to dut) in the Home I )istriet, or Yonge Street Circuit. .\t the Conference of 182 7, 
York was made a separate" station," and six years later, \\ hen a union had been consummated \\ ith the British Conference and 
the main :\Iethodist body. the denomination took the name of the \\'esleyan 
Iethodist Church. Some twenty years later, were 
erected the .\delaide Street, Richmond Street, and Queen Street churches. and the Kew Connection :\Iethodists also founded a 
church on Temperance Street. The Primitive \Iethodists also began about 
this period their labours in the city, Union in time followed, and the progress 
of the Church was henceforth gratifying and rapid. \\ ith the coming of 
I k :\lorley PUllshon, :\Iethodism in Toronto started into new life. and the 
noble edifice, the :\Ietropolitan Church, with mal1\" othd structures, were part 
of the fruit. To-day, the churches of the denomilution overspread anò 
beautih' the city, and testify to the devotion of both pastors and people, 
In the denominational organ, the Christiall Guardiall, Methodism has an old 
but \ igorous ally. 
Phenomenal in Toronto has been the growth, and that within a fe\\ 
years, of the Baptist Communion. The body has now si'\teen churches in 
the city. with the important and vigorous auxiliaries of a well-equipped C ni- 
versity and an able organ in the Press. One of its earliest churches \\as the 
Bond Street Church, n",ar Queen, long associated with that .realous worker, 
the Rev, Dr. Fyfe, afterwards Principal of the denominational Seminary in 
\\'ooc\stock. H) the late Senator \Ic:\laster's liberality. the fortunes of the 
Rlpti!,t Communion brightened when he mad", the bequest for the erection and 
endO\\lnent of the theological college, known as :\Ic:\lastcr Hall. \\ ith the 
growth of the denomination, this Cniversity has latd) had strong additions 
J made to its teaching faculty, and it is now well set on its career of useful \\ ork, 
'..Jf Throughout the city, the denomination no\\ own!> sixteen handsome and well- 
filled churches. 
The early memories of Congregationalism in Toronto, in the m.lin, 
clu,.,ter round thr",,,, churches, one old Zion Church, at the corner of Hay and ..-\deJaide Streets, associated \\ ith the names of the 
Rev. John Roaf and Rev. T. S. Ellerby: two, Hond Street Church, associated with the name of the Rev. F. II. :\Iarling; and three, 
the ì\'orthern Congregational Church, a,.,sociated. if we mistake not. with the name of the Rev. I Jr. ..\dam l.illie, and latterly with 
thaI of the Rev, :\1 r. Burton, Beside,., these, four o\her churchu, ha\ e since been erected bv the acti\ e .real of the denomination. 


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THE DEXOJfIKATIOXS AND THEIR PA
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\\' e have h.Jt ourseln
s no "pace to enumerate the churches, or to speal of the ecclesiastical \\ or\... of other religious bodies 
II ho l1.1n
 homes and a sphere of actil it\' in Toronto. Each of the 1'011011 ing ha\'e onto or more churches. chapel!. or meeting- 
houses in the city: Ph mouth Brdhren, Reformed Episcopal, Cltholic . \postolic, (;erman Lutheran, l' nitarian, K e\\ Jerusalem, 
nisei pIes, 
ociety of Friends, Bible Christians, Christ.ldelphians, and J e\\ s, Besides these, there is the Temple, \\ ith numerous 
branch barr.lcks. of the Sahation . \rm). The memhers and adherents of these fragmentary borlies, we ma) \\e1l helie\'e, ha\'e 
reason for the faith that is in them, and. doubtless, in their own hum hIe Ilay are doing something for the :\Iaster's cause and 
are as" \\ells in a dry land." It is the fa
hion now-a-days to speal hopefu1l}' of the churches dra\\ing more closely tog
ther, 
and \\ e should like to think that such a thing was possible, and that denominational harriers II ill some da} fall before the fervid 
onslaught of brotherh' 100'e and the \\and of union, Hut. a
 we ha\e clsewhere asled, is church union, though it ma} be largely, 
and from the best moti\'es earnestly, discussed at the present da}, rea1l) a practical or 
essential thing, sa\'e among those denominations that are akin in doctrine and in mode of 
church gU\ ernment ? \\'e thinl not. X or do we see the desirability of any fusion \1 hich 
shall appear forced and discordant. For ourselves, while lIe do not fail to appreciate 
the spirit which prompts to unit), \Ie are content to see some dilision of lahour amongst 
the churches, and deem di\'ersit} itself not onl) a natural thing but one of the hest factors 
in keeping the denominations from contracting rust. It IS true that there is much in 
common among a1l Prote!.tant communions: therc is the "ame enem) to fight and the 
same hea\en to he lIon. But foes ha\'e been conquered with a laridy of weapons, and 
the abode of the blest has many mansions, 
The Right Rev, Arthur Sweatman. \LA, n. D., though still in the prime of life, 
has alread) !.pent a most acti\'e and æalous career in man) spheres of usdulness. Born 
in London, England. in 183
. lIe find him as early as his si'\teenth )ear h:aching in the 
Christ Church Sunda) School. \Iar) lehone, SeH:n years later he \\as Superintendent of 
Jesus lane Sunda) School in the British metropolis, In 1859, he \\a
 ord.lined deacon, 
in the 1'0110\\ ing ) ear, priest. 
Ieanwhile he had taken his degree at Cambridge, \\ ith 
honours in mathematics, and gained a scholarship during his course, He \\.IS entered at 
Christ"s College. . \fter ordination as priest, he accepted the positIOn of master at Islington 
College, being connected at the same time a... curate, first, at Holy Trinit\, Islington, then 
.n 
t. Stephen's, Canonbury. In 186.=;, through the instrumentality of the then Bishop (If 
Huron, he Ila
 induced to cross the .\tlantic and accept the headmastership of He1lmuth College. London, a post he held for 
selen ) ears. .\t the end of this period, the rectorship of Grace Church, Hrantford, lIas offered him, This he took. but at the 
end of hlo \ ears left it for the position of mathematical master at t:' pper Canada C01lege, Toronto, hut soon resigned to take 
once again the charge of Hellmuth C01lege. The year 1875 saw him Canon of the Cathedral at london. Ont.lrio. He lIas 
appointed .-\rchdeacon of Brant. and subsequentl) acting-rector of \\" oodstock, In 1879. his Lordship \\as elected to the \ acant 
Hi.;hopric of Toronto. a post, it need scarceh' be said, at once high, important. arduous and delicate. The Bishop of Toronto 
has e'\ercised, in the \'ariou!. duties connected with his See, that actil it\ and .real 
\\ hich, as we have seen, characterized him in earlier life, and in it his learning. 
urbanih' tact and ski1l in or!!;ani.ration have fu1l scope. 
'n
; :\lost Re\', John L\\alsh, D,n" the present occup..1.nt of the Roman 
Catholic archi-episcopal chair in Toronto, was horn in 1830 in the Parish of 
Ioon- 
"oin, Count) Kilkenm, Ireland, He receil'ed his education first at St. John's 
('ollege, '\'aterford, then at the Seminan' of the Sulpicians at 
Jontreal. He was 
ordained at twent)-four years of age. Soon after this ceremol1\ the young priest 
was appointed to a mission known as the Brock \lission. His ne'\t step in what 
has been a singularl) successful and hri1liant path of life, \\as to the l'arish of :'t. 
\Ian's in the Toronto I )iocese. His next charge was perhaps equa1ly as great an 
ad\ance upon the preceding. that, namely, of rector of St. 
lichael's Cathedral, 
roronto. Here he remained tllO years. .\t the close of. this period, his l;raCL 
returned to St. 
1
1r)'s, heing at the same time licar-general of the diocese. In 
186j. when in hi" thirt\'-eighth \ear. Dr. \\'alsh was unanimousl) nominated b\' the 
hierarch\' of the Ecclesiastical PrO\'ince of Quebec to the Bishopric of Sand" ich, 
his mnsecration taling place in 
t. 
lichaer!;, Toronto. In this See, the newh- 
appointed bishop had fu1l scope for the utmost acti\'it). \\'ith the co-operation of his 
flock, that he succeeded in making his episcopate memorable, not a few things 
testif). Xot only \\ere large and pressing debts entirely remO\ed. but the Cathedral 
of london, (Jnt., begun in 1880 and opened for senice in 188:;. hecame a sub- 

tantial and lastin" monument of progress made, It \Ias during his episcopate 
in london that his\;race attended the Plel11.r\' Council held .It Baltimore. C pon the death of . \rchbi.;hop L) nch. in 1888, 
the Bishop of london \\.IS ca1led to the _\rchi-episcol'.lte of Toronto. the high \,,,,,ition \\ hich hl: .;till occupil:", ,\rchhishol' 


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AI{CHIH
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\\ .I\"h is a nun of fine education and scholarh' attainments. To these gifb he adds the attractions of a very genial disposition 
alHl .1 hro.ul and liheral mind, He has aho great oratorical power, and an impressive manner in the pulpit. ,\,., an 
admini"lrator he has mam e'\cellent qualities, and is much helm cd as well a
 resperted hy his people. 
rhe Re\. \\ m, Caven, 1).1 ).. nO\\ for more than twenty} ears Princip.ll of Kno'\ Collegt:. Toronto. was horn in tht: } ear 
I X30 in the I'.lrish of Kirlcolm. \\ïgtonshire, Scotland, H is father, a descendant of the sturdy upholders of the Solemn 
I eague and ('O\ulant. hrought the f.unily to Canada. settling in Xorth Ilumfries, 
()n1., hut aften\ ards remm ing to the \ icinity of St. ;\Iary's. The subject of this 
s\..clch received his first education under his father's hands, and suhsequently 
"tudied for the ministn' in the St:minary of the t" nited Preshyterian Church at I.on, 
don,On1. In 1852, he was licensed to preach. and in the same )ear too\.. mer the 
parish of St. ;\Iary's and Downie. In 1870, the I'rincipalship of Kno'\ College 
hecame vacant 11\ the resignation of Ilr. \\ïllis, and Dr. Cavt:n was appointed to 
till the high office, Four years previous to this he was appointed 1)\' the Synod, 
Professor of E'\egetical Theology and Bihlical ('riticisrn. He \\as I\loch:rator of 
the Canada Preshyterian Church at the time of its union \\ ith the Preshyterian 
Church in Canada in connection \\ ith the Church of Scotland. Dr, Cavcn has aho 
heen President of the Ontario reachers' .\ssociation. For )ears he has heen 
regarded as one of the foremost e'\ponents and wise leaders of the Preshyterian 
Church in the Dominion, and the numher of young ministers who, during the last 
score of )ears, have come under the influence of his academical and theological 
training, a'i head of Kno'\ College, must he very large. l\Iention must also he made 
of the prominent part taken hy Principal ('a\en in the recent agitation ag.Únst the 
passing of the Jesuit Estates' Rill in Quehec. 
.\ctive and earnest as han
 heen his efforts in 
this direction, he has never e'\ceeded the 
hounds of justice and toleration. Principal ('aven married, in 
(
reenfields. near ,-\yr. in the County of Waterloo, Ont.: hy her 
se\'en children. 
The Rev. Charles \\, E. Hody, D. D.. D.e. 1.., I'rO\ ost and \Ice-Chancellor of the 
L"niversity of Trinity ('ollege, was horn at Claph,ull, Surrey, England, in 1851. .\fter 
recei\'ing a preliminary education, he entered St. John's College, C.unhridge. in 1871, 
\\as Bell Cni\ersity Schol.u in 1872, and graduated three years later with mathematical 
honours, heing si'\th \\ rangIer. In I X76, he gained a st:cond-class in the Theological 
Tripos; was also Carus (
reek Testament pri.rem,lIl; ,tIld in ISï8 hecame '1') r\\ hitt 
Hehre\\ Scholar. .\fter this hrilliant Ulti\'ersitv career, Provost Body \\ as elected relic)\\- 
and I.ecturer in Theology of his College, and also I )ivinity Lerturer in Pemhroke College, 
Camhridge. I n these positions the re\ erend 
gentleman did admirahle work and \\.IS 
deservedly popular. H is influence o\'er 
\'oung men at college \\as very great, and, 
considering the fluctuations of helief among 
the youth of the time, C'\tremcly heneficial. 
In IXSI, Dr. Body was offered and accepted the Prmostship of Trinity College, 
Toronto, In this responsihle post he has done most useful \\ork for the .\nglican 
('hurch in Can.lda, and at the same time has imparted new life and vigour to the 
great C IlIversit) of which he is the head, In his ten years' lahour at Trinity, the 
('ollege ha!' gre.ltly increa...ed its influence and hecome an important rentre of 
learning, I)r. Body hrings to his \\ork great Leal, intense earnestness, scholarh 
attainments and the po\\ers of a highly cultivated mind, The Reverend, the 
I'rm ost is Canon and Chancellor of the Cathedral of the Diocese, 
rhe Rev. Professor \\ illiam Clark, :\1..\., 1.1..1>" who fills the chair of 
\lental and 'Ioral Philosoph\', in the Cniversityof Trinit\. College, Toronto, is one 
of the ahlest and most accomplished of Canada's adopted sons, a learned di\ ine, 
an eloquent preacher, and a highly-equipped instructor of youth. The son of 
tht: Rt:\, J.lmes Clar\.... :\1..\., Ha\iot, Scotland, he was horn at Inverury, Aherdeen- 
shire, ;\[arch 26th. 182l). Prof. Clar\.. \\as educated at King's College, Aherdeen. 
and Hertford College, O'\ford, at hoth of which uni\ersities he graduated. In 1857, he was ord.lÏned deacon. and in the 
follc)\\ ing year priest, hy the Bishop of Worce'iter. He has held se\eral parochial charges in England, and has frequently heen 
selecll"d to preach in St. Paul's, \\'estminster .\hhe), .Ull! other cathedrah. Besides puhlishing se\"Cral \'o!llnll'S of Sl.TmOnS, 


-" 
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TilE DE.YO.lIIN.-lTIONS AND THEIR PASTORS. 



 


RF.v. I'RO\OST BOla, D.O., lI.eL. 


.. 


't. 


RE\. I'HI='CII'AL CA\ E:-:, [), II. 


[S 56, :\1 iss (
oldie, of 
he has had a family of 


r 
'. 


RE\'. PHOF. W. CJ AHK, LL.[J. 



THE DENùAfINA TIO '-S AND THEIR PASTORS. 


i;
 


Prof Clark h.l
 transl.Hed from the (;erman, Hefde '!. .. H iston of the Councils," and has also translated and edited Hag:enhach \ 
wdl-kno\\n .. Hi
lOn of Christian I>ol'trine."' Coming to C.marla in 1882, Prof. Clark \\as for a short time assist;nt at St. 
(;eorgl"
. l'oronto, and \\hile ta\..ing this dut\ was simultaneoush' Ïin-ited to \\or\.. \\ith the Re\. Ik Rainsford. at Xew York, 
and to take the chair of Philosoph) at Trinit\, ('ollege. Toronto. I k Clar\.. elel'ted to an'ept the latter post and was thereafter 
.n once in"talled. Since then, he has had mam calls to undertake clerical and professional \\ork in the L'nited States, all of 
\\ hich he has declined. though he is no stranger in ,\merican pulpit<; and at man) of the uni\ ersities and church congresses in 
the neighhouring Repuhlic. In 188 7. Prof. Clark \\as appointed, hy Bishop Harris. Rald\\ in lecturer at the L' ni\"ersit\. of 
\[ichigan. ,-\nn .\rhor. The fulfilment of this duty appeared in the form of an ahle and thoughtful <;erie!> of lectures. entitled, 
.. Witnesses to Christ: a Contrihution to Chri"tian -\pologdics," puhlished at Chicago in the follo\\ ing )ear. I n I S8X, the 
re\erend gentleman \\.I'i cho'ien Orator at Hohart College, (;ene\"a, X. y" on \\ hich occasion he had the degree of LL 1>, 
conferred up:m him, and was at the same time appointed to an honoran' lectureship and gi\"en a position on the college staff. 
Besides performing the arduous work of his chair at Trinit\, L'niversit\', I Jr. Clark 
finds leisure to edit the Calladzilll Ch,frchlllall, to meet the mam demands upon him 
for popular lectures on literar\" and religious topics of the time, and to take pulpit 
dut\ in many roronto, and not a few outside, churche.. in the diocese, to \\ ho!-oe 
congregations he is alwa\'s a most welcome \'isitant. In addition to this. the Pro- 
fessor i" not infrequently to he met with on the platform in connection with 
charitahle or other puhlic and patriotic work. Into his pulpil ministrations and 
week-da\ lectures. Prof. Clark imports an amount of instruction and interest \\ hich 
greatly profit as well as delight his audience. On the platform, while he is always 
the scholar, he is never the pedant. hut broad-minded, alert and entertaining: in 
the pulpit he possesses a genius for preaching. He has read \\ ideh and studied 
deepl\", Ha\"ing "een much of men and the \\orld, he is a charming ('omersation- 
alist and has the manners and high characteristic qualities of a gentleman. 
The Re\. John R, Tech', B..\., Father Superior of St. \Iichaers (R,C,) 
('ollege. Toronto, \\.IS horn at Richmond Hill, ('ounty \ ork, Ont., ,\ugust 2 1st, 
18-1 8 . He \\as educated at the Cni\'Crsity of Toronto, from which he graduated in 
I S7 I. ,\fter graduating, Father Teef) taught in the Hamilton Collegiate Institute 
and other of the secondary schoo\" of the Pro\ ince for a period of three year". 
He then entered the (;rand Seminar\" at :\Iontreal, where he studied theolog\". In 
June, 18jS, he was ordained a priest, and was immediately thereafter attached to 
St. :\Iichael's ('ollege, Toronto, as Professor of :\Iathematics. Prof. reef)'s 

,'holarh- attainments, fine teaching ahilit\, and general high character led, in 1889, to his appointment as Father Superior of 
St. :\Iichael's College. rhis institution, as is known, is affiliated with the 
ational L'ni\'Crsity, and h\' ,irtue of his office the 
Re\'. Father Tedy is a memher of the Senate of Toronto L' ni\'ersit). The Father Superior of S1. :\hchael's holds a high place 
in the regard of those of his own communion, and he is also highly esteemed h) many 
Protest.mts. and especially h\" the educationists of the PrO\ ince, who ha\ e the pleasure of 
knO\\ ing him, 
The Re\'. \\ïlliam Reid, 1).1 )., long and favourahl) known as one of the clerks of 
the (;eneral ,\ssemhh' of the Presln terian Church in Canada. and agent for the Scheme" 
of the hod\. \\as horn in ISI6 in the Parish of Kildrumn1\'. ,\herdeenshire. Scotland. 
He \\as educated at King'
 College, ,\herdeen, where he took his :\L-\. degree. 
-\fter 
lakin
 his theological course, he was licensed to preach hy the l're!.hyterv of Fordyce, of 
the Church of Scotland, in 1839, and shortly thereafter left for Canada under an appoint- 
ment a!-o mi
sionar) for the (;Ia"gO\\ Colonial Society, Earl\" in r S-10 he \\as ordained 
.1I1d inducted to the pastoral charge of (;rafton and Colborne, at that period attached to 
the Pre,,11\ ten of Kingston, In r 8-19 he \\as called to Picton, Prince Ed\\ard Co., where 
he remained until 1853. \\ hen he remO\ cd to Toronto, to hecome general agent of the 
Scheme
 of the Presln terian ('hurch and Editor of the EcduiaJlical and J/Ùsi{JllalJ' 
Record. In 1850, Dr. Reid \\as :\[oderator of the S)llOd of the Prc'ih)terian Church; in 
I8j 3 he \\as :\Ioderator of the (;eneral Assemhly of the Canada Presh) terian Church - 
Ihe designation of the hody after union (in 1861) with the United Presh)terian Church: 
.lI1d in 18i9 he \\as 
Ioderator of the (;eneral 
\ssemhl) of the Preshyterian Church in 
LlI1ada, the union of the \arious hranches of the Presbyterian Church ha\ ing taken place 
in 18i5. During this long interval, the no\\ \enerable di\ine has lahoured earnestly for 
his denomination, and heen a trusted and faithful sef\'ant in administering the financial and general affair
 of the I'resb) terian 
Church in Canada. The re\'erend gentleman has also been actively connected, for a long series of years, \\ ith the L' ppcr 
Canada Hible Society, and the Religious Hook and rract Society of the Provincc, In 18j6, I>r. Reid recei\ed the honorary 
degree of D.n. from (Jueen'" L'ni\er"it\.. King-.wn. 


.. 
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J 


RE\. FATtIER TR
 F\', B.A. 


t 


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, J 


J{
 \. \\'\1. RFlU, II. D. 



;4 


THE DENOlfIT..lT./()NS AXD THEIR PASTORS. 


The Re\', Dr. Poth. the stah\art (;eneral Secrdar) of the Educational Society of the" ethodi<;t Church in Canada, \\as 
horn in Count\ hrmana\.::h, Irel.wd, 1R3X, and was onlv se\enteen when he left the land of his hirth for the 
ew \\'orld. 
()ri!-!:inalh an l:piscopalia
l. he afkn\ards joined the 
Iethodist Communion, and, after a short period passed in mdcantile 
pursuits in Kin!-!:ston and Hamilton, commenced to study for the ministry, attending 
\ïctoria College. Cohourg. .\t the age of h\t:nt)-three, he was ordained, having prior 
to this undertaken ministerial work in :\larkham, .\urora, :\ewmarlet. and Thorold. 
,\fter ordination, he assisted the Rev. Richard Jones, at London, from \\hich place he 
\\as remmed to Yorhille. His ne'\t charge was the pastoratè of the new Centenary 
Church at Hamilton. and in it he was eminentl) successful. From Hamilton I >r. Potts 
passerl to the St. Jam",s' Stred Church, :\Iontreal, where he added success to succ",ss. 
Toronto again claimed him, and he took first the :\Ietropolitan ('hurch, then the Elm 
Street, then again the l\letropolitan. after which he once again \'isited :\Iontreal, taling the 
St. James' Street Church, for a second tenn. This conduded, we find him once more at 
the Elm Street Church, Toronto. These charges are noteworthy, showing, as they do, 
hy the responsihle positions the suhject of this sketch successi\'ely fillerl, in hm\ high an 
estimation he \\as and is held h) the hody to which he belongs. E\'er since his twent)- 
eighth year, (Jr. Potts has been called to undertake the duties appertaining to some of the 
most influential and important centres of l\Iethodism in the Dominion. Xor is it in the 
pastorate alone that I>r. Potts has shone. In 
1887, he was President of the Methodist Con- 
ference. and he now holds the Ceneral Secre, 
taryship of the Educational Society of the 
('hurch. He is a member of the International 
Sunda) School Committee, of the Hoard and Senate of \Ïctoria College. and also of 
the Board of the \Iontreal Theological College. On the platform, Dr. Potts' fen'id 
elofluence attracts large audiences and delights them, 
The Rev. Henry :\1. Parsons, ().I>., Pastor of Kno'\ ('hurch, was born in 
IX28 at East Haddam. Connecticut, C. S., where for lifty years his father (the Rev. 
Isaac Parsons) was Pastor of the 1st Congregational Church, He rccei\'ed his pre 
liminar) education at \\ïlliston Seminary, East Hampton, :\Iass., and thereafter 
proceeded to Yale College. ì\ew Haven, Conn" where he graduated in 18-t8. After 
teaching for some years. he entered the Connecticut Theological I nstitute, East 
Windsor, to take a course in Divinity, and 
then accepted the pastorate of the 1st 
Congregational Church at Springfield, 
.\Iass. Here Dr. Parsons laboured for 
si:-.teen years, after which we find him in 
charge successiwly of the Union Church, 
and Oliver Church, Boston, and of the I afayette Presbyterian Church, Huff..1.lo, 

. Y. While in charge of the latter, he recei\'ed, in 1880, a call to the pastorate 
of Knox Church, Toronto, which had become \'acant, 0\\ ing to the lamented death, 
in the preceding year, of the Re\'. Dr. Topp. This call l)r. Parsons accepted, and 
has since lahoured faithfully in this old historic Presbyterian charge. C nder his 
ahle ministrations Knox Church has grown rapidly in wealth and membership. Dr. 
Parsons received his honorary degree of 1>.1 >, in 1888 from Knox College. Toronto, 
The reverend gentleman is a devoted and learned Bible student, and is an enthusi- 
astic \\orker at the Believers' :\Ieding for Bible Study held annually at :\iagara. 
He also takes a keen interest in many of the religious mm'ements of the day. and 
in the pulpit and on the platform is an instructive as \\'ell as a fervent and impressive 
speaker. 
The Rev. Daniel James :\lacdonnell, :\1..\., B.I>., Pastor of St. Andrew'" 
(Presbyterian) Church, was born at Bathurst, New Brunswick, in I8-t3. He is the 
son of the late Rev. (;eorge :\Iacdonnell, some time minister of St. Luke's (Kirk of 
Scotland), Bathurst, but later of Fergus and :\lilton, Ont. The subject of this 
sketch was educated at Bathurst, N,H., at (;alt, Ont., and at Edinburgh, Scotland. He graduated in .\rts at (.!ueen's College, 
Kingston, taling thereafter a theological course at the I >i\'inity Hall in that city, and finishing his studies for tbe ministry at 
(
Ia
go\\, Edinburgh and Berlin. In 1866, he was ordained in the Scotch Estahlishment hy the Preshytery of Edinburgh, and, 
returning to Canada, was called to St. ,\ndrew's Church, l'eterborough. Four years afterwards, he accepted the pastorate of 
St. .\ndre\\ \ Church, Toronto, in \\ hich charge he has since laboured with great .real and dcvotion. Here, his success as a 
preacher incited his congregation to erect the very h.lI1dsomc edifice which adorns King Stred '''e"t, and which cost, in all, over 



 


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REV. ,lOll" POTTS, D.I>. 


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t, \0< 


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Rn, 11. 
L r'\/(SONS. D.l>. 


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RE\'. D. J. :\1,\CDO!\l:-;EI.I., :\1..-\., B.D. 



THE DEXO IfIAPATIOXS A
VD THEIR PASTORS. 


75 


$100,000. His gifts a
 a preacher are inten!.e earne
tness, coupled with great nervous force, an impres
i\ e manner, and a 
telling pll\\er of interesting hi
 audience. .\nother ingredient in his popularity is his known Iiheralism in theolog
, together with 
a hlunt hut acceptable way of sa\ ing fearle,.,sl) \\ hat he thinks. The reverend gentleman 
w,\s one of the mo
t cordial ad\ ocates of I'resh
 terian union in Canada, and contributed 
in no little dcgree to its consummation in 1875. \Ir. :\Iacdonnell takes a large intere-;t in 
the cit,,'s charities and other good \\orks. He i
 a member of the Senate of Toronto 
Cni\"ersity, and, \\t: beliew, one of the Trusteö of QueelÚ College, Kingston. 
The Rev. S.unud H. hellogg, 1>,1>.. Pastor of St. James' Square I'resb) terian 
Church. \\as horn in 1839 at <2uiogue, Susse'\ ClIunt
. long Island, his father heing then 
in the ministn' of the Presb
 terian Church of the C nitI'd States. He graduated at the 
College of Xe\\ Jerse), Princeton, in 18ól. and three years later completed his di\"init\ 
cou."e at the Princeton Theologic....1 Seminar), of whi,'h he \\as also tutor in mathematics, 
I n 18ó-t. he was ordained b
 the Old School I'resb
 tery of Hudson, and at the close of 
that ) ear sailed for India. to undertale missionary \\orl in the Korth, \\'est prO\ inces or 
H indostan. For ten \ ears the re\ erend gentleman devoted himself to evangelistic work, 
first at Futtehpur. and aftemards at .\lIahabad, when the death of his \\ife, in 1876, 
compelled him to return to .-\merica for the education and care of his children. For a time 
he accepted a charge at I'ittshurgh, I'a.. hut in 1878 \\as appointed successor to the late 
Re\. Dr. ,\, ,\, Hodge. as Professor of S)stematic rheology in the \\ estern Theological 
Seminar), .\lIeghany. In this important chair he lahoured for the ne'\t eight years. at 
the same time doing much in the \\ay of literary \\ork. In t886, I Jr. Kellogg accepted 
a call to the St. James' Square Pre-;b) terian Church. Toronto, the pulpit of which had 
heen rendered vacant hy the appointment of the Re\. I>r. John 
1. King to the I'rincipalship of :\Ianitoba College. Under 
Dr. Kellogg's pa
torate, the membership of the churc'h has almo,.,t doubled. Dr. Kellogg has been an industrious, life,long 
student and a learned contributnr to the literar
 mag,lLines and theological reviews, He is the author of a grammar of the 
Hindu Lang-uage and Pialeets, the official te'\t-hook for the Indian Ci\'il SerÙce. . \ re\Ïsed and enlarged edition of this work 
is shortly to he brought out in london, rng., under the patronage of Her :\lajesty\ Council for India, Dr. Kellogg's other 
\\orb are "The Je\\s: or Prediction and Fulfilment;" .. The I ight of ,\sia and the Light of the World;' a comparison of 
Buddhism and ('hristianit\,; "From I )eath to Resurrection;' a scriptural !.tudy of the intermediate state; and a critical and 
e'\egetical work on the Book of le\"iticus. no\\ passing through the press, to form one of the is,ues of .. The E'\positor's Bible." 
The re\erend gentleman, in lð77. received the degree of 1>.1>. from Princeton College, Xew Jersey; he is a member of the 

enate of Kno'\ College, Toronto, and of the Foreign ;\Iissions Committee of the (;eneral .\ssemhly ; also an associate of the 
\Ïctoria Institute, or Ro
al Philosophical Societ\' of (;reat Britain: and member of the .\merican Oriental Society. In 1889, I>r. 
Kellogg \\as present a" a memher of tht: International Congress of Orientalists, \\ hich met at Stockholm, Sweden, under the 
pre"idenc\" of King O,.,car I I. 
The well,kn()\\n :\Iethodist di\"ine, the Re\'. Hugh Johnston, 
L-\.. 1>.1>., was born in the Township of Southwold, Ont.. 
in the ) ear IR-to. Before his eighteenth hirthday, he had ohtained a first-class teacher's certificate, a licen
e to teach, and a 
po"ition in the \rkona High S('hool, in the County of I ambton. He soon abandoned 
school,teaching. howe\ er, for the ministry, and \\ ith this object entered \Ïctoria College, 
graduating in [86-t, and recei\'ing ordination in the follo\\ ing year. His first ministerial 
charge was in Toronto, his ne"t at 
Iontreal, where he assisted the venerahle I>r. I )ouglas. 
From thence he \\as sent to \\Ïndsor, returning from that to\\ n to Toronto. ,\t the end 
of three years in this city, he spent si'\ in Hamilton, first at the Centenary Church, then 
at the \\'esle\, this latter undergoing notable architectural improvements while under his 
pastorate. In 1878, I>r. Johnston was in requisition by the St. Jame!'" Street Church, 

Iontreal. Returning to Toronto in 1882, he took charge first of the :\Ietropolitan 
Church. then of the Carlton Street Church, and subsequently of the ne\\ and handsome 
Trinit\, \Iethodist Church. Dr. Johnston's acti\'ity has manifested itself in other spheres 
besid
s that of the pulpit. He has \Hitten much in denominational organs, and still often 
contributes de-;criptions of tra\d, etc.. to the secular press, His letters 'Hitten when 
correspondent on an e'\pedition through British Columhia will be remembered by malll'. 
He has also tra\'elled far and wide. 
The late Rev. nr. -\leunderTopp, for O\er t\\enty years I'a
tur of Kno'\ Church, 
Toronto \\ ill long be remembered as a faithful 
en'ant of the 
Iaster, in ministering in 
sacred things to ;n influential body of the Preshyterian Church in this cit). He was 
born near the old historic to\\n of Elgin, 
Iorayshire, Scotland, in 1815, and \\as educated 
at the Elgin Academ), and at King's College, ,-\berdeen, \\inning at the Iattd a high 

cholarship, \\hich he held throughout his undergraduate course. In 1836, he was licensed to preach, and \\as at once called 
to a charge in Elgin, his natiw town. Here he laboured till the era of the I )isruption, \\ hen the rewrend gentleman seceded, 


... 


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lax. S. II, KELLOGG, D.D. 


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REV. H. ]OII:oISTO:ol, M.A., D,D. 



it; 


THE DE\OJffLlTIONS .IND THEIR PASTOR,r.,: 


\\ ith large numhers of his clerical hrethren, from the 
cotch Estahlishment. carr
 ing 
\\ith him nearly his whole congregation to a new clu,rch in Elgin, In this charge he 
remained till 1852. when he remmed to Edinhurgh to accept the pastorate of the Ro'\, 
hurgh Churrh in the famed city. In 1R5S. 1Jr. Topp recei\ed a call from Kml'\ Church, 
Toronto. then recentl
 under the charge of the Rt.'v, I>r. Rohcrt Hums. This I)r. l"opp 
accepted. and he arrivcd in Toronto in the autumn of 1858. For t\\(:nty,one \ ears he 
I.Ih(lured with great earnestness and de\"(,tiL'n in this important charge. until death O\'er- 
took him and \\Ïthdrew him from the sight. hut not from the hearts, of his people. Ht. 
was a wise, faithful and kiJl(lI
 minister to the flock he ser\'ed. and few pa"tors have heen 
more deservedly honoured and helO\'ed. I)r. Topp died on the 6th of Octohcr. 18 71)' 
The Re\'. Dr. Edw.lrd HartJey I )ewart, a nati\'e of the ('oont) of ('av:m, Ireland. 
left the land of his hirth at the early age of si'\ 
ears, his parents settling in the ('oonty 
of I'derhoroogh. Ont., in 183-1-. What little schooling he was ahle to ohtain in this 
district. in those carl) \'ears, was supplemented h\" a hrief term at the :\orm.ll School, 
Toronto. .lfter which he for a short time .llternateh taught and studied, In lð51, ha\Ïng 
joined the Wesleyan :\Iethodi
t ('horch. he commenced hi" tme life-\\'or\.. as junior preacher 
on the St. Thomas Circuit. From thence he went to the Thorold and Port Hope Circuits, 
after \\hich he recei\ed his ordination. I)r. I k\\art's lahours have e'\knded over a wide 
.Ire.\ of the I )()minion, '\"e find him, after having heen ordained. first at I )unda". then 
as superintendent of the St. .-\ndre\\ 's ('ircuit, then on the Odellto\\ n Circuit. and lastly 
in :\Iontreal. 0\ er-wor\.. now hegan to tell upon his health. and I)r. I >Cwart was com- 
pelled to relinIJuish his duties to enahle him to recuperate. Soon, hO\\ e\'er, he re- 
commenced his lahours, first at St. John's, then at Collingwood, these heing followed hy 
charges at Toronto and Ingersoll. Hut I)r. I )ewart is as well-knO\\ n through the influ- 
ence of hi" literar) zeal as through that of his pastoral. ,\s early as the year 186<). he 
was elected to the editorial chair of the C/lristian (;uardiall. a post he has \\ orthily filled 
.md still fills at the present time. He h.lS e'\cellent literary tastes, and has puhlished an 
antholog\' of Canadian \'erse. hesides himself contrihuting many fine poems to the store 
of our young nati\ e literature. He has also been chosen for man) responsihle and 
delicate positions in the gift of his Church, and in 1873 was appointed delegate to the 
British Conference during the diseussion of the important prohlem of Lnion. He was 
also a member of the (Ecumenical Conference of I XR I. which met in I.ondon, England. 
In the Christian Guardian he has warmly arh'ocated College Federation, and heen a 
staunch supporter of the measure at the denominational gatherings and on the public 
platform. 
The Re\'. Henry Scadding, 1),1 )., Cantab" the wnerahle historiographer of Toronto, 
.md for nearly thirty years Rector of the Church of Holy Trinity and classical master in 
.t C pper Canada College, 
was horn in I )e\ onshire, 
England. in 1813. ('oming at an early age to Canada, he made 
Toronto his home. and in the first year (1830) of the existence 
of L"pper Canad.l College. he \\as head,hoy of th.lt nO\\ re- 
nOI\ ned school. He then pron:eded to England and entered 
St. John's College, Camhridge. from \\ hich he graduated in 
1837, and three }ears later took his \L\. degree, .\fter 
graduating he entered Holy Orders, and in TR3X, was ordained 
a priest. In the same year he returned to Toronro .md he 
c.une classical master in L'pper Canada College, For a IJuarter 
of a century the reverend gentleman was identified with the 
College, and for over half a century has he lnown Toronto and 
heen one of its most \\orthy .md loyal sons. Throughout thi" 
long period he has heen an intimate and Iming student of it!'. 
local histor}, and in his Toronto of Old has g.lthered a mine 
of the richest material relating to its civic life, The value of 
this \\ork must increase with the passing years. and ages to 
come after will treasure \\ ith increasing resJlect the lahour of it.. 
Iming historian. In the Semi-Centennial :\Iemorial \'olume 
of Toronto (I R84), 1Jr. Seadding has enhann,d his gift to the 
citi.rens 11\ the \'ahwhle monograph \\hich appears in that wor\.., 
entitled" :\Iemoirs tlf the Four I >ccades of \ or\.. .. (preceding 


..\I, 


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TIII'- I AT!' RE\. [JR. .-\1 E'\, To.'!'. 


-:;;jJ 




 
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S-or---O=- 
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r, AII:\X'
 :\I"-IIIOI'ISI CIIUI(CII. 


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l{f;v. DK. F, II. DFWAK I'. 



THE flLXOJII.V.-lTIO.NS AND THEIR PASTORS. 


" 


the incorpor.Ition of Toronto). Besidö the-;e important I\orks, Dr. Scadding ha" published a sheaf of e'\ceedingl) interesting 
I>rt>clmre.<, chidl) rdating to hi"torical and biographical matters connected \\ ith the l'arh cih', He has abo bet:n a constant 
contributor to the nati\ e periodicals on cognate suhje(.ts, For m,my ) ears he has ta\..en a warm intere"t in tht: Canadian 
In
titutl'. and in the proceeding" of the \ ork Pioneer,,' organization, of both societies of \\ hich he has heen I'resident. Rarely 
has a to\\ n in thl' '\ ew World had a mon' industrious and enthusia"tir son than Toronto ha" in the interesting historic figure 
of I )octor Hem) :-'caddinl!, 
The Kev, Dr. Stafford \\as born in Elgin Count\. Ont., in 18,)<). For three 
and a half \ears he \\a-; a teacher in his natiH
 count), after which he became a pro- 
hationer for the ministry. He too\.. succl'"si\dy at \Ïctoria l'ni\l'rsit\, the degrees of 
1:.,\.. \L\.. I I .R, and I I,D,. and \\as ordained in Elm Street. Toronto, in ISÓ-t 
,\fter mini-;terial \\or\.. in Western Ontario. Dr. Stafford \\as sent for three )ears to 
the [)ominion Square Church. :\Iontreal. From thence he went to Ottawa for a li\..e 
period, after \\ hich he \\.IS. by unanimous vote, recalled to :\Iontreal, his mini"tration" 
,11 ()tt.l\\a hein!-: meall\\ hill' !.o "ucce!.-;ful that an attempt \\ as made to secure his rdurn 
to that cit\. Thi" heing inadmis"ihle. hi" ne'\t move W.IS to Winnipeg. thence to the 
\Ictropolitan. Toronto, .md then to Sherbourne Street. [Ir. Stafford ha-; been placed 
at tIll' head of e\'en' district in which he ha" lahoured !.ince IR7i. and has been dected 
I're"ident of every ('onference [(I \\ hich he has bdonged, In 1886, he was elected 
Fratert1.l1 Ilelegate to the l'nited State" \1. E, Church, and was highly eulogised on 
the ahility \\ ith which he performed his 
arduous and delicate duties. He is an 
ardent advocate of the C nion of all 
Ietho- 
dist bodies in Canada, and too\.. perhaps 
the most prominent part in formulating 
and perfecting the basis of l'nion. 
[Ir. Thoma!., I'astor of the .Ian is 
Street H.Iptist Church. \\as born near Xarberth, Wales, in IX-t3. his father being the 
p.lstor of the Baptist Church in that town, Early intended for the ministn', his 
"tudies \\ere directed to that end. He graduated at H,nerford \\'est, and began 
preaching in his si'\teenth year. His first pastorate was the r.nglish Baptist Church 
at Xeath. South \rales. Coming to the Cnited States in 1868, he tool charge of 
the First Bapti"t Church at Pittston, Pa. From thence, in 1871, he \\as called to 
one ofthe most important pulpits in Philadelphia, and this he continued to fill till 
he succeeded Dr. Ca<;tle in the Jan'is Stred pastorate. in Julv, 1882. Dr. Thomas' 
sermons frequently appear in the leading denominational organs. and his publi"hed 
\\ ritings on religious subjects ha\'e had exten- 
,.,i\'C circulation. 


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I{I!.\, !JR. E..-\. SrMFORD 


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The Rev, \\ïlliam .I ohn Hunter, D, D., 
at present Pa-;tor of ('arlton Street 
Iethodist 
Church, \\as born at I'hillipsburg. PrO\ inre 
of Quehec. in 1835. Hi,., parents emigrated to Canada in 1821, from County T)rone, 
Irdand. and at first settled in LO\\er Canada, but subsequently remo\'ed to the Cpper 
I'rU\'ince. Though both born in Ireland. they \\ere proud to own their descent from the 
Scotch Covenanters. \fieI' recei\ ing a good public school education, Dr. Hunter in 
18 5 6 entered Yictoria College \\ ith a view to the ministry, and pursued a course in classics 
and metaph\'sics, \lthough prevented from completing his Cni\ersity career, he has 1.'\'1.'1' 
been a diligent student. and ha<; talen diplomas for special courses in literary and 
scientific subjer.ts, Twent\,fi\ e out of thirty,four ) ears of his ministerial career have been 
spent in london. Hamilton, Ottawa. and Toronto. His brethren have honoured him 
\\ ith many positions of trust and responsibility: he has sen ed on all the important con- 
ne'\ional committees, been Chairman of District, :-,ecretary, and President of Conference, 
Dr. Hunter. besides heing an ahle and popular preacher, is a strong temperance man, 
.md an earnest and fearless advocate of ever) moral reform. The reverend gentleman is 
also a staunch all\' of Equal Rights, and was one of the first publicly to protest against 
the passing of the Jesuits r.-;tate,,' Bill. 
The Re\, John Burton, \1..\.. B.D.. is a nati\e of Lngland, \\here he 
education. In 1850. he came to Canada, accompanied by his brother, \\ho is a 
Rroc\.. \Ï lit:. \\ hile in that cih. he was induced to stuay for the ministn', and 
:\Ir{
ill College. \Iontreal, and .1 theological course in Kno'\ College. Toronto. 


REV, DR. R. II. TIIO\IA<;. 


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RE\. IIR. \Y. J. Ilt"\TEK. 


spent his bo) hood and recei\'ed an English 
wholesalc merchant in Toronto, and settled 111 
\\ ith that end in \ iew took an . \rts course in 
While at :\Ic(;ill, in 1860, he \\ on the pri7e for 



ï8 


THE DENOJrLVATIONS AND THEIR PASTORS. 


.1 poem on the ol"Casion of the Ù"it of H. R, H. the Prince of Wales. Four years later. he \\as ordained hy the Presll\ter) of 
Brod.Ùlle, and suceeo;si\'ely held charge" in I yn. I're"cott and Bel le\'iIIc. In 1877. he \\as elected hy the l'resh)terian (;eneral 
\sscmhly a delegate to the first I'an-Presh)terian Council \\hich met in Edinhurgh in that year. Two ycars aften\ards, 
Ir. 
Burton accepted a call to tht' r\ onhern Congregational Church of thi" city, of \\ hich he i" "till the earnest and hard-working 
pastor. He has heen chairman of the Congregational l'nion, and President of the 
Toronto :\linisterial .\ssoeiation. \\'hile connected with the former body, \Ir. Burton 
attended, as a delegate, the J ubilec of the Congregational l' nion of I:ngland, \\ hieh met 

 in :\Ianchester in 1882, taking an actiw part therein. 
rhe Re\. Father Joseph J. :\lcCann is one of the Deans in the Toronto (R. ('.) 
\lioce"e. and Rector of St. Helen's Roman Catholic Church, a religious outpost of the 
denomination in the suhurbs of roronto. St. Helen"s Church is situated at the inter- 
section of I )undas Street and Lansdowne .\venue. There it fills a useful and holds an 
important position; and with its school and preshytery, and its pleasant !'urroundings of 
tall graceful trees, presents a very attracti\'e appearance. The ('hurch dates back about 
twenty ycars, and \\as huilt for the accommodation of those Jiving in the western limits 
of Sr. l\l.uy's Parish. In 1875, it became the centre of a separate parish, \\ith the 

 Re\'. Father Shea as first pastor. The present incumbent. the \' cry Re\. \lean :\IcCann 
took charge of St. Helen's in 1882. The congregation has since heen steadily in- 
.., crea"ing, and in I 888, through the acti, it) of Father :\lcCann, the "eating capacity of the 
church wa" doubled. 
.J J The late Prof. Daniel .\rthur 
Ic(;regor, 
B..\.. Ex-Principal of :\lc!\Iaster(Baptist) Hall, To- 
REV. JOH:<V llURTOl'o, .\l.A., U.D. ronto, \\as born of Scottish p.uentage in Osgoode, 
Lo\\er Canada, in the year 18
7. He entered the 
Uniwr
it
 of Toronto, paying particular attention to the subject of :\Iental and !\I oral 
Science, and took the degree of Bachelor of .\rts in 1881. Hc also took the theological 
course at the Baptist Collegc. \\oodstock, Onto From 1879 to 1881 he was pastor of 
Whitby Baptist Church, and in the latter year left \\'hitby for Stratford, where he held a 
pa!,torate until 188ó, From Stratford, he was called to the chair of Homiletics in 
'lc:\la"ter Hall, Toronto. and on the re"ignation of the Rev. I)r. Castle in 1889, Prof. 
,\Ic(;regor I\as appointed Principal and also filled the chair of Theolog). \\"hile holding 
the responsible po"ition of head of the College, ill-health made inroads on his vitality, 
 
and failing to reco\'er "trength he "ought medical advice abroad, but the grim enemy 
overtook him at 
ew York, and he died in St. Luke's Hospital on the 25th of .\priI. 
1890, at the early age of forty-three. 


The Re\'. Thomas \resley Jeffery, at 
pn."sent Pastor of Berkeley Street Methodist 
Church, \\as born on the Island of St. :\lar- THE LATE PROF. D. A. '!CGRE{;OR, ll,A. 
tins, West Indies, and educated at \\'oodhouse 
Cro\'e .\eademy, in Yorkshire, England. .\fter a si" years' course of study there, 
he entered different institutions, scholastic and commercial, to gain the equipment 
necessary for IJractical teaching. In 1857, at the request of the Re\'. Dr. .\/1son 
(;reen (the Canadian representati\'e that year to the British Conference), he came 
to Canada to enter the ministry of the :\Iethodist Church, For a time he laboured 
in Paris, and in 186 I, was received into full connection and ordained by the Re\', 
I Jr. Joseph Stinson at Brantford. :\Ir. Jeffery has Iahoured at Pari", at :\Ielbourne ; 
in the Eastern Townships (twice); at Richmond St. Circuit (h\ ice); Kingston 
:"I"apanee; Elm Street, Toronto (t\\ ice) ; ()ueen Street (three times) ; Sherhourne 
Street: Brampton; Bloor Street \rest (now called Trinity). and at present minister" 
in Berkeley Street Church. He ha" also Iahoun:d at Cobourg and Port Hope. 
ì\lr. Jeffery has the faculty of commanding large congregations of interested and 
intelligent hearers who differ widely in their theological creeds. He has succeeded 
in lea\'ing his church appointments numerically, finanrially, and spiritually better 
than he found them. His address is original and striking, often is it poetical and 
not infrequently eloquent. He prepares thoroughly, but as an C'\tempore speaker 
is easy, graceful and graphic. 
Re\'. John Ellis Lanceley, Pastor of the 
e\\ Richmond Methodist Church, 
\lcCaul Street, was horn at Hirkcnhead, Cheshire, England, January loth, 1848, Hi" father was a "'esleyan local preacher of 
unusual \ igour of mind, and the son seems to have inherited the mental strength of this most exemplary Christian man. The 


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RE\'. T. W. ]EHERY. 



f.unih' c.llne tu Canad.1 in 1855.lIld settlerl in Cohourg, \\here young 1
'1nceIey a\ailed himself of the ad\antages of \ icturia 
l'ni\'ersin' and laid the foumÜtions of a cl.1ssical and literary education. I eaving College, he spent a few year.. in raih\ay and 
h.lIlking \\ork. In IXio. he entered the 'Iethodist ministr
, and served at .\urora, Chatham, Pundas, Cuelph and London, 
till in IXið he lIas united in m.uriage lu 'Iiss Liuie \\'ard, of 
iagara Falls, when he 
\\ .1" tr.lIlsferred to X iagara ('unference. In 1888, at the request of the Quarterl
 Official 
Hoard of Richmond Church. he lIas remU\ed to roronto Conference. and assumed his 
pre"ent charge. 'Ir. I ancele
 lIas a memher of the (;eneral Conference of 1886, and 
one of the 
 oungc;.t mini
ter
 appointed to attend that venerable court. He wields the 
pen of a read\ writer. and is ver
 popular as a lecturer. 
rhe Rev, \\ïlliam :\1011..' L'1ren, \>, \>,. Professor uf Systematic Theology in K no"\ 
('ullege. lIas horn of ::!cott,,,h parentage in the 1'0\\ nship of Tarholton, ('ount) ('arleton, 
18z8. He \\as educated at the (;rammar School, Otta\\a, and at the Toronto .-\caden1\', 
and took his theological course at Kno\ College. attending classes also at Toronto 
L'ni\t:rsit\" In I ð53. Prof. '1.11..'1 aren was ordained a minister of the Presb) terian Church 
uf (',lIl.lll.1. and first settled at \mherstburg, Thereafter, for a while. he undertook a 
charge .11 Boston. \101"".. hut shorth returned to Canada, where he accepted a call tu 
the John :->treet Church, Belle\ille and in 1870 renHJwd to Ottawa to undertake the 
p.Þtorate of I--.no"\ Church, in that city. In I 8i z, he became lecturer on ,-\pologetics 
in the Pre"h
 tcrian College, :\Iontreal, and in the following year the (;eneral .\ssemhly 
of the Church appointed him to the chair of Sys- 
tematic Theologv in K no\ College, Toronto, which 
position he still ahly fills, In 1883, Queen's 
.College, King"ton, conferred on him the degree 
of 1>.\>. For si"\teen years Dr. "lad aren has been Comener of the Foreign :\Iission 
Committee of the Canada Presbyterian Church, and in I 884- \\a
 elected to the high 
office of :\Ioderator of the (;eneral . \ssembly, 
The Rev. J. Philip l>u:\loulin. ,1..\" I>,(',L.. Rector uf St. James C1Ihedral, also 
Canon Residentiary and Sub-I }can of St. .-\Iban's Cathedral, Toronto, was born in 
I )ublin, of .1Il old Huguenot family, and came to Canada in 1860. The reverend gentle- 
man has held successively the rectories of St. Thomas', Hamilton: St. 'Iartin's, :\Iontreal; 
and St. James' Cathedral, Toronto, to the latter of which he was appuinted in 1882, 
These sevcral charge
 he has filled with much acceptance, de\ oting himself \\ ith /eal and 
ardour to the service of the flock among whom he has heen called to lahour, and doing 
good \\ ork for the 
Iaster's cause, In I 8i 3, \\ hen the I>ioce"e of .\Igoma \\01" founded, 
I>r. I )u
lou\in had proof of the esteem in which he is held hy the Church at large, 
Being then Rector of St. Thomas', Hamil- 
ton, he was chosen hy the S) nod of the \\ hole 
Church as the first Bishop of .-\Igoma, hut, 
ho\\'ner, declined the high office, When in 
:->1. '!.utÌlÙ.. :\Iontreal, he acted as L\amining Chaplain to Bishop (henham , and 
here, in the roronto I )iocese, he has had honorary preferment in the Church, 
hesides fulfilling the dutie-; of his 0\\ n historic charge. Canon I )u
loulin is one 
of the first pulpit oraturs. and perhap
 the most impre..si\'e as well as instructive of 
preachers, in the English Church in Canada, He is splendidly equipped for his 
\\urk, for he is not unlya fine literary student and a learned theologian, but pos- 
sesses the gifts of manner and voice \\ hich re\ iw the hest traditions of the Old 
\\ orld pulpit. Hi
 style is picturesque and his manner earnest and often thrilling. 
On the platform he is alwa
 s an aCl)ui
ition, for he is il1\'ariahly interesting as \\ ell 
.," instructi\e, and the caw,e is fortunate that enlists the aid of the reverend 
gentleman, 
The Re\. I>r. \\ïlliam .I ones. \>ean of Trinity College and Professor of 
:\Iathematic" in that in"titution, is a member of a well-known U. E. Loplist family 
in Torunto, and seventh son of the late .\Ir. Justice Jonas Jones. He was horn 
October 13th, 1838, and \\as educated at l..'pper Canada College, then at Trinity 
College. where he was \\'ellington Schular. Proceeding to England. he entered St, 
John's College. Cambridge, of which he is a schular: took his B..\, degree in lðÓ2 
(heing twentieth wrangler), and his :\1..\. in 1865. In 1862-63, he \\as assistant master in .I edburgh (;rammar School, \' orkshire, 
but in the follo\\ ing 
 ear returned to Canada, and took Huly Orders in 1864-, and was ordained priest four ) ears later hy the 
Bishop of Toronto. In 1863. he was appointed Professor of :\Iathenutics in Trinity College, Toronto. .1 pu"t he has held for 


THE DE WJ JUX..-l TIO/\...S' AX/) THEIR PA.\'TORS. 


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RE\, PROF. \Y. "AcLARE).., D.D. 


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RE\ . J. F. LANCELE\. 



 
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RE\. CANe>' Du:\louur-õ. n.c.L. 



80 


THE DrXO JUXA. TIOXS .1Nn THEIR FAST()RS. 


t\\ent\-seven \ear
. In lð75, he wa" made lJean of the College, Professor Jones ren:inxl, in IR8C}, the honor.u) degree of 
1>.( '.1.. from Trinit\. and the pre\ iou" } ear. on the termination of a quarter of a century's connection with the College, he 
11.1" made the recipient of an illumin.lteci address from the Corporation of Trinit), in reco!:!nition of the \'alue of his long and 
de\oted "ervÌres to the College, 


The I.lte Rev. .-\I
ernon Bo).;, :\1..\., Clas"ical Professur in ('rinity College, 
Turonto, and Publir (>rator in that Universit), was horn at Simla, India, where his 
f..'lther held a (;u\'ernment chaplaincy, in 184-7. In 18ó5, after reeei\'ing his school 
education at Shrel\ shun', he entered Jesus College, Cambridge, England. obtaining a 
foundation scholarship, and graduated in 1869. taking the first place in the .;econd- 
class of the Classical Tripos. I nthI.' follol\ ing year, he won secund-class theological 
honours and the Otter lJivinit\ priæ. In 1870. he was ordained deacon by the Bishop 
of \\ïnchester. and in 1872. priest, by the .\rchbi"hop of Canterbury. I n the latter 
) ear. he tuok duty as cur.lte of Faversham, Kent, but resigned it to rome to Canada, 
II here he had received the appointment of Professor of Classics and Puhlic Orator in 
tIlt' L'niversit} of Trinity College, This position he held until his lamented death in 
.\pril, 1890, at the early age of forty-four. He lIas a man of fine culture, liberal 
Yiews, kindly heart, and deservedl) pupular \\ ithin and without the Ilalls of Trinity. In 
the pulpit, as well as in the professorial chair, his preleetiuns were thoughtful, earnest 
and scholarly, His versatilit) was great. Xot only lIas he a ripe and aecumplished 
cla.;sical scholar, and a hrilliant puhlic orator in the Latin tongue at "Cniversity Con- 
vocation, he was also a ele\er and sprightly writer of English \'erse, his themes moving 
tbe reader or the listener at times to laughter 
and at times to tears. 1 >e
pite "ome cynicisr
 
uf "peech and an occasional eccentricity of man- 
lIt.'r. nunc knew him but to respect and love 
him. Professor JlO\ s' Ius" to Trinity is a" real .IS it II ill be lasting. 
The Rev. Herbert S\ muneb. \J.. \.. Professor of lJi\Ìnit\, Trinit\ College Torontu, 
\\as horn in the ('ounty of'Suffulk. Engl.lIld, I >eeember 28th:' 1860, ' He wa
 educated 
at .\Ihert :\lemorial College. Framlingtoll, England, and at Trinit) l." niversity, in this 
cit}. He graduated at the j.lller institution in 1885, II ith first-class theological honours, 
was priLe e"s,'l} i"t in 1 884- and 1 885, and wrote the pri/e sermon for the latter year. 
. \fter graduating, :\1 r. S) monds was appointed Fellow of Trinity and I eclurer in 1 >ivinity. 
On the retirement of ProC Roper, to take the incumhencv of St. Thomas', Toronto, 
Prof. S) monels \\as appointed his successor in the Professorship of I >i\ inity: he was at 
the same time appuinted Librarian of the l." niversitv. hoth of which positions he still 
acceptabl} filb, ('he 1'1.'\ erend gentleman is 
a favourite of both graduates and under- 
graduates at Trinity. 
The Re\'. .\rthur I.loyd, :\1..\., Pro- 
fessor of Classics, Trinit\ Cullege, Toronto, 
lIas born at Simb, India, in 1852. He was 
educated partly in (;ermany, hut mainly at Jlrewood (;rammar School. Staffordshire, 
England; after which he won an open scholarship to St. John's College. Cambridge. 
but migrating to l'eterhouse, was elected scholar in 1872 and Fello\\ and Dean of 
Peterhouse in IR78. .\t Peterhouse, he graduated IL\. in 1874-, and took his :\1..-\, 
in 1877 (First,Class, Classical Tripos, and þro \'/il/e accessit for Chancellor's medals). 
He \\as ordained deacon in 1875 and priest in 1 R76, by the Bishop of Chesrer, and 
during these years I\a" curate of St. Barnabas, Liverpoul, and for Ihree years fol- 
lUll ing II as curate of (;rcat St. "Iary's, Camhridge. From 1879 to 1884-, Rev, 1\1 r. 
Llo)d lIas Rector of 
orton, Suffolk, and from r881 to 1884-, 'ïcar of Hunston. 
In the latter )ear he went out to Japan as missionary for the S. 1'. (;. Here he 
took up educational work at one uf the leading native schools in Tokyo, being for 
some time Professor of History and Latin in the l.'ni\ersity department of the 
Keiogijiku. He also held \arious other posts under the Jap.me!7e (;overnment, and 
founded a native church at Tokyo. In 1890 the reverend gentleman came to Can- 
ada, hm ing receiwd the appointment of l'rofessor of Classics at Trinity University. 
rhe Re\. John Pearson, Rector of Huly Trinity Church, IS a nati\e of 
ottingham, England, and W.IS educated at St. 
.\ugustine"s College, Canterhury, Cuming to 
ova Scotia, he was for three }ears curate of St. I\l.ugaret"s I:.IY, In 1857, he 
was appointed curate of St. John's ('alhedral, St. John's, Kewfoundland. Se\en years I.1kr, :\11'. l'ear"un hecame "ub-dean of 


., 


TifF LAn: I'ROF. .\1 (:)';I<I\OJ\' [30\S, .\I.A, 



 


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){U. PROF. .\. LI 0\ IJ, 'I.A. 


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R
.\". IIFRHFRI' SY\IO"rJ';, '1..-\. 



the cathedr.ll at Fredericton. :\e\\ Bruns\\ick, and there he remained until IX75. \\hen 
he remO\ed to Turontu. Here he hecame .l...sistant-ministcr at the Church of the Hoh 
Trinit\', then under the charge of the Re\. I>r. :-,cadding and the Re\, \r. :-\. I ).uling. 
..uhsequently himself -;ulTeeding to the recwrship. The Church of the Hoh' I'rinit
 is 
one of the oldest Episcopal churches in the cit\., ha\ing heen built about the )ear .x,Jó 
h\ a lady in England, \\ ho anum moush' donated 
/":5.000 sterling towards its erection and endo\\- 
ment. Formerl) the sef\ ices at Hoh Trinit
 were 
wont to be highh ornate, and of the e"\treme 
. \nglo-( 'atholic t\ pe, C nder the pre-;ent estimable 
rector, hO\\e\l'r, a mure moderate ritual preyails. 
conson.mt \\ ith the general \ ie\\ s of ('anadian 
,\nglicanism, For lIlan
 )ears Re\, :\Ir. I'e.usnn 
filled the onerous office of Hunorary Secretaf\ of 
the Toronto I )iocesan :-\ynod. 
The Re\'. ,\rthur Hem) Hakh\in. :\1..\., 
Rector of -\11 Saints, was born on Christmas da\, 
11'>.}O, in the first hrick house erected in Turonto. 
nU\\ the office of the Canada <. 'ompam, situate on the \:. E, corner of King and Frederick 
:-\treets. His f.Hher, :\Ir. John Spread Baldwin. \\as an uncle uf the Hon, Robert B.lldllin. 
and, on his mother's side. (;eneral Sha\\ \\as his grandfather. The reYen.'nd gentleman 
\\as educated at Cpper C.mada College, and aften\.uds \\un t\\O scholarships at Trinity 
Cni\ersit\-. Suhsequently he lIent to (hford, and there entered <,Jueen's College. from 
\\hich he graduated in I8ó3, He then too\... Hol) Orders, heing ordained deacon in Yor\... 
and priest in Eh Cathedrals, and served t\\U )ears in Luton Heds, \\here a memorial 
II indoll in Christ Church testifiö to his mini-;tf\. .-\fter returning to Canada, he acl"t,pted, in 1868. the curacy uf St. Thomas', 
Helle\ ille. II here he remained four \ ears, \\ hen he too\... the pastoral charge of ,\11 Sainb:, Turonto, \\ ith \\ hich parish he has 
since heen identified, Here he ministers to a full church and a fluurishing congregation. In the election of a Bishop of 
Toronto. in IXi8, :\Ir. Bald\\in received the majorit\. of votes from the laity. hut not sufficient from the clerg\', for election. 
He is a member of the E"\ecuti\e Committee, and Chairman of the \\ïd O\\s , and Orph.ms' Cummittee, of the Diocese. He 
IS also on the E"\ecuti\e of the House of Indu...tn. in this ..it), \\'a-; inslrumental in IllIilding its Casual Poor \\ ard. and has taken 
a deep interest in that and other 
charities. 


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RE\, ARTHl'R H. B\LD\\ 1:0., :\I.A. 


rhe Rey. Charles Ed\\ard 
I'homson, :\1. .\., Rector of St. 
\fark's Church, \\ est Toronto J unc, 
tion, comes of C, F. LO\alist stoc\..., 
He \\as horn at Kingston. :\u\em- 
ber 10th, 1832, his father being 
:\Ir. Hugh C. Thumson. formerh 
:\1.1',1'. for Frontenac, and publisher 
of the CPter Ca/lada HOtlld. :\1 r. 
I'hom...on's grandfather on the ma- 
ternal side \\as \\ïlli.lI11 Ruttan, \\ ho 
landed at .\dolphustown in I i8-t-, 
after the Reyolutionary \\'ar. The 
subject Qf this sketch lias educalcd 
b) pri\ate tuition and ahcf\\ards at 
the Cpper Canada College anti 
Trinit\ L" niYersit
. receiving the de- 
c:ree of :\1..\. from the latter in IXS7. 
He was ordained a de.lcon in I8só 
and the follo\\ ing ) ear \\ as ordained 
a priest of the Canadian branch of 
the \nglican Church. For twent) 
Years, Rey. :\1 r. Thomson \\as rector 
at EloTa, Ont.uio, and for the last ten 
\ears has been acti\d
 eng.lged in 
the interesting field of Sf. :\Iark's 
/,.lri...h in \\ estern Toronto. 


THE DEXOJUX.-lTIOXS AXD THEIR PA5,TORS, 



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THE DEXOJIIKATIONS AXD THEIR PASTORS. 


rhe Rev. \\ïlli.nl1 R. P.uker, ,\L\., /),/)" who has recently severed his relations \\ith the Broadway Tahernacle in 
thb cit\, to accept a charge in H.urie. was horn in ".e-;t Gwillimhury, County Simcoe, in 1831. His father was one of 
the sturdy hand of pioneer,., who ha\ e done so much to reclaim the PrO\ ince from the wilderness, The sul,ject of this 
sketch was educated at \Ïctoria C niversity, Cu- 
bourg, \\here he graduated in 1858. From this 
institution he, five years later, received his :\1..-\. 
degree, and in 1885 the degree of Doctor of 
I>i\ inity, In 1856, Or. Parker was accepted as 
a prohationer hy the 
Iethodist body, and four 
veal's afterwards \\as recei\'ed into full cunnec- 
tion and ordained. He has heen stationed 
successin:ly at Toronto, .:\Iontreal, Odell town. 
Stanstead, Brantford, St. ('atharines, I.ondon. 
\\'oodstock, Thorold. Chatham, St. Thomas, and 
until lately has had pastoral charge of the 
Spadina .henue :\lethodist Church (nuw the 
Broadway Tahern.lcle). He has heen chairman 
of man) important districts of his Church, and 
a member of the General Conferences held in 
Toronto, :\Iontreal, Hamilton and Bdlc\'ille. 
........J He is a memher of the Hoard of Regents of 
\Ïctoria L'niversity, and is in fa\'our of univer- 
sity federation. He is a Prohibitionist, and in 
politics, a Liberal. I >T. Parker has travelled 
\\ idel) , and is a man of large and hroad views, an eminently practical and forceful preacher. and a bold and æalous advocate of 
all moral reforms. 
The Rev, :\Ianly Benson, Pastor of the Central :\Iethodist Church, Bluur Street, was hum of {J, E. Loyalist parentage, 
in Prince Ed\\ard ('ounty, Ont., in 18,1-2, He received his early education at Xewburgh, and thereafter taught himself, and 
tool.. duty as a local preacher. In 1867 he was ordained hy the Hamilton Conference and took pastorates successively at 
Hamilton, Stratford, St. Thomas, and Brantford. In 1885, he hecame Pastor of the Central .:\Iethodist Church, Toronto, and 
has also had charge uf the Berkeley Street :\Iethodist Church. .:\Ir. Benson has travelled largely throughout the I )uminion and 
in foreign countries, and has a large repertory of popular lectures illustrative of his tra\.e1s. His ministerial career has been an 
active and w,eful one and full of earnest Leal. The re\ erend gentleman is one of the Directors of the (;rimsby Park Company, 
and for the past four or five years has had charge uf the religious services in that fa\ourite summer resort. In 1867, :\Ir. Henson 
married Julia, daughter of Judge :\IcCrea, of .\Igoma Co" Ontario. 
The Rev, Stll,ut S. Bates, H..\., Pastor of the College Street Baptist Church, was born in Im\a, U. S., in 185] and 
removed to Canada in 186-1-, Choosing the ministry as a profession, ì\lr. lbtes entered \\'ood-;tock College. and there prepared 
himself for matriculation at Torontu Cni- 
versity. From this national institution he 
graduated in 1878, taking honuurs in Clas- 
sics and :\lathen1.ltics. He then pro- 
ceeded with his theological course at 
"'oodstock, and at ttie Baptist Theological 
Seminary, Rochester, t\, Y., from which 
he graduated in 1881. His first pastorate 
was at (;ohle's, County (hford, \\ithin a 
few miles of his old home, and here he 
lahoured for five years. I:arly in I X8ó, 
.:\Ir. Bates was invited to hecome pa,.,tor 
of the College Street Baptist Church, Tu- 
ronto, This he accepted, though the 
outlook was at the time rather discourag- 
ing. Soon, howe\ er, a hrighter day dawned. 
The congregation increased until it hecame 
necessary to erect a new home, This 
was done, on the fine site at the corner of 
College Street and Palmerston A \'enue, 
and, t\\O years ago, the large and heautiful 
edifice \\as opened for publil \\orship. UI1lkr ì\lr. Bates' pastorate the church 
denomination ha
 on Cullege Street an acti\e and beneficent centre of church work. 
:\1<- :\lastel L' ni\l."r...il\, .\Ild he i,., ,t1so an acti\'e \\ orker on the Foreign \1 ission Board. 


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RE\. s. S. UArF
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RE\. MAt\LV 13E!'\SON, 


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i{n. J. Em\ Aim S L\IW. 


cuntinues tu gruw and thri\'e. and the 
:\Ir. Bate,., i,., .1 memher of the Senate of 



The Rev. .1, E. St.ur is the present I'a"tor of Elm 
treet Methodist Church. H
' is a natiH: of 1\'0\ a Scotia, haying- heen 
born at C.lpe Breton in 1
56. He wa" educated at the (;rimsb) (;rammar School. and his first intention \\as to enter the 
profc""ion of the I a\\, in \\ hich hranch he for some time prosecuted his "tudies. On attaining hi" majorit\", howe\ er, he entered 
the Toronto ('onference a" a :\Iethodi"t minister, heing "tationed at Scarboro'. and 
at Peterhorough, I ea\ ing the latter place, he \\as sent to (;race Church, \\ïnni- 
peg, as an associate of the bte I>r. S, 1>. Rice, Here :\Ir. Starr remained for t\\O 
years, at the end of \-\- hich period he was transferred to \ïctoria, B. C. and in :\Ia) , 
1890. \\as recalled to Ontario and assigned to the well-kno\\ n and influential rhun-h 
the pulpit of \\ hich he no\\ ably fills, 
The Re\". Canon I ang-tr), :\1..\.. 1>.1>" Rector of St. Luke's, is a Canadian 
by birth, though of Irish ntraction. ,\fter receiving his preliminary education, and 
ha\ ing a de"ire to enter the ministn. he became a "tudent of Trinity College, ror- 
onto, and \\as the fir"t gr.lduate of th.lt institution admitted to Holy Urders. .\fter 
hi" ordination he passed some )ears on a tra\elling mission in \\ est Simcoe and 
Fa...t (;re\. the mis...iun stations being far apart and the country about almost a 
\\ ildernes". :\Ir, Langtn then scttled in a charge at ('ollIngwood. where he remained 
ten \ears, \-\hen he remO\ed to \ ork :\Iills. then to St. I'.wl's. Yor"'ille. at the time 
under the incumhenC\' of the late Re\. S.lltern (;iyins. Of recent )ears he formed 
the ne\\ parish of St. Luke's, of which he is now rector, as \\ell as one of the ahlest 
theologians and be"t read men in the Church, 
He"ides his pastoral work, I)r. I angtry ha!. 
taken an enthusiastic interest in education. 
and has been instrumental in founding Bishop 
Strachan School for girls, and the Church 
School for ho\'s both of which in!>titutions 
ha\'e been highl) successful. I>r. J A'lI1gtn' IS a noted contron
rsalist and has been 
engaged in man\" encounters in the puhlic press \\ ith those who ha\ e attacked the 
Church's doctrine and di"cipline, or who hme taken issue \\ith the learned di\ ine's 
interpretation thereof. He i" a warm ad\ocate of Christian L'nion. and has brought the 
matter forward in the PrO\ incial S) nod \\ ith abilit\ and earnest force. He is Prolocutor 
of the I 0\\ er House of the I'rO\ incial S) nod, and h.ls held this position sinn' I 
66. 
The Re\". .\. T. Bo\\ser. H.I>., of the Jarvis Street L'nitarian Church, is a nati\e 
of :\ ew Bruns\\ ick. hm ing been born at Sac'" ille in 18-t-8. the si"th child of a famil) of 
tweh e, His father and mother were respecti\'èl
 of English and of Scotch descent. 
,\t the age of fifteen he commel1l'ed life in a store 
at :\Ioncton, but soon afterwards \\ell[ to Boston, 
being ambitious to ohtain a more complete edu- 
cation. Here he attended the Latin High 
School, and in I 8ï 3 matriculated at Han ard 
L'ni\er"ity, .\t Han'ard he took the degree of Bachelor of .\rts, and three years later 
that of B.lChelor of I )ivinity. \Ir. Bo\\ser originally belonged to the :\Iethodist Church, 
uut while pursuing his studies preparator) to entering Hanard, he became interested in 
and finalh' accepted L'nitariani"m. In 1881 he was ordained, and St. Louis. :\10.. \\as 
the !'cene of hi" fir"t ministerial Iahours. He then spent two \earS in E\'ans\ille. 
Jndiana. as the representati\e of the .\merican L'nitari.lI1 .-\ssociation. In 188-t-. :\Ir. 
Bo\\ser \\.lS called to the pastorate of the Third Congregational (L'nitarian) Church of 
Hingham, :\Iass.. an important positIon which he held for three years, From Hingham 
he was railed to Toronto. where he took charge of the First L'nitarian congreg.uion, and 
in this pastorate he still succes"full) labours. 
The Re\'. \\ïlliam Patterson is the P.lstor of Cooke's Presb) terian Church in 
this cit). He was born in :\Iaghera, Count) !>ern, Ireland, in 1858, and in his twent)- 
third )ear emigrated to Canada. He entered I-\:no" College, where he de\oted si" 
)ear" to the stud) of ,\rts and theology, recei\ing his diploma in 1886. I>uring his- 
College course, he engaged æalously in mission work, two summers finding him in the 
rurtle \Iountain I>istrict of :\Ianitoba, and three in the Lindsay Presh) ter), .\ month after he recei\ed his College di[Jloma 
'Ir. Patterson was licensed hy the roronto Preshytery, and within a \\eek recei\"ed a unanimous call from Cooke's Church, 
Toronto, and in 1886 \\as inducted into that charge. Of the pro!>perityof Cooke's Church, under :\Ir. 1'.lttersOlÙ pastorate, 
e\idence is !>een in the fact that in the )ear 1881} the total amount raised hy the congregation \1,1'" mer $ò,ooo - a ,,1II11 ne,uly 
four times that ("ol1trihuted \\ hen the re\ erend gentleman fir"t took l h.uge of the church, 


THE .DENOJIINATIONS AND THEIR PASTORS. 


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R
\. A. T. BOWSER, 13.0. 


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CA" "'01'0 flilO IU. 


\{EV. DR, JOHN LAXf:TR\'. 


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Rn, \\ \I. PATTtRSON. 



1''-1- 


THE DENOll-fINA. TIONS AND THEIR PASTORS 


rhe Re\, Elmore Harris, B.A., is a Canadian hy birth and a graduate of the University of Turonto. In the year 18]6, he 

ucceeded Dr. Hurd in the pastorate of the First Baptist Church of St. Thomas. Onto Here he remained some si.. years and 
durin
 that periud he had the satIsfaction of seeing the membership of the church more than trehled and in pussession of a new 
.md handsome huilding, :\Ir. Harris then left St. Thomas to take charge of the Y orkville 
Baptist Church, Toronto. now knuwn as the Bloor Street Church. Here his period of 
ministry e..tended over eight ye.lr
, \\ ithin \\ hich time the congregation increa"ed from 
about "eventy tu nearly fi\'e hundred. In the spring of 1889, the Bloor Street pastorate 
was resigned and :\Ir. Harris was placed in charge of the \\"almer Road Baptist Church, 
the position he occupies to-day. The \\'almer Road Baptist Church i
 as) et young, hay 
ing heen organi/ed in a comparatively new district as late as (>etoher, 1889; hut great 
hopes are entertained of its rapid growth, of which indeed it has already giwn e\'idence. 
The Re\. John F, German. :\I.A" of the P,ukdale :\Iethodist Church, was born in 
the County of Br.mt, Unt., in 18.p. He is a graduate of \Ïctoria College, h:l\'ing t,Iken 
his H..\. degree in 1864, and three years later the degree of :\1..-\. \\ hile pursuing his 
College course, Mr. (;erman entered the l11ini
try as a probationer, and in 1866 was 
admitted into full connection \\ ith the :\Iethodist body, On being ordained, he \\as 
stationed for a time at \'apanee, hut. in 1876, he was transferred to (;race Church, \\ in- 
nipeg, and for four years laboured in that charge. \\'hile in \\ innipeg, he \\as elected 
Chairman of the I Jistrict, which at that time induded all of :\\.mitoba amI the Indian 
missions on, as well as north of, lake \\'in- 
nipeg, I Juring his residence in the Prairie 
City. he was a member of the School Roard 
and for three) e.us an in"pector of the public 
schouls. I n 1880, :\Ir. (;erman returned to Ontario. and for a few years was sta- 
tioned at Picton, and aftemards al Brampton. \\"hile at Rrampton he was elected 
Senetan of the Toronto ('onference, and in 1886 was made President of that 
hody. In June of the latter )ear, he \\as called to the charge of the new Parkdale 
Church, of which he is at present the respected pastor. In the best sense of 
the word, Mr. (;erm,m is a representative minister of his denomination, having heen 
called to fill the position of Chairman of the four districts in Ontario Picton. 
Brampton, Barrie and \\'hith\', It may he added that :\Ir. (;erman is the son uf 
the Rev. Peter (;erman, of Brantford, one of the pioneer ministers of the Metho- 
dist Church, \\ ho did 
o much e..cellent service for the 'laster's cause in the early 
da\'s of the Province, 


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){E\'. EL \IORE HARRIS, B..\. 


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Rev. .\. :\1. Phillips, B. n., is a Cana- 
dian, the son of a Cnited Empire Loplist, 
and was born in Prince Edward County, Ont., 
in 1846. He began life as a school-teacher. 
subsequently entering \Ïctoria College, 
where he graduated in Divinity in 1878, in 
which year he was ordained. His ministerial work has been spread over a wide area, 
including Somhra, Sarnia, Oil Springs, Chatham. St. Thomas, (;,IIt, St. :\lan's, and ,It 
pre"ent Toronto. His actÌ\ ity in various spheres has been marked, He \\ .IS the first 
Secretary of the Theulogical Union (now in affiliation \\ ilh the .\merican Institute of 
S,lcrell Literature) from which has sprung the Canadiall .IlällOdist Qlltl1/eJ/)', under the 
managership of :\lr. Phillips. In temperance \\ork abo 'Ir. Phillip
 is \\ell-kno\\n as 
I Jominion Past ('ouncillor and as filling other impurt,mt pusts in Temperance urgani/ol- 
tiun". ,-\t the (;uelph Conference, :\1r. Phillips was Chairman of the St. \Iar)'s I >istrict ,md 

ecretar) of the Conference Buard of Examiners. He is also Cullege E..aminer in Hebrew 
and Old Testament E:\egesis. His present pastoral charge is St. Paul's, .\venue Road. 
The Rev. I Janiel McTavish, ;\1..-\., I J.Se., P.I'f[ur of the ('entral Pre"b) teri.m 
Church, \\as born at Carleton Place, Unt., .\pril 22nd, 1858. He was educated at the 
(;.Jlt Collegiate Institute. In 1877, he entered (2ueen's Cni\'ersity, Kingston, from 
which he graduated as B..\, in 18ðl, :\1..\. in 1882, and as n.se. in 1885. In lð81. :\Ir. 
:\kTm'ish took the theological course in <2ueen'
 College and graduated in Divinity in 1884. In the same year he was licensed 
to preach, and \\a
 called to the pastorate of St. .\ndrew's Church, Lindsay. Four )ears afterwards. on the remO\'al to 
Briti"h Columbia of the Re\'. I Jr. :\1.lcleod, :\Ir. :\IcTavish accepted the call of the congregation of the Central Preshyterian 
('hurch. Toronto. ,lS hi
 successor. Here the reverend gentleman acceptahly fulfils the responsihle duties of the p.Istor.Ite. 
L
nc\er hi
 ministry the Church continues to grow and, within its "phere, to inne,be its influence. 


\.. 


REV. JOII", F. GEIDIA"" \1..\, 


,,' 


CAJiI."ÞofOTO!1iI01U. 


REV. \. :\1. FIlII LIPS, B. D. 



The Rl.'\', (;eorge H. :-;andwell. I'a;,tor of lion Church. College ,\\enue, wa'i horn in England in 1850. He was educated 
at Clifton College, and took a theological cour;,e at the I'a;,tors' College, london, during the years 18io-j3, .\fter completing 
hi,., studies for the ministr
, he took charge of congregations at Ipswich, London, and Southsea. ('oming to Canada in IXX9, 
he \\as called to the pa..torate of Zion Church, 
Torunto, in ('011l1ection \\ ith the ('ongregational 
hoùy, and ha.; since lahoured faithfull) and suc- 
cessfull\' in this important city ch1rge. 
Rc\'. \\. (;. \\'allace, 1'.lstor of Bloor 
Street l'resh
 terian (, 'hurch, was horn in 18 5 8 , 
at (;.111. l'he re\ erend gentleman is of Scotch 
parentage. .\fter heing under the tutelage of the 
late I)r. Tassie for ..ome years. hc entered Torontu 
l'ni\er;,it\,. \\here he matriculated in ISH 
T\\o years later he graduated and de\oted him- 
self to the ;,tud) uf theology at Kno"\ ('ollege, 
In 1883 \Ir. \\ allace C'Om(Jletcd his di\Ìnit\. 
course. and the follO\\ ing year receiveù the 
dcgree of 1\,1), from Kno"\ ('ollege, He \\as 
ord.lined on \lay 3' st, 1883. at (;eorgetown, 
\\ here he assumed his tirst pastoral charge. 
In Seplemher, 1888, on the formation of Bloor 
:-;treet I'resh) terian Church, Toronto, he \\as 
called to take charge of the congregation. and 
ha., since that time heen pastor. Here he has a tine field of usefulness, of which 
Ir. 
Wallace is sure to take advantage. 
The Rev. I'rof. D. :\1. \\elton, Ph.D" I). D., of 'k\l.lster l'ni\'crsity, \\as horn at ,\ylesford, KU\a Scotia, in 18 3 1 , and 
graduated in ,hts. in 18 55, at ,\cadi.1 College, H.difa"\. X.S. He suhsequently studied theology at 
e\\ton, :\Iass., and after 
heing ordained was inducted into the pa..torate of the Bapti"t Church, \\'indsor, S. S. In this charge he lahoured for sc\entcen 
vears. In 18i4 he W.IS appointed to the chair of I>i\ inity in the theological department of .\cadia College, and here he 
remained for se\'en 
ears. In ,88, and ISS.:!, he \i;,ited (;ermall\' and de\'oted these )ears to Semitic studies at the lJni\"Crsity 
of I eipsic. from \\hich he recei\'ed the degree of Dortur of I'hilo"oph), In 1883 he \\as called to the chair of Oriental 
Languages and Old restament Interpretation in the theological department of \Ic:\bster C niwrsitv, a po.,ition he now fills. 
Dr. Welton, in 188.'1, received frum his alllla IIlakr. ,\radia College, the honorary degree of Doctor of I>hinit)'. 
The Re\'. Cal\'in (;oodspeed, :\L\" 
1).1 ).. I'rofessor of .-\pologetics and S) stem, 
atic rheologv, in \Ic:\r.lster Cniversit\., was 
horn in 1842 at Xash\\aack. X.R., and in 
18ó6 graduated in . \rts at the C niver;,it\' 
of X ew Brun,,\\ ick. For a time he taught 
in the Baptist Seminary. Fredericton. X.B.. 
and afterwards studied theolog\ at Regent"" 
Park College, london. I:ng, In 1868 he 
\\as ordained. and after de\oting a year to 
nIÌs"iunar) work. he accepted the Prinripal- 
ship of the Frederirton Seminar) and filled 
the po"ition for three ) ears. He then pur- 
sued a fuller theological course at Xe\\ton, 
:\lass" on the completion of \\ hich he was 
called to "'oodstock, Ont., as pastor of the 
Baptj;,t Church. In 18iS he accepted the 
Professorship of Church History, etc., at the 
\\ oodstock Baptist College, resigning Ihis to 
.,tudy for a ) ear in (;ermam. after which he 
filled the pastorate of the First Baptist Church. Yarmouth. X.S. Four years later. 
he conducted for a time the denominational newspaper of the \laritime PrO\ inces. 
the .Ifessellger alld V,>itor. and \\ hill.' 5eH ing the Church in journalism \\as called to the chair of Systematic Theology 
and ,-\pologetics in :\Ic:\[aster Hall, Toronto, Dr. Guodspeed took the degree of :\1..\. in course from his alma mate,.. and 
received an honorar) 
1. \. anti the degree uf Doctor of I>i\ init) from. \cadia College, X 0\3 Scutia. 
The Re\'. John :\Iutch, :\L\.. Pastor of Chalmers' Presh
 terian Church in this cit\', was born at :\Iontrose, Scotland, 
Decemher 16th, ;852. Coming at an early age to Canada. he \\as educated at H.unilton Collegiate Institute, from which he 


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RE\. D, 
rCTA\I';II, 'r. \.. D.Se'. 


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Rn. PROF. 1>. 'I. WEI TO:'>'. PII.D., O,D. 


rHE /JE.\O JIIN.1TIOXS AND THEIR PASTORS. 


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!{E\'. G. II. S"'l>\\FLL. 


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RE\, \\. c.;, WALl ALE, :\1.A., B.D. 



passeù to Toronto l'ni\ersit\. subsequentl) taking a theolugical course at Knu'\ College. _\fter being ordained. he was called 
to the p.1storate of l'hahner-.' Pres b) terian Church, ] Jundas Street, where he ministers /ealously and devotedly to a large 
con
rq.::ation in the western section of the city, ] Juring the se\en )ears of his pa
torate. Chalmers' Church has grown from a 
very smalllHlssion tu an important and influential congregation, :'olr. :\hltch is desef\cdly 
popular in this fold of Presbytcrianism, and is untiring in his relief of the poor, in advancing 
tcmperance work, and generally in promoting thc high interests of his calling in this part 
uf the [ ord's vineyard. He i
 a member of the Equal Rights' .\ssociatiun. 
1J0vercourt Road Baptist Church was founded in 1871} as a mission uf .\Ie'\.mder 
Street ("hurch of the same denomination. Ser\"ices were held in an unfinished house 
on I JO\ ercourt Road until increased numbers compelled removal to Essery Hall, ..urner 
of (Jueen and Lisgar Streets, In 1881 the rear of the present church was built on the 
lot at the corner of ] )overcourt Road and .\rgyle Street, which had becn prcsented to the 
congregation by :\Ir. fhomas Laily. In 1888 the present edifice was built and opened for 
public worship. The church is of Romanesque style, built of presscd red brick, with 
terra cotta and red stone trimmings. The e'\terior is plain, chaste and well-proportioned. 
rhe interior has a light. airy and COS\. appearance and the acoustic propertics are perfect. 
The church is seated for 800, but can comfortably hold 1,200. The cost was about 
$28.000. Rev, John ,\Ie'\ander. the present pastor. was born of Scotch parents in the 
City of Quehec in 1828. He studicd theolog) in K no'\ Cullegc, from \\ hich he graduated 
in 1851, and for several ye.lrs filled pulpits in connection with the Presbyterian Church. ] n 
1 RÓ2, a change in his \'iews on baptism resulted in 
his se\ erance from the l'resb) terian Church. He 
accepted a call to thc First Baptist Church of Brantford, and in 1863 remon:d to 
\Iontreal to take charge of the First Baptist Church of that city, He returned to 
Brantford in 1870 and remO\ed to Brock\"ille in 1880 to work up a church which was 
in financial distress. In 188-1- this congregation was so strengthencd that he devoted him- 
self to building up I Jo\"ercourt Church. I Juring his six years' ministration there the 
membership has grown from 50 to 275. various branches of work have been developed, 
and the church placed on a sound footing. 
The Rev. .\Ie"andcr Sutherland. I J.] J.. an able divine of the :'olethodist body, and 
the puwerfulleader uf what is known as the "Third Party" in Canadian politics, seeking 
mural rcnovatiun in all matters of national adminis- 

ration, \\a" born of Scutt ish parentage in thc Town- 
ship of C;uelph, Ontario, Scpt. 13th, IR33' Like 
most successful and self-made men, I)r. Suther- 
land's early years were years of toil and ad\ ersity. 
through which he struggled nobly to educate him- 
self for the ministry and the high positions in the 
Church to which he has since attained. .\fter a 
brief cour
e in \'ictoria College, Cobourg, he was 
received into full connection with the Conference of his Church and ordained. He thcn 
filled pa
toral charges succcssively in Xiagara. Thorold. I Jrummondville, Hamilton, Tor- 
onto and Muntreal: and in 187-1- was elected (;eneral Secretary and Clcrieal Treasurer of 
the :\Iis"iun.lry Suciety of the Church. In this respunsible position he has travelled O\er 
the whole I Jominion, superintending missionary work and stimulating the /eal of his 
denomination, and at the same time doing mud1 for the cause of temperance and other 
moral reforms. He has been a mighty worker fur union in the Conferences of his Church, 
in which he has held the highest positions, and repeatedly been its delcgated representative 
abroad. He is a man of immense energy and unflagging Lcal, and done much to mould 
the thought and guide the work of his Church. In 1879, \'ictoria Cnivcrsity conferred 
upon I Jr. Sutherland the degree of Doctor in I Jivinity. 
The Re\'. Ira Smith. Pastor of Beverley Street Baptist Church, was born in the Township of Saltfleet, (Jnt., June 7 th , 18-1-9. 
:\Ir. Smith comes of sturdy British stock. and inherits from both father and mother the memories of the \\'ar of 1812, and from 
their furehears the memories of the Re\olutionary \\'ar and of loyal st'f\'ice on the side of the Crown, \Ir, Ira Smith \\as 
educated at \\-ood
t{)ck Cullege, and at Toronto Cnivcrsity. of which he is an undergraduate. I.ike his father, the Rev. Thos. 
Holland Smith, he studied for the ministry of the Baptist denomination, and in 1877 was ordained and inducted into the pastorate 
of the Baptist Church in I Jundas. In 1880 he accepted a pasturate in Barrie, and two years later one in Waterford : and in 188 5 
came to Toronto to take the pastoral oyersight of his present charge. H is labours here have been ilhtrumental in building up a 
large and still growing congregation, which erected, three years ago, a very commodious house of worship. :'oIr. Smith has held 
the Secretaryship of the Home :\lission Board of the Baptist Com ention of Ontario and Quebec "inec [888. 


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RE\. JOliN :\Iu \'ell, \1..-\, 


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REV. IRA S'II \'11. 


THE IJEXù.JfIXA nONS AXD THEIR P.1STORS. 



 
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RE\". ALEX. SUTHERLAr\l1, D.D, 



TilE DE \'0 Iff\'.-lTIOX.\' ,IXD THEIR PASTORS. 


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rhe Re\, \Ibert Hem) :\e\\n1.1n. D.D.. LL.D.. Professor of History in the .\rts department of \1c'la
ter Cni\ersity, 
\\as burn in Edgefidd Count\, South Carolina, in 1852. HL graduated from :\Ierrer Cni\er
ity, :\Iacon, (;eorgia, in 1871 . 
and also from the Rochestcr (:\ .Y.) Theologic.ll Seminary in 1875 ; and 
tudied Hebre\\. Chaldee. Suiac, .\rabic and Patristir 
(;reek in the Southern H.lpti"t Theological Seminar), in 18i5'76, For nearly fuur year" 
(18ïï-81) Dr. 
e\\man was Professor of Chun-h History, in the Rorhester Theological 
Seminary, and then removed to Toronto to arcept a similar rhair in the Baptist College 
here, Last year (1889), when the .\rts department of :\lc:\laster Cni\'er!>ity was reorgan- 
iæd, I>r. Ke\\ man became Professor of History, which position the learned gentleman 
,till holds, Professor Xewman has led a life of literar) toil and industry; he has translated 
and edited a number of theological works and been a contributor to the Baptist Quarterly 
Re'i'ie'il'. the E:wl1Iil/er, and the ,lfa.!;a
ille of CIlrÙtiall Literature, :\ew York; to Cathcart's 
B.lpti,t Encw:lopædia, Philadelphia; and tu Jenkins' Baptist Doctrines, St. Louis. Pro- 
fessor :\ewman is the translator (from the (;erman) and editor of Immer's " Hermenentics 
of the :\ew Testament" (,\ndowr. 18n). and translator and editor of the" ,\nti-:\Iani- 
chæan Treatises," of St. .\ugu
tin, for the Xicc and Post-:\icene Fathers, under the general 
editorship of Pr. P. Schaff. 
Rev. I 
eorge :\1. :\lillig.lIl. B..\., P.lstor of Old St. ,-\mlre\\"s Presb) terian Church, 
\\as born at Wick, Caithness"hire. Scotland. in 18-t I, and came \\ ith his parents at an earl) 
age to Canada, \\ here the) made their home at 
Kingston, Ontariu, I ntending to de\ ote himself 
to the \\ ork of the ministr), he entered Queen's 
Cni\ersin and at once took a high place in the I ' 
,E\. PROF. .-\. II. XF.\\ \1'\"1. D.D. LL.D. 
('ollege class-list. In IXfi2, he took his B..-\. 
degree, graduating \\ith honours, Si'\ )ears aftemards he was ordained, and laboured 
for a year in the County of 'Iiddlesex, Here he recei\'ed a call to I )ctroit, and in a 
pastoral charge in that city he remained for nearly seven years, meeting \\ ith a large 
measure of success. In 1876, 'Ir. :\Iilligan was ill\ ited by the congregation known as 
Old St. .-\ndre\\ 's, Toronto, to fill the pulpit of this historic church, and, accepting the 
call, he \\as at once inducted to the charge. The success of his work soon appeared 
in the erection, in 1878, of the fine building at the corner of Jarvis and Carlton Streets, 
and in the gratif)ing e"\tension of the church's membership. During the past tweh'e 
)ears, the church has continued to grow and has become a sphere of influential and 
useful \\ork, It ha" now a membership of O\er five hundred. \\ith a large annual 
rewnue, Cntiring a
 \\ell as able. :\Tr. :\Iilligan is a force in Presb) terianism, and is 
to be found "ening every good and useful cause. He is President of the :\Iini"terial 
.\ssociation of the cit), and has taken an 
active interest in educational and temper, 
ance work, as well as much labour on the 
E"\ecutive of the Foreign "\Iission Board of hIs Church. .\gainst the incorporation 
of the Jesuits and their endowment by the State, he entered a vigourous protest, 
and la,t year took a prominent part in platform discussion of the subject, For 
some years he was one of the e"\aminers in the I >cpartmental Intermediate E\ami- 
nations at the Education Office: has been a lecturer on Church History at <.2 u een's 
College, Kingston; and is a member of the Senate and an e"\aminer in hnox Col- 
lege. 'I r. 'I illigan has tra\ elled widely and read much, and is a graphic and 
instructive lecturer, He has been a con"iderable contributor to the religious and 
secular press. 
The Rcv. John :\1. Cameron, Pastor of the ne\\ East Presb) terian Church, 
\\as born in Strathmore, Perthshire, Scotland. He received his earl) education in 
his nati\e country. where for a \\hile he served in the Royal Engineers and \\as 
engaged in Ordnance Sun'ev \\ ork. He came to Canada in I 85-t, and after taking 
a fir!>t-class certificate at the Xormal School, Toronto. he taught ,chool for 
e\eral 
) ears. He then took an .-\rts course at Toronto C ni, ersit\, anù studied for the 
ministry, first at the C nited Presb) terian lJi\ init\ Hall, under the late Rev. Dr. 
John Tador, and subsef]uentl) at Kno"\ College, For a time :\Ir. Cameron recei\'ed 
tempting offers to enter mercantile life, and, on one occasion, after taking acti,'c 
\\ork on the public platform in the ad\ ocacy of temperance, he was offered the nomination to a seat in Parliament. These induce- 
ments, though they might naturally have led him to \\aiver in the choice of a calling, \\ere rejected. and :\lr. Cameron proc
eded \\ ith 
his mission work at East Toronto. The missiun in time grew into a church, and in the meantime :\Ir. Cameron was lIcensed to 
preach by the Presbyter) of Toronto. In I8il, he recei\'ed a call from the congregation of his present charge. and, accepting 


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RE\. G. :\1. :\ItLLIGAN, B.A. 


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RE\". J. :\1. CA\IERO"l. 





 


TIfE DE \'O.lUX.l TIOXS .,LVD THEIR F.-lSTORS. 


it, was inducted Xo\. :!3rd of the samè ) ear. Soon, increa
ed aCl"<Jlnmod.ltion was needed, and in the spring of I X89 the 
pre'ient commodiou" church \\as erected. l'nder his pastoral care, the "UlTCSS of the East Preshyterian Church has heen 
remarJ..ahle, and Presh) terianism in the cin has no more /ealous and devoted \\orker than :\Ir. Cameron. Thc reverend gentle- 
man filled for si"\teen years the position of Secretary to the t:pper Canada Bihle 
Society, and h.lS also heen :\Iission Senetar) of the Preshyterian Church, 
.\mong the figures of well-known clergymen of the city, onre f.imiliar to the 
citi/ens, was that of the Re\'. I >r. .I ohn Jennings, for many years pasror of the Bay 
Street Cnited Preshyterian ('hurch, This e"\cellent minister has long since gone to 
his rest, though his memor} sun i\"es to-da) in many hreasts, and his faithful work 
in the ministr) has, we are sure, home no small fruit. rhe Bay Street C. 1'. Church, 
which was erected in 1 X.j.8, has, in the march of improvements, also passed from 
the scene, and its congregation has hecume merged in other gathermgs of the I'res- 
h) terian <. 'hurch. \\'e arc glad to presen'e in these pages the likeness of an old and 
worth) pioneer in the <. 'hristian ministry in this city, who in his day was faithful to 
his "aned calling, and also took a warm interest in the cause of education. 1'\\0 
of his sons \\urthily repre"ent hi" n.une in Turonto. 
The Rev, I>onald C, Sutherland, 1>,1>., I. L. B.. late Pastor of the Elm 
Street 'lethodi"t ('hureh, is a native of Toronto, having heen horn in the ('it) in 
1839. He is the son of Captain James Sutherland, a well-knO\\ n owner of steam- 
hoats on I ake Ontario, who was killed in the I >esj.udins Canal accident in 1857. The 
suhject of this sketch was educated at Hamilton Collegiate Institute and at \Ïctoria 
Univer'iity, where he took in course the 
degrees of n..\" :\1..\. and n.1 >. For a 
time ì\1r. Sutherland inclined to the pur- 
suit of Ia\\ as a profession, and with that 
view he studied in the office of Judge (YReill), Hamilton, took the law course at 
Turonto University. and ohtained the degrce of LL. B. He afterwards, however, 
took a theulogical course, entcred the ì\lethodist Church as a prohationer. and in 
1 RóX \\as orrlained a minister hy the I.ite Re\. I)r. :\Iorley I'unshon, H is chief 
appointments ha\t: heen in King'iton, (;alt, Simroe, St. Thomas, I.ondon, and Tor- 
onto. He has held positions in the Church as Chairman of I )istrict, Secretary of 
Conference, Conference and Cni\'ersity E"\aminer; and from \"icturia Cniversity has 
had the degree conferred uJlon him of I )octor of I >ivinity. The reverend gentleman 
has also heen a memher of three Conferences. I)r. Sutherland has travelled con- 
siderahly in Eastern countries, and has puhlished in the denominational magaLine 
interesting accuunts of these excursions. The accounts are graphic and entertaining, 
The Ceneral Secretary of the I )omestic and Foreign :\Iissionary Society of 
the Church of England in Canada, the Re\, C. H. :\Iockridge, 1>.1>" .\ssistant 
:\Iinister in the Church of the Holy Trinity, \\ ho is also editor of the ClI1iadÙl1l 
Church AIissÙmary JIaga:;Ùze, is a resident of Torontu, "0 that in a sense Toronto 
is now the headquarters of that Society. It \\'as formed in 1883 h\' the Provincial 
Synud a"semhled in :\Iontreal, and ha" for its Bu.ud uf :\Ianagement the Bishops 
of Ontario, ()uehec anrl the 1.0\\ er Provinces, together with two derg\Jnen and t\HI laymen from each I>iocese of the Eccle- 
sia'itical I'ro\ ince of ('anada, \\ ith the (;eneral Secretary and (;encral Treasurer, who are memhers ex l1fiâo. 
The Church of St, Stephen, the Proto,l\Iartn, on the rorner of <. 'ollege Street and Ikllevue \\ elUle, is one of the inler- 
esting old landmarks of the cit), where for many) ear'i it stuod alone in fields that are now entirely huilt on and densely peopled. 
It \\as erected in 1857, hy a memher oCthe well-kno\\n l>eni'ion family, and has heen considered one of the prettiest specimen'i 
we ha\e in the city of Earl) Engli'ih architecture, rhe church is now heing enlarged to meet the inneasing "ants of the parish. 
Its réctor is the Rcv, .\. J. Rroughall, :\1..\., who has for over a quarter of a century fait!-jfully ministered to the congregation 
and been a true and loval senant of the Church in this section of the Lord's \ineyard. :\Ir, Hroughall is E\amining Chaplain 
to the I.ord Bishop of the I )wcese and an acti\ e memher of the E"\el"uti\'e Committee of the I >iuce"an Synod. 


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RE\'. DR. CAL\'IN GOODSPEED. 



THE L -l Ir COCRTS .L\D THE LEe IL /'ROJ.ESSIOk 


t'9 


THE 1,\\\' ('OCRT:, .-\XD THr. I E(;,\L PROFE

IOX. 


C 11.-\ PT E R X \'1. 


THF Fmsr \r'\lI'\brR\Tlo'\ OFTH
 1.\\\ IX CPPFR C\'\\II\. E\RLY LF\;(SL-\TOR>> \:\D I'H
IREx..\l'T\IF'\"TS. -EST,\IILISHIXl; 
OF TH
 COl"RT,.,. THF l'lRsr CHIFF Jl"STlt"E -\:\1> Pns'\É Jl'D(;F
. FOl"'\L>I'\', OF rHI" L\\\ SOCIFr\. -OS\;OOOE H \LL 
\'\1> rHF COl'J{TS. I \\\ j)J{\\\'S I'\"TO II' fHF HR\IX OF THE ('Ol''\"TR\. HII:H CH\R-\crER \:\1> IXDFPF'\"DE:\CE OF 
rHF ]nIlCl\R\. ROIL OF THF CHIFF Jl'STlCES \'\"II CH \ '\"C ELI ORS.- I'HE IhR \'\11 Irs E\I1:\Fxr RFPRFSEXT-\TI\FS. 


T HE nation-builders of the Prmince, at the Ia}ing of its foundation. made proyision for the administration of Ia\\, and, 
f
l1o\\ ing British tr.ldition. en.lcted that in a
1 matters of controversy rdat,i\:e to property and ,ci\ il rights II
 "Cpper 
( anada resort should he had to the Law,., of England as the rule for the deCIsIOn of the same. I hese early legislators, 
imhued \\ ith the spirit of the British COIhtitution, \\ hich the} desired as freemen to follo\\ as a model. then passed an 
\ct to establish trial by jury: and 111 the second session uf the First Parli.unent of Cpper Canada (hdd at Kewark [Xiagara] in 
the summer of I ï93). they aholished sla\ery in the 1'rO\ ince, Other measures of the time made prO\'ision for the erection of 
court,house,.,. j.lils, and such other public building,.,. with the necessary legal machinery. as were required in the \arious districts 
into \\ hich the PrO\ ince \\as then di\ ided. Prior to the constiluling of the PrO\ ince, the goyernment of an} settlements there 
\\ere in the \\ est partook of the militar} character \\ hich I\as introduced at the Conquest. If offence,., were committed, the 
military conunand,mt \\ent through regular forms of la\\, and tried, and sometimes himself e"\el'uted. tho,.,e \\hom he deemed 
de,.,en ing of the death þenalty, The law proceedings \\ere usually summary. and not infrequenth" irregular, the officer, as it 
more than once happened, heing judge, gaoler, sheriff and e"\ecmioner. , \t the founding of the Pro\"ince, there seems to have 
been a Court in e"\istence, designated the Court of Common Pleas, being part, no doubt, of the legal machinery of Lower 
Canada, This Court, ho\\en:r, was abolished in Iï9-t, and was not re-estahlished in Cpper Canada until 18-t9. \\ hat took its 
place was the Court, of King's Bench. \\hich \\as created hyan o\ct of the PrO\incial h,.,emhly (3.J (;eo. IlL, ch. 2); and to 
preside o\"er the Court a Chief] ustice and t\\ 0 Puisné judges \\ ere appointed. H} the same. \rt a ('ourt of .\ppeal was estab- 
lished. The first Chief Justice of l pper ('anada wa,., the Hon. \\ m. ()"'goode, after \\ hom ()sgoode Hall is named, and his 
appointment datö from 119:!, though he seenb to ha\'e sened in the newly-constituted Pro\ ince for only a little O\"er a }ear. 
I'he first Puisné judges \\ere the Hon, \\"m, j)ummer Po\\ell and the Hon. John Elmsley. both of \\hom were appointed in 
179-t. the latter succeeding to the Chief Justiceship two years bter. Judge Powell did not reach the Chief Justiceship until 
1816. rhe Hon. John \\hite, the fir,.,t ,\ttorne}-(;ener,ll of Cpper Canada, \\ho, by the wa}, \\as killed in a dud, was 
appointed when the Puisné judges recei\"ed their parents from rhe ('rO\\ n, The I aw Societ} \\as firsr established 111 1797 hy 
the ,-\ct 37 Ceo, II 1.. ch, 13. \\ hich enahled the then legal practitioners in the PrO\"ince to form themselws into a socid} and 
make rules for ih gO\'ernment. In IS:!:!, this ,\ct \\as in part repealed and amended hy 2 (;eo. 1\'., ch, 5. by which it was 
enacted that "the treasurer and henchers of the 1..1\\ Societ}, for the time heing. and their successors. are declared to be a hody 
corporate and politic hy the name of the I an 
ol'iety of Cl'per Canada: Cnder the hy-laws and regulations of the Society. 
its aff.1irs are gO\ erned by a Hoard of Bench- 
ers. of which there arc at present thirty elective 
memhers (e"\dusi\ e of ex ".fficio memhers). 
consisting for the most part of gentlemen of 
high legal attainments and long standing in 
the profes
ion, The Benchers sit in Con- 
vocation every term for the call of barri
ters. 
the admis,.,ion of attornc\'" and solicitors to 
practice. and of students to enter the Society, 
the fees paid by whom form part of its re\ enue. 
When, In' the , \ct of 182:!. the I a\\ 

ociet} \\as formall\ incorporated, a site \\as 
sought in the cit
 for the Canadian ., Inns of 
('ourt," In 18:!8 the present site of (),.,goode 
Hall was purchased from :-;ir John Be\erley 
Robinson, and the 
OCid\' prOl:eeded to the 
cr.::ction and occupancy of its nen quarters. 
,\s )et (1832), ho\\e\er, on I} the east \\ing 
\\a
 completed, and not till I S-t5 was the 
\\est \\ing erected, ha\ing a connecting hall 
or corridor hetween rhe tn o. \\ ith a I.\r
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.C., SIIERHOUI< '\E S I I<FE r. 



90 


THE LA W COCRTS AXD THE 1 EGAL FROFESS/Ol\'. 


surmounting dome. Some twelve ) ears later, the central structure was remodelled, and in the course of a few years the whole 
was completed, \\ ith a handsome facade of cut stone Of recent years, considerable additions have been made to the buildings, 
including a fine Com ocation Hall and a series of new Court rooms. Within and without, Osgoode Hall is now, architecturally, 
an ornament to the city. Here law has its chief home, and justice is doled out to the suitor in the various High Courts of the 
PrO\ince. These now consist of the Supreme Court of Judicature, coml-'used of the Chief Justice of Ontario and three Justices 
of .\ppeal. and the High Court of Justice, of which there are three branches or diÙ"ions, having concurrent jurisdiction. The 
latter are knO\\ n as the (2ueelÙ Bench and Common Pleas l>i\-isions, each presided over by.) Chief Justice and two judges, 
and the Chancery I >i\-ision, presided over by a Chancellor amI three judges. 
It may be said of law. not only in the Province but in the I >ominion as a whole, that it has drawn into thc profession 
more of the brain .lI1d energies of the country than have gone into any other pursuit or calling. From this source, mainly, ha\'e 
the Parliaments and I.egislature" of the 
country dra\\ n to a preponderating e:<..tent. 
This is partly accounted for b) the nel:es' 
sity for lawyers for npounding the Con- 
stitution, for drafting Bills, and for gi\'ing 
form and shape to the national and pro- 
vincial legislation, Another reason may 
be found in the fact that the profession 
are generally good and ready speakers. 
AbO\e all, they are usually practical men, 
not theorizers, and know how to econo 
miLe time and e:<..peditc business. Com- 
monly, also, their reputation is high and 
their personal character unblemished. 
This is most truly maintained when one 
speaks of the leading men who practice at 
the Bar, and of those, especially, who sit 
on the Bench. The high character and 
independence of the judiciary of Canada 
i,; the proud boast of the people, ] >oubt- 
Jess, no little of this is due to the fact 
that the judges are not dependent on the 
appointing power, nor is their retention in 
office subject to the will of the people. 
They hold their positions during good 
beha"iour, and can be removed only by 
petition of both Houses of Parliament. 
Their tenure of office is thus assured, and 
in thi,; respect the principle is allied to 
that in England, but unlike that in \'ogue 
in many of the neighbouring States. :'olost 
of them, in their day, ha\-e fought in the 
pohtlcal arena, but of no one has it been 
said that he has carried Party with him to 
the Bench. . \Imost without exception 
ha\e they been honourable men, and ha\-e 
been specially distinguished for their judi- 
cial and di,;passionate character, High, 
IJ.lrticularly, has been the reputation, alike 
for honour and ability, of the Chief J ustÌl.:es 
and Chancellors of the L'pper Canada and 
()ntario Bench. Their names shed lustre 
on a noble profession. Here is the roll 
of. the later ones, who. have been personally known to many of the citi/ens of to-day:- Robinson, :\laeaulay, :\IcLean, 

lChards, l>r.)pe
, Harnson, Moss, Cameron, and Hagarty, Chief Justices,' Hume Blake, Spragge, Vankoughnet, and Boyd, 
Cha1lcellors. HIgh, also, has been the repute and the juridical status of their brethren on the Bench who have not attained 
to the chief prizes of the judiciary. There is hardly a name in the roll of the PrO\incial Heneh that will fail to be remembered 
n
t only in the legal records, but in the general annals, of the country. The Bar, also, has knO\\ n many eminent men, whose 
gifts would do honour to the I aw in the :\Iotherland or indeed to the highest professional circles of any country. These pages 
preserve the record of a few of them. 



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OS(;OOVE HALL-ENV \'IE" OF LIURARY. 



THE LA Jr COCR 1'S AND THE / EG'-!I I'ROrE.S5IO.V 


()I those le.lrned in the law in Canada there is perhaps no higher name, or one more worthil) held in respect by Bench 
and Rtf alike, th.m that of :\Ir. Christopher Robinson, (.!,c. :\Ir. Robinson admittedl) stands at the head of his profession in 
Ontario, if, indeed, we ma
 not say at the head of his profession in the I >ominion, He inherits a n.une ren:red in the legal 
and administr.ltive annals of the Pnn ince, and he possesses those rare personal and professi0l1.l1 qualities which ha\"e made 
th.lt and his 0\\ n name re\ ered. Born in Toronto in 1828, :\1 r. Robinson W.IS erluc.lted 
at Upper Canad.l College, and later on graduated at King"s College (now Toronto 
l'ni\"ersit\), .\fter graduating, he took up the study of law, and soon mastering its 
principles \\as in 1850 called to the Bar, thereafter proceeding to practice. His present 
legal firm is that of :\lessrs. Robinson, ()"Brien & Cibson, In 18ó3, 
Ir. Robinson 
\\as appointed Queen's Counsel by the (;o\"ernment of the old PrO\ ince of Canada, 
thus early in his carcer winning preferment in the profession which his talents and 
high personal character adorn. For a number of )ears, 
Ir. Robinson acted as chief 
reporter of the del'isions of the courts for the 1.,1\\ Society, and has been an almost 
life-long Bencher of our \.u1J.dian Inns of Court. Of late ) ears he has de\"oted himself 
ahnost e\clusi,"ely to cOllllsel \\ork, taking a leading position at the Bar, and been. 
entrusted \\ ith the conduct of many of the most important cases which ha'"e come 
before the Canadian courts, and \\ ith not a few that ha, e been carried to the English 
Pri\ y Council. He has rcpeatedly held weighty briefs for the Dominion (;overnment, 
among which was that for the Cron n prosecution of Riel and the Saskatl'he\\an half- 
breeds, in the Rebellion of 1885, and that for the Department of Rail\\ays, in the 
arbitration proceedings now pending between 
the (;o\'ernment and the C. 1'. R., in the 
matter of the Dritish Columbia section of 
that transcontinent.ll high\\ay. 
:\Ir. Britton Bath Osler, (.!.e, one of 
the most eminent men at the Ontario Bar. 
was born at Tecumseh, County of Simcoe, 
June 19th, 1839. He was educated at the 
B.lrrie (;rammar School and at Toronto l'ni\"ersity, of \\hich he is an 1.1..1:, l\laking 
choice of law as a calling, he passed his preliminary studies for that arduous profession 
and was dul) called to the Ru. For a number of ) e.lrs :\1 r (bier practised at I >undas, 
Ont., and from 187ó to IXRI \\as County Crown .\ttorne) for \\'ent\\orth. Of recent 
years he has made Toronto his home, and is at prescnt one of the chief partners 
in the legal firm of :\Iessrs. :\IcCarthy, Osler, Hoskin &. Credman. l\1r. Osler is a 
Bencher of the I aw Society and a Queen's Counsel. In his profession the learned 
gentleman is one of the ablest and best 
known of counsel and has conducted many 
important cases for the Cru\\ n. He took 
part with 
Ir. Christopher Robinson, (2,('., 
in the :\orth-\\'cst prosccutions in d:>85, in 
connection with the second Riel Rebellion, 
and has just added to his I.lllrcls by con- 
ducting with gre.lt ability the Cnm n's case at Woodstock ill re the Qucen v. Birl'hall. 
:\Ir. I 'hades \Iuss, (J.t '., brother of the lamented Chief Justil'e l\loss, and him- 
self one of the ablest and best kno\\ n men at the PrO\ incial Bar, was born at Cobourg, 
Ont., :\Iarch 8th, 18-1-0. \\"hile quite a youth he remo'"ed \\ ith his father to Toronto, 
and here recei\'ed his preliminary education, resoh"ing, like his eminent brother, to 
t.lke to Ia\\ as a profession, :\Ir. :\Ioss articled himself 10 his brother's firm and 
entered the I .aw 
ociety. I >uring his student career, he \\on a scholarship, and gave 
promise of tht: talents \\hich ha\'e since raised him to his high position in the pro- 
fession. He was called to the B.u in 18ó9' Cpon his admission to practice, he joined 
the legal firm of :\Iessrs, Osler &. :\Ioss, of \\ hich the present :\Ir. Justice Osler was 
the senior member. This finn \\as subsequently strengthened by the admission of 
\Ir. R, .\. (afterwards Chief .I ustice) Harrison; upon the ele,"ation to the Hench of 
:\Iessrs. Harrison and Thomas :\Ioss, the firm was joined for a time by the late James 
Bethune, Q,(". I ater still, 
Ir. Usler retired to accept a Judgeship, when the firm 
hecame Bethune, 
Ioss, Falconbridge & Hoyles. l'pon :\Ir. Bethune's retirt:ment, :\Ir. Charles Moss hecame head of the 
firms known as },Ioss, Falconbridge & Barwick and :\Ioss, Hoyles & .\ylesworth, 
Iore recently, the firm has had in some 
degree to he reorganiled, in consequencc of its ha\ing gin:n another memLer (!\Ir. Justice Falconhridge) to the Bench. !\Ir. 


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;\111.. CII \11.1 ES \loss, (2.e. 



H2 


THE I A W CO
'RTS AND THE .I EGAL PRUFESSION. 


:\[oss \\as for soml: time lecturer and e"\aminer of the I a\\ Society, and in 1880 was elected a fkncher, and in 188-1- was chosen 
a representative of the La\\ Society on the Senate of Turonto "Cni\ersity. In 1881, the Dominion (;o\"ernment created ì\lr. 
\Ioss a (J.e. In religion he is an Epi"copalian: in pulitics a Libl:raI. \Ir. :\[u"s, however, esche\\s political life, for on the 
elevation of Chief .I ustice Cameron to the 
Bench, :\Ir. :\Ioss was offered hut declined 
the nomination for East Toronto in the Local 
I.egislature. I )uring his professional career, 
:\Ir. Moss has been engaged in many im- 
portant suits bdore the Canadian and English 
Courts. Amongst other cases, he has been 
interested as counsel in the contested Escheat 
case of .-\ttorney-General Z'. :\Iercer; in the 
notorious Streams' case, :\lcI aren v. Cald- 
well: and in the ve"\ed St. James' Rectory 
case, Langtry Z'. I>u:\loulin. In 1871, :\Ir. 
\Iuss marril:d Emily, second daughter of the 
late :\Ir. Justice Sulli\'an. 

Ir. John' Hoskin, <L.C., 1.1.. D., ot 
the firm of :\Iessrs. 
IcCarthy, Osler, Hoskin 
I:\: Creelman, was born in I )evonshire, Eng- 
land, in 1836. He studied in Canada for the 
profession in which he has risen to eminence 
under the late 
rr. Robert Armour, of Bow, 
mal1\"ille, and the present :\Ir. Justice Strong 
and :\Ir, .I ustice Burton. He was called to 
the Bar of Upper Canada in 1863, and created 
a Queen's Counsel ten years later. In 187-1-, 
he was appointed by the ('ourt of Chancery, 
(;uardian ad litem of Infants, and subse- 
quently made Official (;uardian by statute. 
This important trust he fulfils with ability and 
rare discretiun. He has been a Bencher of the Law Society of l;pper Canada for fifteen years, and enjoys in a large measure 
thl: confidl:nre of the community and the esteem of the members of his profession. In 1890, he was elected Presidl:nt of the 
County of York La\\ .\ssociation; is President of the Kational Il1\'estment Company; \'ice-President of the Toronto (;eneral 
Trusts ('ompany, and a Director of the Canadian Bank of Commerce. He i" one of the Trustec" of thl: Uni\ersity of Torontu, 
and in 188 9 had the honorary degree of LL.I>. conferred upon him IIY that natiunal institution. In d\66 he married the 
eldest daughter of the late :\Ir. ""alter :\IcKeluie, of Castle Frank, near by which, in the picturesque rl:gion of Rosedale, he has 
hi" beautiful home, "The Dale." For beaut) of situation, nu less than for its fine S} h"an setting and the rare attractions of its 
conseT\atories, "The I >ale " is well-nigh unsurpassed among Toronto humes, 
:\Ir. \\ïlliam Lount, (.!,c., of the law firm of :\Iessrs. Lount I:\: :\farsh, was Lorn at 
e\\market, Yurk County, Ontario, 
un the 3rd of :\Iarch, 1840. He was 
c(Iucated at the Barrie Grammar School, 
and then de\ oted himself to the pursuit of 
law. He was called to the Bar in 1861, 
and shortly after began to practice his 
profl:ssion in Barrie, removing later on to 
Toronto, where hI: and his firm have for 
many years heen engaged in a large and 
important practice. .\1r. I.ount wa" 
returned in 1867 Reform member for the 
Kurth Riding uf Simcue, in the Ontariu 
I.egislature, Engrossed with his profes_ 
:-.iun, .\Ir. LOutH, ho\\ever, did not pursue 
political life. In 1876, he was neated 
(.!.c. by the Provincial GO\ernment, and 
five years later recei\'ed the like honour 
from the I )ominion (;overnment. He has 
acted as ('rown Counsel for the Ontario 
(;ovcrnment on se\'eral important cases, 
I n religion, :\1 r. Lount i" an Episropal, i.1I1 


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RESIIJE,<:rE OF MR, CHAI!LF
 :\1055, Q.c., ] \R\ J>. Sna1I-.f. 



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:\II<. \\'11 I.IA\I Ln('rH. (,I,l. 



THE LIlT' COCRTS AND THE LE(;AL PROFESSION. 


The dcn
r defence of Reginald Birchall \\ hen on trial for murdering Frederick C. lkl1\\ ell has made the name of 
Ir. 
C;eorge Tate B1aek"wck. Q.C., known in t\\O hemi
pheres. Ineffectual ,IS was the effort made to e'tricatè the criminal from the 
hopeless entanglement of evidence \\ ith \\ hich he was surrounded by the Cro\\ n, the address of the counsel for the defence was 
of such import.mce that it \\.IS cabled across the .\tlantic and published verbatim in the I andon Times. 
Ir. Blackstock comes 
from the County of I )urham, where he 
was born .\pril 7th, 1856, Like many 
other prominent <. 'anadians. he i
 an 
C pper Canada College boy. Immediatelv 
upon commencing the practice of la\\ he 
took a leading place. His special qualifi- 
cation" as a public speaker caused man) 
of his friends to urge him to seek the field 
of politics, 
r r. Blackstock, heing a strong 
Consenati\'e, determined to attack the lion 
in his lair and made his first political cam- 
paign in \\"est I )urham, where he was 
defeated h) the Hon. Edward Blake, .\t 
the follo\\ ing election he made a good run 
in I.ennox in the Consenative interest, 
hut was also unsuccessful. 
I r. Blackstock 
in 1889 was made a Vueen's Counsell" 
the I )ominion GU\ernment, The learned 
gentleman is .m adherent of the \Iethodi"t 
<. 'hurch. 

Ir. James Kirkpatrick Kerr, Q.c.. 
of the firm of 
Iessrs. Kerr, 
Iacdonakl, 
I)a\idson & Paterson, and well-known for his acti\e and enthusiastic interest in Freemasonn', \\as born near (;uelph, in the 
I'ownship of Puslinch, in 18,p. His father, a ci\ il engineer by profession, came to Canada from Ireland in 1832, and wa
 for 
man) year... Chamherlain of the City of Hamilton. The subject of this sketch recei\'ed his early education at Hamilton, and 
later on at (;alt. under the able educationist, the late Dr. I'assie. He aften\ards studied law, and in 1862 was called to the 
Ontario Ru. For t\\ent) )ears, \Ir. Kerr was a partner in the \\ell,knO\\n firm of \Iessrs. Blake, Kerr & ""ells, retiring from 
it, in 1885, to his pröent firm, of which he is the head. In 1879. 1881. and 1886, he was succðsi\t,ly elected a Bencher of 
the I aw Society. In 1876 he \\ as created <re. b\' the Ontario <;0\ ernment. and in 1881 had the same honour conferred on 
him by the I >ominion (;0\ ernment. 
Ir. Kerr has been retained in many important case
, ci\'il and crimin.lI, and argued the 
great license case, the {lUeen Z'. Hodge, for the respondent Lefore the Pri\) Council in England. J n 1 Xó I, he was initiated 
a Freemason in the Ionic Lodge, roronto, and has sen"ed the craft in all the important offices up to the (;rand :\Iastership of 
the (;rand J odge of Canada. He has held 
the rank of Past Grand Principal J, in the 
(;rand Chapter of Canada, and in the (;rand 
Chapter of Scotland. He has also held the 
rank of Past PrO\ incial Prior of the SO\"ereign 
(;reat Prior) of Knights Templ.u" of Canada, 
and, in 1883, recei\ed at the hands of 
H.R.H. the Prince of \\ales, Grand :\laster 
of h.nights Templars, the distinguished order 
of the (;rand Cross of the Temple. In 
politics, :\Ir. Kerr is a Liheral; in religion, 
he i" a member of the Church of England, 
For many ycars he has been a member of 
the I >iocesan and l'ro\ incial Synod, and for 
fifteen )ears Church\\arden of St. James 
( 'athedral. 
:\lr. .\Ifred Henn' 
Iarsh. (J,C.,LL. \1" 
w:ts born at Smithfield. :\ orthumherland 
('ounty, :\Iay 30th, 185 I. He \\as educ.lted 
at Brighton High School and the t:"ni\ersity 
of Toronto, recei\'ing from the latter the 
degrec of B..\. in 1 RH, and LL. B in 1 XX:!. 
Hc W.h c:tlled to the Ontario B.lr in 18ïï. 


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9-1 


THE LA TV COURTS AND THE [EGAL PROFESSIO"'
 


and appointed Queen's Counsd b) the Dominion (;O\ernment in 1889. Mr. :\Iarsh entered 111 1877 the firm of :\Iessrs. 
\Iacdonald &: Patton, of which Sir John A. 
Iacdonald \\.IS the head, HL has since remained a partner of that firm and its 
successors, who are now :\Iacdonald, :\Tarsh &: ()':\Ieara. In 1883. I\lr. :\Iarsh also entered into partnership with the late 
Jame" Bdhune, (J.e and on the death of :\Ir. Bethune in I 88-J, he formed a partnership \\ith \\ïlliam Lount, ().C., under the 
firm style of I ount 
 \Iarsh, He has since continued .1 memher of that firm as 
well as of the one of which Sir John :\Iacdonald is a partner. I\lr. :\Iarsh was 
lecturer and naminer in Equity for the La\\ Society of Upper Canada from 1883 
to 1886. Un the formation of the new Law School in connection with the law 
Society, in 1889, he was appointed lecturer in Equity and has \\ ritten a work on 
its doctrines. Last )ear the graduates in law of the Cni\ersity of Toronto elected 
I\Ir. l\Iarsh as their representati\ e to the Senate of that institution. 
:\Ir. James Henry 
Iorris, Q.C.. is the eldest son of the late Hon. James 

Iorris. He was born at Broch'ille, Fehruary 16th, 1831. After recei\'ing his 
education at the Broch'ille (;rammar School. the 'High School of :\Iontreal, and 
Cpper Canada College, Toronto, he entered King's College, and three years later 
recei\ed the degree of B..\. from Toronto C"nin:rsit)., the outcome of King's. 
:\Ir. Morris served till 1853 in the office of John \\'ilson, Q,C., and for one year 
subsequently in the office of the Hon. John Crawford, afterwards Lieut.-(;O\ernor 
of Ontario. He was called to the Bar in I 85-J, and for a few months practised in 
partnership with :\Ir. Larratt \\'. Smith, II.CI.. In 1855 he visited the Indian 
Archipelago and China. and on returning to Canada in the following year 
practised la\\ with 1\1r. Patrick Freeland and :\Ir. J. F, Smith. Q.c.. now editor-in- 
chief of the Ontario I aw Reports, In 1860, on the occasion of the visit of the 
Prince of Wales to the city, 1\Ir. \Iorris 
took an acti\'e part in organiLing a large 
muster of nati\'e Canadians to give His 
Royal Highness a loyal and hearty wd- 
come. For some years !\Ir. !\Iorris was 
Registrar of Toronto Cniversity, and on his resignation was appointed a member of 
the Senate by the (;overnor-( ;eneral. \\ hich position he held till 1873. The first 
summer residence on Toronto Island was huilt hy :\Ir. :\Iorris in 187 I. He sef\'ed 
the city as aldermanic representati\'e of St. .\ndrew's \\'ard in 1880, and suhse, 
quently as a memher and chairman of the CollqÓate Institute Board. 1\1r. :\Iorris, 
\\ ho ha" ah\a) s taken an intelligent and patriotic interLst in Canadian aff.1irs, was a 
memher of the . \d\ isory Board which distributed relief to the sufferers by the 
Humher r.Iilway calamity in I 88-J. He was appointee) Queen's ('OUlbel in 1885, 
and in 1886 was elected a Bencher of the law Societ) of t:pper Canada. He is a 
memher of the Royal Canadian Yacht Cluh, ,\lbany Cluh, and St. .\ndrew's Society. 
Mr. Morris in his professional practice has 
a wealthy and influential diotle/e. His 
present law partner is :\Ir. .\lIan :\lcKab, 
formerly of ()wen Sound, In religion, 
:\Ir. 
Iorris is an Episcopalian; in politics 
he is a ('onsef\'ati\"C of the ideal type and 
at the samc time an ardent and puhlic- 
spirited Canadian. 
:\Ir. John Bain. Q.e.. is a native of Scotland. where he was horn in the year 
18 3'), heing the ) olll1ge"t son of Re\', James Bain. His education, commenced in 
Scotland, was continued at Queen's College, Kingston. :\Ir. B.Iin studied la\\ in the 
office of l\Iessrs. Paterson &: Harrison, composed of the bte James I'aterson and the 
late Chief Justice Harrison. Subsequently he was recei\'ed'into the firm and the 
name was changed to Paterson, Harrison &. Rain. In ISil. :\Ir. Harrison withdrew 
from the firm and it hecame Paterson, (Jain &: Paterson, The senior I I.lrlner, :\Ir. 
J ames Paterson, died in 1873. The firm was in 1874 then reorgani/ed under the 
name of Ferguson, Bain &: \1 yers. On the elevation of :\1 r. J lIstice Ferguson to the 
Bench, I\Ir. !lain became the head of the firm, and the name changed to Bain, I aid law 
&. Co, Few men have had associated with them in the practice of law so many 
partners who have been ele\'ated to the Bench, :\Ir. Bain was crcated a (2,e. in 
188 3. His firm carries on a large and general legal husiness. 


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THE LAW COlTRTS .-lXD THE lEGAL PROFESSIOX 


9;) 



Ir. {;eorge \\'ashington B.1dgerow, Barrister, Cro\\ n .\ttorney for the ('ounty of York, is a nati\oe of this county, ha\oing 
heen horn at 
Iarkham, :\Ia\ 28th, I 8,p, _-\ftef studying in the :\Iarkham High School, he entered the office of the late Chief 
Justice H.urison, and \\as shortly after\\ards called to the Bar. 
Ir. Badgerow is the head of the legal firm of 
Iessrs, (;. \\'. 
Badgero\\ &. Co., and enjO\ s a high reputation in the community, He has heen closely a.;sociated \\ ith the Liberal party in 
Ontario, to support \\ hich he \\as elected a memher of the local I egi!.lature hy 
the L1st Riding of York in 18i9. This constituency re-e1ected him until he 
re!.igned in 1887 to accept the office he now fills, that of ero\\ n . \ttorney for the 
Cit\. of Toronto and County of York. 
Ir. Badgerow is I'ast Supreme 
Iaskr 
Workman of the ,\ncient Order of Cnited \\'orkmen, emhracmg all Korth .\merica. 
He is a \\orth\ memher of the Church of England. 

Ir. .\lIen Bri
tol \
 les\\orth, :\1..\.. Q. C.. of the eminent Ia\\ firm of 
\Iessrs, :\Ioss, Hoylö &: ,-\ylesworth, \\as horn at the \ïllage of Xewhurgh. Count) 
Lennm. and ,\ddington, Xovemher 27th, 18S-t, He \\as educated at the Xe\\lmrgh 
High School and at Cni\ersity College, Toronto, \\here throughout his under- 
graduate course he took high standing in the class list>;. In I Xi -t, he graduated 
\\ ith silver medal in mathel}!atics, also \\ ith high honours in metaphysics. He \\ as 
also successful in \\ inning the Prince of \rales priæ, which is a\\arded to the 

aduate attaining the highest aggregate standing of the )ear. _\fter graduating, 
:\Ir. ,-\dèS\\orth took up Ia\\ as a profession, stud)ing in the office of 
lcssr". 
Harrison, Osler &: 
Ioss, and in 1878 
\\as called to the Bar. He shortly 
after\\ards connected himself \\ ith the 
firm of solicitors of \\ hlCh he is now a 
partner, and is one of the most capahle 
and hard-\\orking professional men of 
his calling, 
Ir. .\)Ic:s\\orth is a representati\"e on the Senate of Toronto Cnin
rsity, 
and an active memher, abo. of Ionic lodge ,\. F. &. ,\, \1., '\0, 25 (;. R. C. In 
Octoher, 181'9. :\Ir. _\ylesworth \\as appointed QueelÙ Counsel hy the Dominion 
{;O\ernment, and in Ikcemher of the same \"car he had the honour of recei\ing 
silk from the Ontario (;o\'erl11nent. He was ('OUII,;eJ in the H.1ldimand Election 
cases and also in the ::;t. George Railway C.lse. 
The late 
Ir. James Iïlt, 12,C., of the once well-knO\\ n firm of \Iessr
. Bell, 
CrO\\ther &: Tilt, Solicitors, was horn in the Count) of I'eel, Ontario, in 1 X3 I. He 
\\as educated at the Strech\ille {;rammar School and at Cpper Canada College, 
and thereafter studied Ia\\ and \\as in due cour"e called to the Bar of the I'rO\ ince. 
In 1862. he entered into partnership 
\\ith John Bell, Q.c., and 
Ir. James 
Crowther: and on the death of the 
latter, 
Ir. \\'m. :\Iulock hecame head 
of the firm, \Ir. Tilt \\as a sound Ia\\ 
 er 
and a man of prohin and. honour. He was highly esteemed hy his hrethren at the 
Bar. and had the confidence of his clients and the esteem of many warm and sincere 
friends. He \\as a man of fine taste and e'\cellent judgment. He \\a.; generous to 
a fault, and his numherless acts of Iiheralih' endeared him to a \\ ide and appreci- 
ati\"e circle. His death, {)ecemher 31, 1889, \\as sincerely mourned. In politics 
\Ir, lïlt \\as a staunch Conservati\'e and a true son of Canada. He \\as a member 
of Grace Church (Episcopal) in this cit). and for a numher of \ears acted as the 
Rector's Church\\arden. \mong his fello\\-\\orshippers he h:d a useful, kindly, and 
hlameless life. and the memor) of his generous deeds \\ ill not he soon forg-otten, 
:\Ir. (;eorge Hughes \\aholl. <2.C.. LI ,H.. \\a" horn near Schomherg. York 
County, Septemher 28th, 18-t9, He \\as educated at Xe\\market (;rammar School 
and \ïctoria Cni\'ersity. receiving from the latter the degree of B..\. in 18il. and 
LLB. in 1873, ,\fter graduating :\Ir. \\atson entered the office at Belle\illc: of 
the late Hon, I e\\ is \\ all bridge, aftemards Chief Justice of \Ianitoha, Suhse, 
quently he hecame a student \\ ith 
Iessrs, Blake, kerr &: Bo) d, of Toronto, On 
being called to the Bar, 
Ir, \\'atson practiced alone for a short time till he formc:d 
the firm of :\Iessrs. \ratson, Thorne. Smoke &. \lasten, which doc.; an e!l.knsi\'e legal husines". 'Ir. \\ ahon i" a \\orth)" 
member of the Society of Friends, 


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THI-. LAII-. :\IR.JAS. TILl', <l,C 



96 


THE LAW COURTS AND THE LEGAL PROFLSSIOX 


:\Ir. "ïlliam Xicholas l\liller, Q,C 
I I.. B., was born at Dundas, Ontario, in 18 3 8 . 
His father, Judge :\Iiller, practised law in 
Dundas prior to 1853, in which year he wa" 
appointed Judge of the newly organiæd 
County of Waterloo. and in this judicial 
office he remained until 1887, when he 
received his well-earned superannuation. 
Since then, Judge 
liller, who is in his 
eightieth year and in the full enjoyment of 
all his mental faculties. has made his home 
in (;alt. :\Ir. "'. K. !\liller, after obtaining 
his primar) English education, graduated in 
law at the L'ni\'ersity of Toronto, with the 
degree of LL.B., and in 1t>6I was called to 
the Bar of Upper Canada, For some years. 
:\Ir. :\Iiller practised his profession in (;alt. 
and afterwards in Ihampton, in partnership 
\\ ith the late Thomas B. :\Idlahon, brother 
of the present !\Ir, Ju"tice 
Icl\lahon, In 
]874, he remo\'ed to Toronto and entered 
the firm of :\Iessrs. Beatty, 
liller &. 1 ash 
a" a partner, subsequently transferring his 
services to, and forming a partnership \\ ith, 
:\lessrs. :\lulock, Tilt, :\liller &. Crowther, 
of which he is still an active member. In 
these finns, !\Ir. :\liller has had a large 
experience in Commercial law, as well as 
of general counsel work in this and other 
branches of his arduous profession. In 
188 5, the learned gentleman wa" created a 
(2ueen's Counsel. a distinction in his calling 
which he has well earned, 
:\Ir. James J. Foy, Q.C., is a native of 
Toronto, ha"ing been born here Fehruary 
22nd, ]847. He was educated at St. 

Iichael's Collef!e. Toronto, and at St. Cuthbert's College, "L'"shaw, England. Choosing law as a profession, 
Ir. Foy pursued 
his studies to fit him!-'elf for that calling, and in 187] was duly called to the Har. Ten years later, he \\as selected by tr.e 
Junior Bar a" one of the four candidates for the position of Uencher of the I a\\ Society and was ekcted by a large \'ote. 
He has held the office till the present 
time, having been again elected in 1886, 

Ir. Foy has a large and lucrative law 
practice, numbering among his clients 
se\"eral land companies and wealthy finan, 
cial institutions. In the early years of 
The .J/ai/, !\Ir. Foy was one of the directors 
of the ('uml'any organi/ed to own and 
publish it. He is \'ice-President of "The 
. \Ibany" lonservati\"e Club: President of 
the Edmonton &. Saskatche\\an I and 
Company: I )irector of the Toronto (;en- 
eral Trusts COPlpany; and of the North 
. \merican Land Company. :\Ir. Foy is 
the senior member of the firm of :\Iessrs. 
Foy 
 Kelly. In ]t>83. he was made a 
(rC'. by the Dominion (;uvernment. In 
politics. \Ir. Foy i" a Consermtivc, and 
takes a prominent part in the councils of 
hi" party in Toronto: in religion, he is 


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IDE:\CE OF !\fR. J. K. KFRR, (.,>., 


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'IR. GEOR/'" II. WAISON, Q,C. 


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\11:. \\"111 Lnl ì\. \IILLER, Q.C. 



TIlL L / Tr COURTS ./XD THE I E(;.-I1 l'ROÍ'E5.:\..,O
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a Roman Catholic, and a leading member 
of the congregation of St. :\Iichad's 
Cathedral. 
-'Ir, X ebon (;ordon Bigelow, Q.c., 
1.1.. B., head of the \\ell-known legal firm 
of :\k""rs. BigelO\\, :\(or"on "'= Sm
 th, and 
one of the leading practitioner" at the 
Provincial Bar, \\as horn in the County of 
Simcoe, ,\pril.2.2nd, 18-1-0. .\fter recei\ing 
hi" preliminary education, he entered \'ic- 
toria Cniversih, ('obourg, where he took 
a high standing and in due course, gradu- 
ated \\ ith honours. He has taken a lead- 
ing part in the discussions \\ ith reference 
to the Federation fJue"tion, In 1866, he 
proceeded to his :\1..\. degree, and in the 
follo\\ ing 
 ear took the degree of l.1.. B. 
:\Ir. Bigdow pur"ued his legal studie" 
first under the late -'Ir. John -'Ic},abh, 
formerly ('ounty ('rO\\ n , \ttorne), and 
afterwards under the late Judge Kenneth 
\lacKenLÌe. In 1867, he \\as called to the Bar, and for O\er a score of )ears has had a large and \aried practice, He is now 
one of the mo"t prominent and successful of criminal la\\yers. In It)t)9, he was appointed <)ueen"s Counsel L) the Dominion 
(;o\'ernment. :\Ir. Big-e1o\\ is a member of the Senate of \Ïctoria Lniversity, where he repre"ents the graduates in law. In 
politic", :\Ir. Bigelow is a Liheral : in religion, he is a' \kthodi"t, ' 
:\Ir. ,\Ifred Hoskin, (.'.c., of the law firm of :\Iessrs. Hoskin ð.. Ogden, is a native of I>e\'onshin
, England, and was horn 
:\1.1rch 21 st, 18-1-3. He received his primary education in London, Lngland, and completed his studies at a pri\ate school in 
Ho\\mall\'ille, Onto Choosing law as a profession, \Ir. Hoskin commenced his legal edul'ation in the office of I>onald Tkthune, 
J r., BO\\lnal1\ ille, He afterwards came to roronto and completed his course in the finn of Cameron, :\Ie \1 ichael & FitLgerald, 
\Ir, Ho"kin was admitted as a Solicitor in :\Iay. 1865, in 1'\o\'el11her of the same year wa-; called to the Bar, and in 1880 was 
created a (2ueeIÙ. < 'ounsel. He has been connected successively with the firms of Cameron, :\Ic-'Iichael, FitLgerald ,\. Hoskin, 
of Cameron, \1c\lichad.\: Hoskin, and \k:\lichaei. Hoskin "'= Ogden, and is nO\\ the senior member of the firm of Hoskin 
.\:. Ogden. \Ir. Ho-;kin i-; \"ice-President of the -'Ianitoba and X orth-West Loan Company and a I Jrrector of the Ontario 
:\Iutual life ,\ssuran('e Co. He is also chairman of the Board of School rrustees for I Jeer Park. In religion, :\Ir. Hoskin is 
an [piscopalian. and for man
 ,ears has been a memher of the Toronto Diocesan Synod. 
-'fr. Henry O'Brien. <J.c., a partner in the \\ell-knol\n legal firm of Robinson, O'Brien <\: <;ibson, is a son of the late 
Co\. E. C. O'Brien, of "The \\'oods:' Shanty Bay, I ake Simcoe, and was born in 1836, Ha\"ing chosen law as a profösion, he 
took up its "tud\" and I\as duh called to the Bar in It)61. :\fr. O'Brien is the author of "everal legal \\orb of high repute in 
the profession. He has also, for upward" 
of t\\ enty ) ears, ably edited the Callada 
Lall' JOllrllal, which \\as originated in 
1855, by :\Ir. Justice (now Senator) Gowan 
and the Hon. James Patton, Q,C., and 
,",ubsequenth- conducted for a time by the 
late Chief Justice Harrison, This was the 
pioneer legal periodical of the Pominion, 
and is the organ of the I aw Society of 
Cpper Canada. :\fr. O'Brien was also 
la\\ reporter at Osgoode Hall from 1866 
to 1876, He is noted for his interest in 
athletic sports. He founded the -\rgonaut 
Ro\\ ing Club in 187:! and was its fir"t 
President. He was also first President of 
the Canadian .-\"sociation of .\mateur 
Oarsmen. In politics, abo. \fr. O'Brien 
has shO\\ n great acti\ it\, taking a promi- 
nent part, \\ ith his hrother Co\. 0 Brien, 
:\LP., and others, in the mo\"el11ent again"t 
the pas"ing of the Jesuits Estates' Bill. 


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MR, JA>. J. Foy, (.!.C. 


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TIfE L-l1l" COCRTS ,lXD THE E EG.-ll PROFESSEO.'. 


rhough form\:r!y a l 'ons\:r\ ati\"t
 in polities, h\: has latter!) disengaged himself from party aIliances, and connected himself \\ ith 
the Equal Rights alhocates. He i<; a memher of the Exccuti\e Committee of the Equal Rights' .\ssociation. In 1885, he 
took a leadin
 part 111 the l.lI1didature of 
Ir. \\. H. Hmdand for the cit) mayoraltY"and was a æalous aIly of that gentleman in 
his efforts on hehalf of municipal rdorIn. 
:\[r. O'Brien helongs to the Church of Eng- 
land communion, though he takes an active 
part in all undenominational Christian work, 
and has done much practical good amongst 
the poor and sick, chiefly of the eastern por- 
tion of th\: city. To his philanthrophic work 
he has mad\: man) sacrifices and gi\es it a 
large amount of his time. 
:\rr. Henry James Scott, (,1.r'., \\as 
horn at Port Hope, _\ugust 25th, 1852. He 
is the second son of the late :\Ir. James ::;cott, 
harrister. He \\as educated at Port Hope 
(;rammar School, Trinity College School, 
and Toronto L" ni\"ersity. He graduated in 
, \rts in 1872, of which year he was gold 
medalist in metaphysics. In 1876 he entered 
upon the practice of law, and his ahility was 
recogni/l.
d hy his appointment as Qu\:en.s 
Counsel in 1883, J\1r. Scott is a memher 
of the Church of England. 
:\Ir. I Janiel Edmund Thom"on, Q,C., of the firm of .Messrs, Thomson, Hen- 
d\:rson IX Bell, and a memoer of the Hoard of Governors of .:\lc:\laster Uni\ersity, was 
born in the \ïllage of Erin, County \\'ellington, Ontario, January 20th, 1851. Having recei\'ed his preliminary education, he 
was suhs\:quently instructed hy private tutors, and in 1872, Legan at (;uelph the study of the law. Two years later he 
remO\"ed to Toronto, where he entered the office of :\Iessrs. Beatty, Chadwick &. Lash, and pursued his studies at the Law 
School, carr)ing off in succession first, second and fourth )ear scholarships-his third year course ha\"ing heen allowed him 
in consideration of his high standing in the class lists. In 1876, he was caIled to the Bar, and in 1889 was created a Q.c. hy 
the Ontario (;O\"\:rnment. In his profession. 1\Ir. Thomson has made a specialty of commercial law and had a large practice in 
insohenC) ca"es prior to tht' repeal of the Insohent -\ct. He was counsel in the celehrated stock,oroking case of Sutherland 

'. Co"\.. which arose out of the complications of the Federal Hank stock. The case was carried through all the courts and 
resulted in a judgment for the plaintiff. :\Ir. Thomson was also counsel for the defendants in the case of Macdonald 'l'. Crombie, 
which was carried to the Supr\:me 
Court and decided in favour of the 
defendants. This case is a ruling 
one on questions of pr\:ferential 
security. :\Ir. Thomson for the past 
four years has been President of 
the Baptist COI1\"ention for Ontario 
and Quehec. and he takes an acti\"e 
,lI1d enthu"iastic interest in the Cni- 
\"ersity of his denomination, of \\ hich 
he is a (;0\ ernor. .-\ \"iew of :\Ir. 
rhomson's hCHne, 57 Queen's Park, 
is here shO\\ n. 
The name of :\1 r. Uli\'Cr ,\iken 
Howland is conn\:cted with 1\\0 im- 
portant legal cases in Ontario the 
great patent right contest of Smith 
1'. Cold ie, and the celehrated church 
litigation which ams\: out of the divi- 
sion of St. James' R\:ctory lands. 
Rom at Lamhton .:\lills, .\pril 18th. 
,\. ,: 18 4 - " :\Ir. Howland came to Toronto 
...."..... 
J'WIe._T" .'Ii for his education and passed through 
Upper Canada College, the J\lodd 


:\IR. IIF;IIRY J. Scon, (J.e. 




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IR. !JAl\IEL E. THO'ISO;-';, Q.c. 


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TIIF LA 11' COCRTS AXn THE LEG.II PROFESSIOX 


(;rammar School. and Trinity C niversit), 
In 1875 he \\as called to the Ittr, and 
to-day is senior member of the well-J.no\\ n 
law firms of Howland. .\rnoldi &: Bristul, 
and Ho\\ land. ,\rnoldi 
 :\laeJ.eJlI'ie. :\Ir. 
Hu\\ land is also a patent agent, a solicitor 
to the Supreme Cuurt, and a foreign mem- 
ber of the English Institute In cfmncc- 
tion with \'arious municipal and national 
mO\ ements he has e\. inced a deep interest 
in public aff.'1Ïrs. Since 188-t- he has been 
one of the Church\\ardens of St. James' 
Cathedral. He is chairman of the On- 
tario Public Places .\ssociation and a 
member of the York Pioneers and of St. 
(;eorge's Socieh'. In the case of Smith 
1'. (;oldie. \\hich he successfull) contested 
in the highest Courts of the realm, :\Ir. 
Ho\\ land obtained the first juùgment of 
the Commissioner of Patents on the ap- 
plication of the famous forfeiture clause \\ hich is still the gon
rning decision on that subject. In the long and il1\'oh ed case 
arising out of the 51. James' Cathedral Rectory funds :\1 r, H 0\\ land represented the defendants and ably contested <- \'ery point 
until the \\ithdra\\al of the rector of S1. James' Cathedral from the suit brought the litigation to an end, :\Ir. Hm\land takes 
a hearh' interest in the natÎ\'e literature and is a frequent contributor to The l1éek, He is the author of a thoughtful \\ork, 
dealing \\ith "The Irish Prohlem, as \Ïewed 
b\" a Citi/en of the Empire. " \\ hich W.Is favour- 
ably recei\'ed hy the British puhlic on its 
appearance in london in 1887. and \\a'i 
praised h} the london Specta/tlT. 
:\1r. \\" H, p, Clement. R..\., was horn 
:\Iay 13th, 1858. He made good use of the 
national system of education of \\ hich the 
1'1'0\ ince of Ontario is justly proud. .\fter 
acquiring all the knowledge that the High 
Schools could impart, he took an .\rts course 
in the Cni\ersityof Toronto; from thi... in- 
stitution he recei\'ed the degree of B..\, He 
then de\'oted himself to the study of law. and 
in due time was called to the Bar, The firm 
of \Iessrs, Clement, \[CCulloch 
 Clement, 
of \\ hich he is a member, is well and fa\our- 
abl\' kno\\ n, :\1 r. Clement interests himself 
in the :\Iethodist Church, the Liberal part}, 
and the Order of ,\ncient, Free and .\ccepted 
:\1.1'>ons, He i'i moreO\er an acti\e minded, 
enlightened and useful citiæn. 
\lr. Columhus Hopkins (;reene \\as 
born :\Iay I.:?th. 1830. in the historic \. illage 
of I )rummondyille. ()ne \\ hose earh em i- 
ronments Were so pregnant with the memories 
of British heroism. of British 100alty and of 
British daring which cluster round the glori- 
ous battle ground of I .und\'" I ane could not 
but absorh the sterling characteristic!' of the 
l". E. Loyalists by \\ hom this locality \\as 
settled, :\Ir. Greene at an early age chose 
the profession of law for his life-work. His 
mam' e"\cellent qualities commended him to 
the mercantile puhlic of Toronto and he soon 


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RESIIJE'\CE OF :\IR. C. II. GREEXF, ST. GEORGE :-JTRFET. 


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THE LA tr COCRT5i Axn TIfE LEG.U FROJ.E.<"SION. 


ohtained a lucratin
 practice. He is thc senior mcmber of the firm of :\Iessrs. (;reene & <;reene, .\ consistcnt memher of 
the Church of England, :\Ir. < ;recne has alw.lYs taken a deep interest in its welfare. Largely through his efforts ,-\11 Saints has 
hecome one of the most prosperous Epis- 
copalian churches in Toronto, 
?\Ir, Joseph Heighington is the 
pnncipal partner in the legal firm of 
\Iessrs, Heighington, Urquhart & Bo)d, 
He \\as horn in Yorkshire, England, in 
18-1-9, and \\as educ.lted up to the age of 
si'\teen .It ordinar) da\' schools and then 
by pri\'ate tuition. He thoroughly mas- 
tered the duties of aCl:ountant and held 
responsihle posts till, in IR77, his he.llth 
failing, 
Ir. Heighington was ad\ ised to try 
a drier dimate, He came to Toronto 
and first kept hooks, hut soon entered 
upon the <;tudy of law, commencing prac 
tice in this city in the year 188.1-. :\lr. 
H eighington to a large e'\tent confined 
himself primarily to that part of his profes- 
sion which comes under the husiness of L 
solicitor, helieving that it is disad\'an- 
tageous to attempt counsc! \\'ork too early 
in one's legal career, His husiness consisted largely in the management of estates, the inn:stment of moneys, and gencral 
commercial matters suhjects which his pre\Ïous training admirahly fitted him to deal \\ ith, The claims of his business have 
heen too e'\acting to allow of :\Ir. Heighington's taking an}' very acti\ e part in politics, but he holds I,iheral views and has 
attended Reform meetings. In religion. he is a Baptist of a broad and charitahle type. 
The relehrated trial of a well-kno\\ n clergyman of Toronto, hy a trihunal of the 
Iethodi
t Church and his acquittal on 
the charges made, hrought into prominence the name of 
Ir. J. " , St. John, hy whom the defence was conducted. :\Ir. St. John 
wa!> horn in the Count\' of Ontario, on the 17th of July, 1854. . \fter attending the Collegiate I nstitute at Cohourg, he graùuated 
in . \rts from \'ictoria l' ni\ ersity in I 8X I. I'hree ) ears later he was called to the Ontario Bar, and hegan the surcessful and 
lucrati\'e practice of law, His name:' is connected \\ ith the firm of :\Iessr!>, Haverson & St. John. In religion, :\Ir, St. John 
gives allegiance to the :\Iethodist Church. 
\Ir, Horace Thorne, barrister, was born at Thornhill, Ont.uio, on the 20th of Xo\'emher. 113-1--1-. His father, Benjamin 
Thorne, was at one time a leading merchant hoth in 
Iontreal and Toronto, carrying on one of the largest milling and grain 
husinesses in the country, .\fter recei\'ing a good training in Cpper Canada College, young Thorne studied law in the offices 
of the late Hon. James Patton, <2.C.. :\Ir. Justice Usler, and the late Chief Justice :\Ioss. In 1869. he was called to the Har 
and commenced practice in partnership 
with the late Thomas h. :\Iorgan, who 
came to an untimely end hy heing drowned 
off the yacht .Sphinx, in 1873, Shortly 
afterwards, 1\Ir. Thorne formed a partner- 
ship with 
Ir, James J. Fo}, (J.c. This 
firm Ia!>ted five years, when :\Ir. Thorne 
hecame a member of the present firm of 
Watson. Thorne, Smoke & :\Ia!>ten. For 
the past few years he has de\'oted a grcat 
deal of attention to financial matters, and 
has been \'ice-President of the Toronto 
I and and Il1\'estment Company. 

Ir. Elgin Schoff, of the firm of 
Schoff & Eastwood, barristers, is a nati\'e 
of Ontario, He was horn in Clandehoye, 
\liddIese'\. Ont., February 17th, IR52. 
:\Ir. Schoff is a graduate of I'oronto Xor- 
mal School. from which he holds a first- 
class certificate. . \fter teaching school for 
t\\O years he was articled in 18j 5 to 

lessrs. Digelow, Hagel & Fitlgerald and 


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MR. J. W. ST. JOHN. 


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T/IF LJ II C(){'RT."; .JXD TlfE / LGAf PROFE,c.,:c..;f().\: 


,uIN
l)uenth bel'.lIl1e m.Ulaging clerk in the offin' of X, F. Hagel. <,J.e.. nm\ of \\ innipeg. In I8iY :\Ir. 
('hoff \\as called to 
the B.lr. h.l\'ing taken honours in the La\\ School three \ears in succt.ssion, and heing 'ie,'ond on a long list of barristers He 
ha'i 1\\ ice in I SS8 and 18Xy heen elected 
h Puhlic SclllIol rru!.tee for St. :\I.mhe\\ 's 
"ard, \1 r. Schoff is a charter memher 
amI P.lSt Regent of the I )ominion < 'ouncil 
of Ihe Ro\.11 .\rcanum, Ht.' is \ïce President 
of St. :\Iatthe\\'s \\'ard Reform ,\ssociation 
and the I
.bt Lnd \\'om.Ul's I:nfranchi
ement 
\
"OCi.ltion. He ha'i al\\a\s taken an .Il"ti\e 
interest in temperance reform and is a mem- 
her of the E'-t.'cuti\e of the \ oung :\Ien's 
I'rohihition Cluh anù a Rmal l"emplar, \Ir. 
Sc'ho/f is al
o an acti\e mt.'mher of the 
:\Iethodist Church. 


In 1889. a L-\\\ 
CHOOL at Osgoode 
l'-!.lll \\as estahlished hy the I aw Society of 
l' pper Canada, under the !'upen ision of a 
I t't(al Education <. 'ommittee, \\ ith the ùesign 
of .Iffording ilbtruction in Ia\\ and legal suh- 
jects to .111 "tudent'i entering the I 
"l\\ Svcit.'l\, 
and of holding e'-amil1.ltions which shall 
entitle the stuùent to he c.tlled to the Rlr or 
admitted to practice ao; a solicitor. The I a\\ 
School course. \\ hich is three) ears in e'-tent, 
is compulson on all students-at-Ia\\ and 
articled clerks. suhject also to the pa\ ment 
of certain fees. unless the) ha\'e heen admit- 
ted prior to H ilar) Term. 1889. Honours. 
5cholarships. and medals are a\\.uded h\ the 
Socit.'l\, in connection \\ ith the e'-aminations.It the I.a\\ School. I'ri\ ilege'i are granted to graduates in ,\rh of the uni\ ersities 
rt.LûgniLed [)\' the I aw Societ\, and attendance at the School is allo\\ed as part of the term of attendance in a harrisler's 
chamhers or sen ice under articles. The 
I a\\ School course emhraces lecturt.'s, 
recitations, discu'isions, and other oral 
methods of instruction, and the holding 
of moot '-ourts under the supen i'iion of 
the Principal and the I ecturers. The 
Principal of the School is \Ir. \\. ,\, 
Ree\e, :\1..\.. <,J.e.. and the lecturers. 
four in numher, aft
 
Iessrs, E. I). 
.\rmour. \!,C.. .\, H, 
I.ush. B..\" 
LI ,B.. (J.C.. R. E. Kingsford. :\1..\,. 
1.1.. B.. and 1', H. I Ir.n ton. The legal 
L:ducation < 'ommittee of the Law So- 
ciet) , under \\ hose auspices the I.a\\ 
School is condu<led, i;, composed of the 
follo\\ ing Benchers: :\Iessrs. Charles 

foss. <,J.e. (Chairn1.ln), Christopher 
Rohinson, <,J.e.. John Hoskin. 1.1..)),. 
(,J.e, F, :\facKelcan, <,J.c., \\'. R. 
\1 eredith, <),c., I. . \. I ash. (,J.e., J. 
H. :\Iorris, <,J.e., J. H. Ferguson. <,J.e.. 
and Xicol Kingsmill. t).c. It is said 
that the I a\\ Societ) intend at an earh' 
da\ to erecl a separate huilding for the 
u
es of Ihe I a\\ School. 


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TilE HEAL/XC; lRT: A ("{IAPTER AROUT DOCTOR5'. 


CHAPTER X\'IJ. 


THE HE.\LIXC .\RT .\ CH.\PTER ,-\BOUT DOCTORS. 


TH
 Cln '5 E,\RL\ PHYSIC! \:-OS.- REIïRED .\R'I\ Sl'R!;EO'\5,-THF l\lrmc-\L BÜ\RD OF CPPFR ('.\NAD.-\. - HISTORIC 
'\ \1\11 5 A'III'''!; THE FIRST PR,\CTITIO:-OERS. ,\LLOPATHS -\[I;D HO:\IEOl' \THS. THE :\IUHc.-\1 SCHOOLS, LICEXSI:-O(, 
BODIES 1\:>;n TE-\CHI:>;G FACULTIES. -lJDITlSTR\" A:-OD DFNTISTS. - THE CIl"\'S HOSPIT,\LS ",XI) CH \RITIES. 


J CI)( aX(; from the numher and the general opulence uf the medical profession in Toronto, the city would seem to be a 
paradise of Physicians. If there is a vacant curner on any of the fine re
idential streets of the city, the real estate 
agent and the house-builder seiæ upon it for the erertion of a doctor's handsome re
idence. Even the apothecary shops, 
which are legion, denote a thriving trade in the healing or the killing art. In the old days there was no such activity or 
enterprise in the drug trade, nor \\as the medical profession thronged -not to say glutted -as it appears tu be now. Yet men 
li\'ed then to a good old age, and harring period
 
of pestilence, few were wont to be gathered to 
their fathers until they were full ripe for the 
sickle. The goud people of the time did not 
live in such a whirl as we do, and they took 
more real enjoyment out of mundane existence. 
There was therefore not so much need of the 
health ufficer, or of beneficiary societies and 
mortality statistics, The doctor \\as but rarely 
in requisition, for the domestic pharmacop!eia 
was usually at hand and the old wife could be 
depended upun with her potent restorati\'es, 
drawn from the primiti\"e herhs and simples, 
\\ hat pimpernel, li\'erwort, rue and rosemary 
could not cure, must have been smitten of the 
Evil One and was past the chirurgeon's art. 
Even for the most persistent ailments, a posset 
bre\\ed hy the family herhalist was counted a 
more so\'ereign remedy than the quassia of a 
whole faculty uf physicians. From an early 
period in the Pro\"Ïncial histury we find mention 
maùe, huwe\"Cr, of doctors and licensed practi- 
tioners, Commonly these were old army sur- 
geons \\ ho had emigrated to the colony, or Iud 
come to it on the staff of the first gmernors, 
Th.:se early physicians, we read, carried medi- 
cines and a pair of tiny scales, weighing out 
their prescriptions at the houses of their patients, 
and their long queues. powdered hair, and ruffled 
shirt-fronts enforccd the respect \\ hich their 
prufession conllnalllkd. 
I n the absence of any \\ ork, of an historical or hiugraphical character, dc.lling with the \lcdical Profession in the early 
days of the PrO\'incc, \\e ha\'e found it difficult to say much as an introduction tu this chapter, Of a few of the first practitionl'fs, 
I)r. Scaddin
, in hi
 foron/o of Old. gives us some account, and this we have been able to supplement through the courtesy of 
Dr. Canniff, late City Health Officer. and like the venerable hi
torian of Toronto, an enthusiastic student of the ci\'ic and 
Prmincml annals. This gentleman is at pröent, \\e are glad to l.now, preparing for the press an historical account, \\ith 
interesting original documents, of the :\Iedical Profession in Cpper Canada, from the founding of the PrO\'ince to the year 
J 85 0 . Ih appearance, we venture to think, will be eagerly looked for. Chiefly from this source we learn some facts with 
reference to the pioneers of the profession and of the establi
hing of the :\Iedical Schools. Weare also indebted to Dr. Pyne 
for some statistical information regarding the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
The three mo
t notable of the first practitioners in the rity, were I )rs. \\ m. Warren Balùwin, James 
[acaulay, and 
Christopher \\ïdmer. Dr. Bald\\in came to York (Toronto) towards the rlose of the last century, and was the first ci\'ilian in 
the embryo capital to practice medicine. He also entered upon the study of law and was dul) legali/ed to practice that pro- 
fe
sion a
 well as that of a doctor. His name is \\ell.knO\\n in carly Canadian history, and our readers need hardly be told that 


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TilE HEAL/XC ART: .1 CHAPTER ARDUr DOCTORS. 


he 11.1" th
' father of that patriot-politician, the Hon. Robert Bald\\in, ])r. Bald\\in lIas the founder of Spadina How,e. on 
Ihe hill 0\ er-Ioukin
 \J.1\ enport Rúad and the spaciou" a\'enUe that bears the name of his residence. Dr". :\Iacaulay and 
\\ïdmer \\ere originally surgeons in the army \Jr. :\lacaula), \\ho was the father of Sir J:lIne" :\Iaeaulav. a distinguished 
occupant of the Cppcr Canada Bench. wa'i attached to the 33rd Regiment and the Queen's Ranger", uf which (;u\'ernor Simcoe 
I\a" Colunel during the Revolutiunary \\'ar. He remo\ed from '\ïagara to Toronto abuut the )ear 1796, and long practised his 
profe"sion in the city. \Jr. \\ïdmer. who was a Surgeon un the Ca\alr) St.Iff, began his medical rareer in Toronto in 1815 or 
I
IÓ. and was fur many 
ears a familiar figure in the professional and social circles of the Capital. .\ssociated \\ith I)r. 
\\ idmer fur a time lIas Dr. Peter \Jeihl, \\ hu came to the cit) from :\Iontreal, and died so recently as the )car 1868. In their 
earh careers, the) munopoliæd almost the \\ hole medical practice of the tOIl n and vicinity, \nother uf the pioneer 
medicos. \\.IS I Jr. Thomas I I, \lorrison, who rom- 
menced practice in \ ork, in 18;q. \\ hen \\ m. I.nlll 
:\Iacken/ie came tu the place, and lIas a participant 
\\ith that" rehd" in the troubles of 1837. \Jr. :\Ior- 
rison lIas one of the IÏr"t aldermen, after the 
incorporation of the city, and its third :\Ia} or. \Jr. 
John Rolph is another of the notahle name" of the 
profes"ion in the city, and he also. a" we h.1\e seen, 
\\a" a sharer in the storm \\ hich disaffected Reform 
at the time bre\\ ed. . \mong other pre-rehellion 
practitioners \\ ere Ilr". I I.Iilv. Rees, King. (;\\ )l1I1e, 
L>u
gan, Crall ford, Hornhy. and :\Icllmurra). Of 
the later men, \\ ho ha\ e pa"sed from the "cene. a few 
names deserve to be chronicled here. These arc I Irs, 
Bowll, Beaumont. Hodder. H.d\. Philhrick. B.lrrctt, 
Herrick. Xicol. Berr)ll1an, Fulton. Russell, c.unpbell, 
Badgle\, and H.lllowell. , \ fe\\ are still \\ ith us. such 
a" Dr. Joseph "'orkman, as connecting linb \\ith 
the past. The later-day men the Ogdens. ,\ikins. 
\\'rights, Richardsons, Thorhurns. Temples. Bethunes, 
(;ra,ctts, Spragges. etc.. \\ orthily maintain the hi
h 
repute uf the profe""ion and do honour to the memor) 
of the distinguished men of their humane art \\ ho have 
preceded them. 
I 'rom an earh period there "eems to ha\'e heen 
a \Iedical Hoard in "Cpper ('anada, for the licensing 
of Practitioners, but of its organiLation and an) le
is 
lation passed in its hehalf. it i" difficult nOlI to ohtain 
informatiun, From I)r. ('.mniff we learn that the fir"t 
\(edical School in the PrO\ ince \\as the :\Iedical 
Ilepartment of King's ('olle
e. \\ hich earl) in .. the 
fiftie" .. hecame by .\ct of Parliament the Cni\'Crsity 
of Toronto, The profe"sors of that school \\ere I Irs, 
(;\\Inne, King, Beaumont, HerricJ." Xicol. Sullivan 
and O'Brien. The school "eems, ho\\e\ cr. not to ha\e 
heen long in e,-i"tence. the I egi"latun
 depri\ ing the 
L'ni\er,ity of its early \Iedical and I.aw facultie". 
Rolph's School of :\l
dicine. \\ hich for a time furmed 
the \lcdical I Jepartment of \ïctoria ( 'ollege, Cohourg, 
\\a" fuunded b) the Hon. I Jr. Rolph in 18-1-3. and \\.1" 
incorporated by .\ct of Parliament eight ) ears later. 
In 1853. it hecame the Toronto School of :\ledicine and wa'i affiliated \\ith huth I'uronto and \ïctnria Cni\'Cr"ities, Besides 
Dr. Rulph, it had on its teaching staff for a time. Dr. Joseph \\ orkman, ])r. (;eikie, ()r, Canniff, \Jr, Herr) man, ])r. \ikins. and 
Dr. \\'right. rhe two latter gentlemen are still on the faculty, \\ith some si'-teen other medical men and o\'er a doæn lecturers, 
demon"trators and instructors. ])r. \\" T. _\ikins i" at present \Jean of the I'aculty, . 
In 1850 Trinity :\Iedical School was founded h) I>rs. Hodder, Du\ell, Badgley, and Bethune. and then became a Faculty 
ofTrinit) C"ni\er"it), In 1855-6 it ho\\e\er ce.lsed to be a Facult) of the C"niversit), though in 1871 it \\as reorganiæd under 
a I'aculty differentl\" con"tituted hut \\ith man) of the original profes"ors. In 18ï7 the School lIas affiliated \\ith Trinity 
Unilersity and to-da) ha" a teaching Faculty, \\ ith ])r. Ceikie as Dean, composed of ten doctors of the city and t\\e1n
 
lecturers and demonstrators. 
In 1883, the Women's :\ledic.l1 Cullege was founded, and is doing good work 
and a te.lChin
 "taff of oler t\\ent
 profe"sionalmen of the city, T(.rIJnlo h.b alsu the 


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IDE'CF OF DR. G, R. 'feDo!> 1..11, CIIURCII Sl RFFT. 


under Ilr. X è\ itt, 1 Jean of the Faculty, 
fullo\\ in
 schools: the Pnt.lrio College 



10-1- 


THE HEALING ART: A CHAPTER ABOUT DOCTORS. 


of Pharmacy, designed for the education of Chemi
ts and Druggist!>, and incorporated hy Act of Parliament; a School of 
I )elltistry of the Royal College of I >ental Surgeon" for Ontario, incorporated since 1868 ; and the Ontario \' eterinary College, 
possessing the power hy .\ct of Parliament to grant diplomas to \' ekrinary Surgeons. 
Besides these teaching schools in medicine and its allied hranches. the medical profession in the I'ro"incc have a College 
of Ph}sicians and Surgeons of l )ntario, whose headquarters are in Toronto. This is a Pro\inci
l I',icensing hOdy,. and was first 
incorporated hy an .\ct of Parliament in 1866. It is gO\erned hy a Council compo"ed of terrItorIal representatl\'eS, annually 
elected, with representatives from the various 
Iedical Schools and l' niversities, ,\llopathic and Homeopathic. and a Board of 
well-qualilied E'-aminers. rhe pro' 
fcssion has also in the city two 
medical journal", The Callada Lan- 
cet, and The Calladiall Practitioller. 
under ahle management, hesides 
Ihe periodic issues of The Olltario 
JIcdim/ ReKÙter. 
W. T. .\Ikins, :\1.1 >., Ll . D., 
\\as horn in the County of Peel, 
Ontario, in Ü\27. His preliminary 
education was recei\'ed at \lctoria 
College. Cohourg. and his medical 
education at the Toronto School of 
\Iedicine and Jefferson :\Iedical 
College, Philadelphia. .\fter prac' 
tieing in Toronto for a time, I Jr. 
.\ikins hecame teacher of .\natomy 
in Rolph's School of 
Iedicine in 
1850, now affiliated \\ ith Trinity 
C niversity, Si,- years later he was 
appointed lecturer and surgeon in 
the Toronto School of :\Iedicine. 
\\ hich position he has held \\ ith 
marked success until the present 
time. I)r. .\ikins was large!) instru- 
mental in forming the Ontario 
\Iedical College, and has heen 
Treasurer of that hody since its 
inception in 1866. From 1850 till 
1880 he was surgeon to the Toronto 
(;eneral Huspital, and is now on the 
consulting staff. For many years 
I)r. ,\ikins was President of the 
Toronto School of 
Iedicine. He 
has been I Jean of the Institution 
"ince 1887. The degree of 1.1..1). 
was conferred upon him in 1881 hy 
the UniversIty of \lctoria College, 
and in 1890 the U ni\'ersity of Tor- 
onto "imilarly honoured him, J)r. 
.\ikins is regarded as one of the 
most careful antisepticists in the world, 
Walter B. (;eikie, :\1.1 ).. c.
I., D.C. 1.., Dean of Trinity \Iedical College, was horn in Edinhurgh, Scotland, in :\lay, 
1830. Coming to this country in 1843 \\ ith his father he studied in the :\Iedical School founded hy the lion, I)r. Rolph, and in 
185 I, after e,-amination hy the :\Iedical Board of "Cpper ('anada, wa" licensed to practice medicine. He went to Philadelphia 
and took the degree of :\1. n. at Jefferson College in the following year. .\fter pr.lctising a few years at Bond Head and l\urora 
he accepted in 1856 a professorship in the medical department of \lctoria College, In I X67 I)r. (;eikie re\'isited his nalin: 
land and passed the e,-aminations of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinhurgh and of the Royal ('ollege of Physicians, 
London. I n 1871 he, with the aid of friends, induced Trinity l' ni\'ersity to reorganiæ the medical department, which had 
heen instituted in 1850 and discontinued, He was appointed to the Professorship of l\Iedicine and Clinical :\Iedicine, and 011 
the death of l)r. Hodder he hecame the I Jean of the College. l)r. (;eikie represents Trinity College in the :\lcdical Council 01 
Ontario, and last }ear recei\ed the honorar) degree of nc.L. from Trinity Cni\'ersity. 


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('nLLE(;E 01' l'J[Y,leIAX" AI(I> SUk(;FO!\S, BAY SrkEET. 



THE HEALIXG ART: A CHAPTER AROUT DOCTORS. 


rhe Presi(knt of the ('ollegl: of Ph}sicians and Surgeons of Ontario, for 1888, was fames Hephurn Burns, :\r.n., a 
luti\ e of OSh.1I\.1, (hJt.1rio, Born in I kcemher, I X-}S, Ilr. Burns, after laying the foundation of' his educ.nilln at l'pper ('anada 
('ollege, graduated in medicine at Toronto 
l'niversit) in d
66, at the age of t\\ent} 
onL. "'hcn the Fenian disturhance hrokt: 
out, Ilr. Burns was at S.lgina\\, 'Iichigan, 
\\ hither he had gone to join Ilr, Re} nolds 
in his practice He immediatelv rdurned 
to Toronto and attached himself to hi,
 
Lni\ersit\ ('ompany. ]-It: \\as appointed 
,\ssi"tant-Surgcon of ('01. I >enison's pro' 
\ ision.11 regimcnt, and at St. ('atharine" 
had under treatment a large numher of 
the \\ ounded. . \fter the rehellion, Ilr. 
Burns pra<tised medicine at Colling\\ ood 
till l
ì6, \\hen he rernO\ed to Toronto, 
]n 1880 and in 1XXS he \\.1S elected to the 
:\Iedical ('ouncil of (>nt.trio, of which he 
\\.IS \ ice,l'resident in 1887 and President 
in I X88. I )r. Burns is senior con<,u\ting 
ph) sician at the Infants' Home, a memher 
of tht: con.,ulting staff of St. John's Hospi- 
tal. Ohstetrician at the Turonto (;eneral 
Hospital, Ontario Referee for the Nt'\\ 
York life Insurance Compan), and medical e"aminer for several other prominent 
Life Insurance Cumpanies. He is a P.lo;t :\laster of .\shlar Lodge, \, F, &. ,\. :\1., No, 2-}7, I'oronto. 
Fn:derir\" \\ m, Str.1I1ge, 'L 1>., :\1. R.CS., Surgeon of "C" Company, ] nf.mtf} School, and E'(-l\1. 1'. for North York, is one of 
the most distinguished physicians in the cit}. He is an ahle pathologi"t and a clever and successful surgeon. .\s a consulting 
ph} sician fe\\ men in his profession h.1\
' risen to greater eminence. I)r. Str.mge, who is the son of the late :\1 r. Thomas 
Strange, of Sulhamskead .\hhotts. Berkshire, England, \\as educated at Bath and \\ïnchester, studied medicine in l.i\'erpool, 
and at Lni\ersity College, rondon, and is a Fellow of the Ohstetrical Society of 
Ihe British metropolis. From 1866 to 1869, he was .\ssistant,Surgeon of the I on- 
don Surgical Home and the Hospital for \\'omen, resigning these posts in the latter 
\ear to come to Canada. ])r. Strange has a large and lucrati\e practice in Toronto. 
is a Coroner for the Count\ of York. \\as at one time President of the Xorth York 
l.illeral-Conservative ,\ssociation,and from 
1878 to 1882 sat for Korth York in the 
I )ominion Parliament. He has been for 
many years identified with the Canadian 
:\Iilitia, is an E\..Captain of the 12th (\' ork) 
B.lttalion and of the Queen's O\\n Rifles, 
and IS now Surgeon of .. C .. Company, 
Infantry School, Toronto. In that capa- 
cit} he !-.ened with his corps in the Xorth. 
\\'e!-.t E"peditionar) Force, during the 
second Rid Rehdlion, and \\as a favourite 
.IS well as a skilled and humane surgeon 
on the Brigade Staff. 
r)r. J anw!-. Ross, a well-kno\\ n city 
pr.letitioner and memhcr of the College 
of 1'11\ sicians anù Surgeons of Ontario, 
\\as horn In 1832 in the To\\nship of 
\ ork, York Co., L"pper Canada, .\ puh- 
lic school in his native county supplied 
him \\ ith the rudiments of education, 
DIL J A\lI'S II. BCRr.;, d 1 , DR JA\IES I ' o " s ' 
which he aften\ards continue at oronto, ." " . 
entering the J'oronto School of :\Iedicine and obtaining a license to practice in 185 I. Before settling down, however, Dr. R?ss 
proceeded to Jefferson :\Iedical College, Philadelphia, where further study \\as rewarded hy the degree of ì\l. j) ,In the 
I
nng 
of 1Rsz he cummenn:d the practice of medicine, surgery and midwifery in Toronto, "nd here he has held \'anous pusltlOns, 



 


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TIlE f/E.-lIIJ.\'(; .INT: I CIUPl'ER .1IWUT DOCTORS. 


"lll'h a;. I'h\sici.UI to 
t. .\ndre\\':-. Socid\ for ne.lrh thirt) YLars; 1'11\
ician to the (;irls' Home and Public '\"ur
ery for twen!' 
\"Cars ; and' abo repre:-.enled St. I.a\\ rence \\ .lnl a;. Public School Trusln' from I xr,r, to I X7 3, I IT. Ross \\a
 .lbo a memh 
of the Council of the College of I'hysir'in 
and 
urgeons of Ontario from I Xi--l- to I
 
I n I SS<) he was dected President of th, 
Canadian :\Iedical .\'isociation, which he' 
its annual cOn\'ention at B.Ulff. In politi, 
I)T. Ross is a l.iberal: in rdigion, a l'rl 
terian. 


James F. \\'. Ross, \1.11., ('.\1 
1 h R.( ',1'., I.ondon, England, is a nati\e 
Toronto al1<1 .111 out-and-out C.UI.ulian, H 
W:l
 horn on ,\ugust 16th, d'58, .Uld re(Li\l 
his earl\' tr:lining at the ('ount) 
I odd Sch"" 
the ('ollegÜtc In;.titute, .Ind l'pper (":lna.-' 
College, In I Xi 5 he matricu!.ltcd in met 
cine at Toronto l"ni\'ersit), :lnd threl )t 
afteT\\:lnls took the degree of \1. B, '1'1 
studies thus commenced in this countr) \It 
for three years continued abroad at Londo, 
Herlin, l.eip/ic, and \ïenn:l. \\'hen in 18 
Ilr. Ross began the practice of medicine 
Toronto he had in addition to his colic 
_' education the benefit of three ) ears expl 
ence as resident-assistant at Toronto (;ene r 
Ho
pital. and had acquired a knowledge 
hi-; profession which shortl\" cn.lhlnl him to take a front rank. I IT. Ross is of sturdy Scotch descent. H is great grandf:lther<< 1Il 
to Canada \\ ith a II ighland regiment about the year 1808 and ;.eT\'ed as Quartermaster at :\ iag.ua and :lftcrwanls at \ ( 
(Toronto). lIT. Ross' father has been a physici:ln in Toronto for thirty years; his nH'ther was a daughter of :\IT. .I ohn Melnto, 
a member of the Provincial .\ssembly about the time of the :\laeken/ie Rebellion. Dr. Ross is on the teaching faculty of t 
\\ omen's :\Iedical College, and i;. physician to se\Tral of the city charities. 
\\ïlliam \\ïnslo\\ Ogden, :\1. It, \1.1 I., I'rofe%or of :\Iedical .I urisprudence in Toronto School of 
Iedicine and one of I' 
leading practitioners in the city, \\a
 born of old English stock in the Township of Toronto, Co. Peel, Ont., July 3rd, IX37. I 
was educated in his native county, at the Toronto -\eadem), and at \ïctoria College, Cohourg, taking both the .\rts course 
Ihe :\Iedical course at the latter institu- 
tion. He also attended the Toronto 

chool of :\Iedicine, and in 1860 gradu- 
ated with honours in medicine from 
Toronto t:' ni\'ersit). Since that date 
he has praf'lised his profe'ision in Tor- 
onto, taking at the s:une time a deep 
interest in edUl:ational matters and an 
.lctive particip.ttion in politics as a 
I ibcra\. I n 1869, liT. Ogden hecame 
lecturer on \1 edical .I uri;.prudence in 
the Toronto 
ehool of :\Iedicine, and, 
;.inn' IX87, \\hen the \Iedical Facult) 
of Toronto C"ni\ersit) \\as f'Teated, ha-; 
been I'rofe
sor of Foren;.ic :\lcdicine 
in the C"ni\er;.ity, I IT. Ogden has for 
a quarter of a century been a member 
of the roronto School Hoard, and \\a;. 
long an acti\e member of the Toronto 
Reform ,\s"ociatlon, at one time its 
\ïce I'rc"ldent, and in I X79 \\a
 
nominated the Kdorm ,andid:lte for 
the ()ntario I.egi"lature, but f:Jiled to 

ecure c1tTtion, though hL polled .l 
large \ole. In religion. I )r. Ogden i" a 


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RF5I11F'IICF. OF DR.]. F. \\', Ro-;" COI!. SIIFRIIOUR1>F A1>1> \\ EI I,ESLFY SrREt:Ts. 



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]{F;./IIt"CF. OF DR. E.], B\I!RICK, 13""1' SrRI EI. 



TilE HEAL/XC ART: A CHAPTER ABOUT DOCTORS. 


lOi 


:\lèthodist, has t.lken a \\ann interest in the denomination, has been a member of all the Ceneral Conferencf''i, and for on:r 
thirt\ }ears has heen a æalous leader in the Church, He is a member of the :\Iiddle
e'- lodge, Sons of England Bene\olent 
Societ
, amI is its medical e'-aminer in the beneficiary department. 
Eli James Barrick, :\1. I )" was born on I >ccember 23rd, 18-1-8, in the Town
hip 
of \\ .1I1f1eet, Ontario, He W.IS educated in the common schools, the \'" onnal School, 
\Ïetoria Uni\'ersit\, Toronto :\lcdical School, and St. Thomas' Hospital, 1.ondon, 
J:ngland. Dr. B.lrrick took his ,1.1>. degree at \ïl"tori.l l'nin'rsit}, 1866 : I . R.CP., 
london, England, 1806: :\I.R.CS" England, 18('7; I..R.C.P, and I..R.C.S., Edin- 
hur
h, ü;67, and F,O.S., I.ondon, England, I X70, He ha
 practised in Toronto eon- 
\inuously since 186j. From IX6j to 1870 he W.IS Demonstrator of .\naton1\' in 
\ïctoria :\[edic.II School and Professor of :\Iid\\ ifer} from d'70 till I X7 5. I>r, Barrick 
is Treasurer of the Ontario :\Iedical .\ssociation for 1889-90. He is a member of 
the :\Iethodist ('hurch. 
(;eorge Sterling Ryerson, :\1.1 )., C:\I., L. R.CP., I . R.eS. Edin., Surgeon of the 
Ro}al (;ren.ldiers. wa'i born in Toronto, January 21st, 185-1-, He is the son of Re\'. 
(;eorge Ryerson, and the nephe\\ of our great educationist, Dr. Egerton Ryerson. 
rhe R \ ersons are of I )utch Huguenot descent, their progenitors ha\ ing come from 
Holland in 16-1-ó. Descended from l'. E. I.oplists on his father's side, I>r. (;, S. 
R \ erson's ancestors on the maternal side 
\\ ere ('ontinentalish, He was eùucated 
at the (;alt (;ranlluar School and rrinity 
:lledical School, and from the latter he 
graduated in 1875, The follO\\ IIlg }ear 
he proceeded to the old land, where he recei\'ed the practising diplomas of the 
RO\ al ('ollcges of 1'11\ sicians and Surgeons of Edinbur
h. \fter studying his 
profession for some years in London, Paris, \ïenna, Heidelberg and Berlin, I)r. 
Ryerson rerurned to hi
 native city to fill the appollltment of Professor of E} e 
and Ear Diseases in Trinity :\Iedical College and Surgeon to the :\Iercer E}e and 
Ear Infirmar}, which positions he still occupies. I>r. Ryerson has heen Surgeon 
of the Royal (;renadiers since 1881 and serwd \\ ith distinction during the 
orth- 
\\ est Rebellion, For his senices in the Korth-\\'est E'-peditionary Force, Dr. 
R}erson was recommended hy the Ceneral-in-Command for promotion to the rank 
of Surgeon-:\Iajor, ranking \\ ith a l.ieutenant-Colond in the militia. Through his 
efforts the ,-\mbulance Corps of the Royal (;renadiers was organi7ed in 188-1-. 
I)r. Ryerson is closely identified with music in Toronto, being first \'ice-President 
of the Choral Society and a I )irector 
of the ('on
ermtory of :\Iusic. He is 
a prominent member of the \Iasonic 
fraternity, His ahle articles on medical 
subjects find interested readers in Eng- 
land, the Cnited States and Canada. Dr, R)erson is a member of the British 
:\Icdical .\ssociation, the .\merican .\s
ociation for the Ad\'ancement of 
cience, 
and is a charter member of the Ophthalmological SocÎet\ of Creat Britain, 
Dr. John S. '" ing was born at (;eorgetown, ('0. Halton, in 18-1-3, his father 
ha\'ing emigrated to Toronto in 183-1-, the year of the city's inrorporation. His e.lrl} 
life wa<; spent on a farm in the ('ounty of \\ entworth. .\t fifteen, he entered the 
Hamilton (;rammar School, and, after a time, obtained a first-class te.lcher'
 certifi- 
cate at the :\"onnal School, Toronto, In 18ó9, I)r. King abandoned teaching for 
journalism. and in 18 7 2 \\as on the editorial staff of The Clobe, \\ hill' thus engaged 
he read for the medical profession and attended lectures. ()n lea\ ing TILe Glube, 
he de\"Oted himself entirely to professional "tud}. ohtained his license, and com- 
menced pral.tire, first at Uab ille and then in Toronto. He hecame a member of 
the ('ollege of l'h)sicians and Surgeons of Ontario, in I X76, and ohtained hi'i :\1. I). 
dt,c
rct' from \'ictoria College. In 18
 I, I Jr. King \\as appointed Surgeon to the 
,'-ndre\\ 'Iercer OntaTio Rcformatorv for I'emale<;, and also to the Untario Industrial 
Refug:e for Cirls, \\Îth both of \\ hich in
titutjons hc is still connected. \)r. King 
ha
 long been a prominent man III various 'iocieties. He is a 'Iason of t\\ent\ fi\e 
}ear<;' standing: a Past" orshipful :\Iaster, and a Ro}al .\rch 'Iason, He hecame DR. W. W. OGDt)(". 
connected with the Knights of p} thias in 18ï..J. and soon passed through the chairs of that ord
r; entered (;rand I odgl in 
18 7 6 , and \\as elected (;rand Chancellor four times; entered the Supreme lodge of the" "rid III 18 7 ï: W.IS c1,'Clell Supreme 


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DR. C' S. RYERSO:S. 


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DIL E. J. BARRIO;. 


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10-: 


THE HEALIIV!; ART. A CHAPTER ABOUT DOCTORS. 


Prelate t\\ ice. Dr. "-ing i
 also a memher of the OddfellO\\s : and \\as the first (;rand :\Iedical E'-amiller in Canada for the 
,\.0, L'. \\'. He also helongs to the Son
 of J:ngland. to the Royal \rcanum, to ::)t. (;eorge\ Societ) , 111 \\hich last hody he 
has held the po
t of Surgeon, memher of Committee, third and second \ïce-Presi, 
dent, ;illd 
te\\ard. In politics, Dr. "-ing is a I.iheral of a rather independent 
t) pc; in religion, he is a Presll\terian. 
Charles Sheard, ,1.1).. CM.. :\I.R.C.S.. I:ng.. was horn in Toronto. Febru;iry 
15th. 11-)57. To Cpper Canada College he is indehted for the early drilling in intel- 
lectual pursuits \\ hich ha\ e nude him and man) other ('anadians ornaments to the 
profe
sion of medicine. Being a thorough-going Episcopalian. I>r. Sheard looked 
to the L'ni\ersit) of Trinity College for his higher education. From that institu 
tion he graduated with the degree of :\1. D., c.:\1. Suhsequent study in the Ho
- 
pitals of London. England, at Trinity College, Camhridge, at \lel1l1a, Paris and 
Berlin, enlarged his medical education, Returning to I"oronto, I )r, Sheard pr,Ic- 
tised as a physician \\ ith marked sUCCess. His special intimacy \\ ith the departmult 
of Ph) 
iology was recogniæd by his appointment to that Chair in Trinity College. 
[n 1 SSy, Dr. Sheard occupied the position of \'ice-President of the Canada :\Iedical 
,\ssociation. and for the year 1890 he is \ïce-President of the Ontario \Iedical 
\ssociation. He is also a memher of the afting staff of the Toronto (;eneral Hos, 
pital, and has an e'-tensi\'e practice. 
Peter Henckrson Bryce. :\1.1 ).. 
Sel"fctar) of the PrO\'incial Board of 
Health, was born at :\Iount Pleasant, 
Brant County, .\ugust 17th, 11)53. His 
educational tr:tining \\ as recein:d at 
:\loUllt Pleasant (;rammar School, 
Cpper ('anada ('ollege, Cni\Crsit) of Toronto, Edinhurgh Lni\Oersity, and Ecole 
de .JÛ.lcÚIlC, Paris. From the Toronto Cni\ersity he recei\ed the degrees 01 
:\1.. \. and :\1.1 )., carr) II1g off the gold medal in Science and the \1e:\1 urrich sih-er 
medal for a Practical Science essa\'. Dr. Bryce entered upon the study of 
di\ inity in K no'- College, hut 0\\ ing to temporary ill-health he ga\ e it up in 1876, 
and took a lectureship in (;uelph .\gricultur,ll College. In I SSo he graduated in 
medicine at Toronto Uni\'er
ity, spending some time afterwards at Edinburgh and 
P:tris. Returning to Canada, he practised succe
sfully at (;uelph till appointed to 
the position of Sel"fetary of the Bo:trd of Health in 1882, when he remo\'ed to 
roronto. H is efforts in forming local 
hoards ha\'e contributed largely to the 
present efficiency of the Prm'incial 
Board, I)r. Hr) ce is a member of the 
.\merican Public Health Association 
and Chairman of the important com- 
mittee of the International Conference 
of State Boards dealing \\ ith interstate notification of diseases, During the small- 
pox epidemic of 1 S85, he rendered valuahle sen ices to Ontario in pre\'CIIting a 

pread of the disease in the Province. I Jr. Bn-ce, who is a I.icenti.tte of the Royal 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh, is the son of (;eorge Br) ce, \\ ho 
came from Stirlingshire. Scotland, fift) years ago and settled at :\loUilt Pleasant. 
He \\as hrought up as a Presbyterian, and is still a member of that denomination. 
" Bensfort," the residence of I)r. I.ess\ie :\1. S\\ednam. is 
Îtuakd on the 
north-east corner of Church and Shuter Streets, It wa
 erected in 1 XXy under 
the 
uper\'ision of 'Ir. \latthe\\ Sheard. I)r. Sweetnam W,IS horn at Kingston, 
Ont., . \ugust 1 st, 1859, He \\ as educated at C pper Canada College, and took the 
medical degree at Toronto CnÎ\ersit\" in 18SI. He hegan the pr.Ictice of his pro- 
fe""ion in a general way in 1882, and since 1887 has made the diseases of \\omen 
a 
pecialt). I)r. Sweetnam is a memher of the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
of Ontario, :\I.B. of Toronto üniversit), and M.D., ('.:\1., of the Cni\'Crsity of 
\'ictoria College, Cobourg. 
Horatio Charle<; Burritt, :\1.1 I., ('.:\1., comes of Cnitcd Empire Loyalist stock. He is the grandson of Col. Daniel Burritt, 
aCE. Loyali
t. and the first settler on the Rideau RÏ\er, and the son of the late I)r. \\. H. Burritt of Smith"s Falls. The 
subject ofthi
 sketch \\as born Septemher 2nd, 18-lO, at Smith's Falls, \\here he attended the (;r,lInmar School. .\t Bishop's 


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DR. 1'. II. BR\TE. 



THE IIEALIXG ART.- .1 CHAPTER AHOl'T DOCTORS, 


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chuol (I 
nnu"\\ilk. I'.IJ.I. he \\as further lI1<;tructed. Sub-;elJuentl) he 
ntered :\Ic(;ill L'ni\er:-.ity, 'Iontreal, from \\hich he 
recei,,:d th
 degre
 uf :\1.1)" ('.\1., in 'Ia). 1863. .\ftergraduating he \\
nt to I inculn Hu
pital. \\,Ishington, in the capacit} 
of ,\cting .\

istant-Surg
()n. On 
returning to ('ana<la he pr,lcti

<I at 
:\Iorri
burg and Pcterboro' until he 
remu\ ed to Toronto, in I X82. [)r. 
Burritt is a m
mber (If the ('hurch 
uf England. 
Prufcs
or Ed\\ard B. Shuttl
'- 
\\urth, the anah tic chemi
t, \\as 
horn 111 18_p, at Sheffield, Eng- 
land, He recei\ed hi
 
ducation, 
ho\\e\'t:r. in Ireland, entding the 
(;0\ ernmcnt School of Science at 
I>ublin, \\ her
 he obt.lined a certi- 
fic.lft: of proficienC\ in hi
 f.1\ uurite 
!.ubj
ct Ch
mistT\. Shorth' aft
r, 
he came \\ ith his f.!ther to {'anada 
and naturally drifted into phannaC}, 
s
ttling in 1865 in Toronlo ao.; 

\Ianagd of the rorunto ('hemical 
\\'orl..s under the 'Iessrs. I \ man. 
In 1866, Prof. Shuttle\\orth with a 
few others intere
ted in scientific 
pharmacy founded the socict) that 
afterward!. hecame the Ontario Col- 
I
ge of Pharmacy, In 1867. he 
estahlished th
 Canadian Pharma- 
ceutical JtJl/Tlwl, a periodical of \\ hich he is still the editor. In 1 882. th
 College of PhannaC} a
sumed teaching powers 
\\ ith Prof. Shuttle\\ orth as lI
an of the Faculty and l'rofes
ur of Chemi"tr}. The Professur has also for a numher of } ears 
heen lecturer on Pharmacy in Trinity 'Iedical Colleg
, and in the old days held a similar appointment in the :\I
dical I )epart- 
ment of \Ïctoria College. He is also corresponding and honorary memher uf the Philadelphia, {
u
be(', and otht:r pharmaceutical 
colleges, Prof. Shuttleworth has taken a deep interest 111 Art, and in 1 880 o('('upi
d the \ 'ice- Pröident's chair of the Ontario 
Society of .-\rtists. Professor Shuttle\\ onh is nuted as a \'olunteer, ha\ ing seT\ed 
in the Tecumseh Rifles and in the :\Iontreal .\rtillcT\', as \\ell as in the \merican 
army during the Civil War. 
Samuel (;. r. Barton, \1. D., is 
of Iri!.h parentage. He was born in 
1861 at Athlone, Ontario. \\'hen his 
primar) education was completed he 
came to Toronto and matriculated at 
the PrO\ incial C nin:-r"it}, from whence 
he graduated in . \rts, Turning his 
attention then to m
dicine, he receÎ\'ed 
from \'il,toria Cni\'
rsity the ù
gree of 
'1.1), I )r, Harton takes an active 
illt
re
t in charitahle wor!., He is one 
of the m
dical attendants of the \\'...
t.. 
ern I )j
pensar}, \\ hich does much to 
all
\ iate the distre
s of the poor in 
times of sickness, He is a memh
r 
of the College of Ph} sicians and Sur- 
geons of Ontario. 
Jerrold Ball, '1.1>., resides at 
the corner of Sherhourn
 and Shut
r 
Streets, where he Larries on a large 
general practice, He \\as born in the 
County of Simcoe in 18-1-8 and educated in the Toronto Cni\er
ity, graduating in medicine in 18 7-1-. He hegan practice in 
Toronto immediately upon gradu.lting, and is nu\\ a \\ell-!.nown pIn sici.lIl. 1Ir. Hall's religiou
 connection is \\ ith the :\Ictho- 
diq Church, . \n illuo.;tr.nion of his residence \\ ill hc found in the
e pagcs. 


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RESIDEI'CE OF DR. L. :\1. S\\ EETI'A\I, COR:SF.R CHURCH A"'D SHU rER STREETS. 


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sOR E, B. SHUrTLE\\OR!H. 



110 


THE HEALIXG -lRT: A CHAPTER AHOCT DOCTORS. 


rhe honour of being the fir"t female medi..al practitioner in Canada helongs to Emily Ho\\ard .I ennings StO\\e, :\1.1) 
Born 1.nd educ.1ted in thi" I'n"ince, 
he follo\\ed for many )ears the profession of teaching, It was not until she \\a
 married 
and had a family, that :\lrs. Stowe determined to ('alT\' 
out her long-cherished purpose of entering the field I 
medicine, She !'tudied the healing art in 1\ew \ ork 
Cit). .\fter ohtaining the degree of :\1.1>. she returned 
to roronto and inaugurated a successful career. Through 
the efforts of :\Irs. Stowe the professional standing of 
female physicians in Ontario has heen estahlished, and 
the way has heen opened up for women in other depart- 
ments. The e:\istcnce of two medical colleges in thi, 
Pruvince for women to-day attest the progress that ha 
heen made. T\\ 0 of I)r. Stowe's children have entered 
professional life, The eldest. I Jr. .\ugu!,ta Sto\\e Cullen, 
\\as the first woman to ohtain the medical degree from 
an Ontario Cniwrsity, and is one of the facult) of the 
"'omen's .:\Iedical College. l)r, Emily Stowe is an 
ardent and cffecti\'e ad\ocatc of female enfranchisement 
on the platform and elsewhere, She has amply desened 
the success which she has achie\ed. 
The ,romen's :\Iedical College, estahlished in 
188 3, through the energetic efforts of the late I)r. Barrett, 
is in affiliation with the C ni\'Crsities of Trinity College 

 anù 'Toronto. and is no\\" the forenlost Canadian 
Iedical 
('ollege for women. hoth in the completeness of its teach- 
ing faculty and in the numher of its graduates and 
students. The huilding (see pagc 18) is commodious and 
well adapted for the purposes of medical education. hein:; 
fitted up in the most modern and scientific manner. Its 
situation opposite the (;eneral Ho"pital affords it peculiar a(hantages. The staff is large, including 24 I e('(urers and I Jcmon- 
"trator". among them !'en
ral of the foremost phvsicians of the cit). Four of the 1.ccturers are ladies. The new College. 
opened in I R90, has heen erected through the joint contrihutions of a large numher of the citi/ens of Toronto, interested in the 
medical education of women for mis!'ionary and other \\ ork. The \'alue of the lot and buildings is aho'ut $ I 2,000, The 
husiness affairs of the College are managed hy a Board of Trustees, c\ectcd annuallr 
h) the subscrihers and the Facult). The educational arrangements are in the hand, 
of thc Faculty. The Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees is James Beaty. Q,C., 
I. 1..1). : the I>ean of Facult), R, B. 
1\e\ itt, H..\., :\1.1).: and the Secretary 
of Faculty, 1>. J. \ ;ibh Wishart, B..\" 
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SIDE"CE OF DR. JFRIWI n D. HAl I.. 



 


John Hall, :\1. B., :\1. I )., for 
thirty )ears an ahle practitioner of the 
llomeopathic School in Toronto, hut 
no\\ of \ïctoria, B.C., \\ as horn in I.in- 
coIn. England, in 1817. lie \\as cdu- 
catcd at I.incoln and (;rantham, and 
hecame an indefatigahlc student and 
an earne
t inquirer in matters pertain- 
ing to hi
 life long profeSsion. He 
came to Canada during thc trouhled 
era of the :\lad.en/ie Rehellion. and 
until peaci !'ettled upon the countn he 
nl.lde his home for a time in (,Ie\ eland, 
Ohio Here hc took a deep inten:st 
in Pharmacy, and hecame enamoured 
of Homeopathy. then as,erting its 
claim!' in rnalr) \\ith tht: old s..hool .\lIopath!', and 
tudied \\ith a view to practising that s)stem. In 1857 he obtained the 
degreL of M.I>. froIll the \\ ( ,tern Homeopathic College of Ohio, and shortly after\lards removcd to Toronto, and became 
I iccnti.ltc of thc Homeopathic :\lcd ica I Board, and in 18(,9 a membcr of the College of I'hysit:ian!' and 
urgcons of Ontario, 


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1>1<. E\1I1 Y lIoWAR(, JEro;;o.;,,(;
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THE HEAIIX(; ART: .-1 CHAPTER dROl'T DOCTORS. 


and in 18S1 a member of the Board of E"\aminers of the College. 
practice in Toronto. and for many years W.IS \\ orthil} identified \\ ith 
interöh. While a re
ident of the city. he 
\\as I're
iùcnt of the Hahncmannian Cluh, 
and is still an honorar\" member, He is aiso 
.m honoran member of the l.ippi Societ
 of 
Philaddphia. and of the Intcrnation.11 Hahne- 
mannian .\s'oociation. Ilr, HaIrs health, of 
recent \ cars. ha\'in
 suffered from the se\erit\" 
of the Canadian \\ inter, he has been necessi- 
tated to relinquish his practice in this city 
to IIr. \\ , J. Hunter Emon and to maJ.e his 
home in \ïctoria, BTitish Columbia. The 
\\oTlh
 gentleman has many sincere and 
attached friends in thc I'ro\'Íncial Capital 
who. socially as well as profe
sjonall
, hold 
him in high esteem, 
\\'. J, Hunter Emon', '1.1 )., :\J.C,P.S., 
\\a., born at Burlington, Ont., in 18fiI. His 
preliminar\" education was recei\ed at "'ater- 
do\\n High School and Hamilton Collegiate 
Institute. He pursued his profes
ional studies 
in Cle\"c1and Homeopathic Hospital College, 
\\ here he received the degrees of 
LII, and 
:'oI.H.
, in :\larch, 1882, rhe following 
ear 
he passed the e"\aminations of the Council of the College of Ph\ sicians of Ontario. thu
 bccoming a licenscd and regi
tered 
practitioner in Ontario. He was elected in the same year a member of the Canadian In
titute of Homeopath
, of which he 
hecame Secretary-Treasurer in 18S5, \ ice-Pre...ident in I SS8, and President in 1889, liT. Emory emered into partnership \\ ith 
IIr. John Hall, Sr., in 18S5, and succeeded to hi
 practice in ISSS. He is E"\aminer in :'oledical Juri
prudence and Sanitary 
Science for the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons. ,\ttending Physician and Surgeon of the Toronto Homeopathic 
Hospital and a member of the International Hahnemannian .\s.,ociation. I)r. Lmon, though still young, has attained a high posi- 
tion as a practitioner, is well-read in his profession, and has a successful future hdore him. He is a member of the :\Iethodist 
Church. 
.. Hahnemann \ïlla;' the residence of John B. Hall, :'oJ. D., :'oLe. P.S,. situate on Jan'is Street, corner Carlton, is one of 
thu
e suhstantial and comfortahle, though unpretentious, homes so nUl.Ierous on that beautiful thoroughfare, The picture 
was taJ.en just as the Doctor \\as about to 
enter his hrougham. I Jr. Hall is a nati\e of 
I.incoln, Eng. He receiwd his education at 
Oherlin l' ni\ ersih'. Ohio, Homeopathic 
Hospital College. Cle\'eland, and \Iis
ouri 
Homeopathic College, Sl. louis. In 1862 
he estahli
heù practice in Clndand and 
after\\ards in Sl. Paul. 'I innesota. \\ here he 
remaincd until 1875. \\ hen he acceptcd a 
position with hi
 fathcr, Dr. John Hall, latc 
of Richmond Street, In I S80 he e
tahfishcd 
him
df at the ahow rcsidcn!"4 I Jr. H.III is 
\\ell-known throughout the I )ominion as an 
ahle and skilful ph
 sician. and although his 
practicc is /'hicfly among the more affluent, 
the poor all' nc\ er ncglectcd, I)r. Hall is 
\'en liheral in his \ ie\\ s. and although a firm 
bdic\'er in the Homeopathic law. doc' not 
recngni/c it .I
 the onl} onc gO\crn!ng the 
rcmcdial action of medicine. 
I)r. "illiam H. HO\\ ilt i
 tlK' ddc
t 
son of the late HCI1T
 Ho\\ ilt, of long Eaton 
"IIAII'E\('\'" \'111 A," RESI\JF'''''E at lIR. JOII' n. IIA1.1,. Hall. I >crb} shire, \\ hcre his ancc'stars ha\t 
het:n lando\\ ners since qð5, To a hranch of the famil
 hdonged the late "ïlIiam Ho\\ itl, \\ ritcr and poet. /lr. Hcmitt \\a
 
educated at lion House .\c.Hlem
, in the Island of Jersc}, and suhse'lucntl} .It King "ïlliam's College, ble of :\lan. He 




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1 IT. Hall \\ as not long in establishing a large and lunati\ e 
Homeopathy, Its school. ho
pitaI. and othcr professional 


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THF liE-if liVG ART: A CHAPTER ABOCT DOCTORS. 


Il'cei\ed hi
 profö
ional training at '[("(;ill Unin:r
it\" 
Iontreal, and St. Thomas' Hospital, London, England. In 18 7 2 
he began the practice of medicine at 'lcnomonie, \\ï
consin, C ,S. I n 187 8 , hecoming cOI1\'inced of the truth of [lahnemamÙ 
Ia\\ of cure he came to Toronto, and, ha\ing ohtained re-registratiun as a 
Ilumeopathic member of the ('ollege of Physicians and Surgeon
 of Ontario, 
thenceforth pr.lctised according to the doctrines of the :'>J"ew Srhool. 
The Homeopathic Hospital, Janis Street (see page 28), had its inception in a 
small free dispensary which the friends of Homeopath) opened in IX87, on Rich- 
mond Street East. The mo\'ement \\as aided by the city with a grant and the 
in
titution W.1S \'ulunt.uily attended by the physicians of this school, prominent 
among \\hom \\ere I>r. John Hall, Senior, and the late I>r. Camphell. I:arly in 
18 9 0 , it \\as felt that there was a pressing neeù for a Homeopathic Ho
pital, to 
supplement the wor!. of the dispen
ary. and hy means of pri\'ate suhscriptions and 
an incre.l
ed gr.u1t from the cit
, the first \'enture was made in a house at Ihc 
corner of Richmond .lI1d I >uncan Streets. The hospital was opened on J.lI1uary 
17 th , \\ ith one patient and a staff consisting of lady superintendent, careta\..er and 
hou"'e!.eepcr. Before t\\O months had elapsed the .Iccommoclation of the hospital 
\\.lS found to be utterh' inadequate for the demands upon it. The present quarters 
\Itre opened on 'lay 8th, largely through the efforts of H i
 Honour .I udge :\I.\(- 
dougall. ,\ pri\ate \\ard was furnished h) :\Irs. (;r.lI1t :\[acdonald, and the large
t 
puhlic \I.ud was furnished and decorated hy 
Ir. John Ross Robertson, By .\ugu
t 
the a\erage number of paticnts \\as se\'enteen and the calls upon the dispensary 
.1\ eraged one hundred a wee\... The nursing staff had reached si"\ a head nUl"ie 
and file in training, Since (>ctober a regular training school for nurses has heen 
DR. \\, II. 110\\ In. organi/ed, the memhers of \1 hich attend lectures hy the medical staff. The hospital 
mO\ement has had the hearty endorsation of the memhers of the Homeopathic profession in Toronto, 


J.unes Bran.,ton \\ illmott, :\1.1 >.S.. [>.1 >.S.. one of the founders of the Ro)al College of I >ental Surgeons, Toronto, a 
prolessor in the institution, and ih repre
el1tati\'e on the Senate of the C niversity of Toronto, with which it is affiliated, \Ias 
horn of English parentage in the County of Halton, Ont., June 15th, 1837. In early life a student in Yictoria College, he 
pa
sed from it to practice dentistry at I\lilton, Subsequenth' he graduated at the Philadelphia Dental College, and in 18, I 
came to reside in Toronto, Sinre that period he has been engaged in a large and lucrati\'e practice, and intimately associated 
\\ ith the de\'elopment of dentistry, hoth in connection \\ ith the Board of Examiners 
and latterl) \\ ith a chait in the Royal College of I >ental Surgeons. In religion, I Jr. 
\\ïllmott i
 a 
Iethodist, is deeply inter- 
e'-oted in the prosperity of the :\Ietropolitan 
Church in the city, and was a member of 
the Toronto l\lethodist Conferences of 
1885, 1886, and 1890. 

Iartin Fred Smith, L. [tS., \\as horn 
in Li\'erpool, England, July 12th, 18 5 2 , 
He \\as educated at Li\'erpool College, 
and in 18fi7 began the study of medicine. 
,\fter l\\0 years' study he showed a pre- 
ference for dentistry and entered the office 
of a succe-.sful practitioner at Islington, to 
perfect him
clf in the profession he had 
rhosen. Hi", first location as a dentist was 
in I >enhigh, Korth \\'ales, \\ here he prac- 
li.,ed t\\O ) ears, In 1879 he came to 
('.lI1ada and commenced the e"\tensi\'e 
practÍl"t \1 hieh he nO\I has in Toronto, 
in the fine offiees of the ('anada l.ife 
\
'-urance Company. I>r. Smith is a 
memher of St. (;eorge', Society, the Sons 
of I:ngland, the I. 0. F., and the Order 
of Canadian Fon''-oters. Hi
 allegiance in religion is to the Church of England. 
John (;. .\dam'-o, I .IJ,S., youngest 
on of the late Rev. ELra .\dams, was born at Acton, Ontario, in 1839' He commenced 
the <;tud) of dentistry in Toronto in 1870, and became a graduate of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons in 1873. Since 
then he ha'-o been en!--.l"ed in the practire of denti
try in Toronto. His reputation for careful work has secured for him a large 
numher of ...tudenls, ten of \\ hOIll ha\ ing graduated are practi<;ing in Ontario, and othcrs are srattcred through the l' nited 



 
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Dk.j. il. WILL\IúJ r. 


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DR. 
1. F. S
III"H. 



THE HE.-1LIXG ART: A CHAPTER AI/OfT DOCTOR.....: 


States and the Prminces, He ha" taken a deep interest in charitable work, e-pecially in the Sick Children'" Hospital, Ro)s 
and (;irls' Homes. .\t the age of thirteen he hecame a memher of the 
Iethodist Church, and has filled all the offices a la) man 
can hold. ] .argely through his efforts a 
mO\'ement in the direction of II indOIl- 
gardening is gaining ground, and Tor- 
onto's husiness streets are annuall) 
heautificd by the pre
ence of fine floral 
displa) s, I Jr. . \d.lll1S i" a I.iher.ll Reformer. 
a helie\'cr IJ1 Equal Rights. and a memher 
of the Sons of Temperance. (;ood Tem- 
plars. Ro)al TempIars, l'nited \\ orkmen, 
and Select J.::nights of Canada. 
Prohahl) there is no dentist II ho 
has heen "0 long estahlished in thi
 city 
a
 \\ïlliam C.be \dams, Hc was horn 
at Lund)'s ] ane, near 
iagara F.llls, 
Octoher 18th, 1823. his father heing a 
:\Iethodist minister. .-\iter recei\ing a 
liheral education at \'ictoria C ni\'crsit), 
Dr. ,\dams came to Toronto in 1051 to 
,>tudy dentistry. . \t that time there \\ere 
hut three dentists in Toronto, I Jr. .\dams 
studied \\ith 
Ir. 1- B. Jone" in 105-t-. 
\\hen he recei\ed the degree of IJ.IJ,S.. 
and hegan husiness as a dental surgeon, I Juring the first two \ ear" of the nistenn' of the I letHal ('ollege he wa" on the 
teaching staff. ,\mong his students were I Jr, \\ illmott. I Jr, Snider. I Jr. Troutman. and I Jr, Trotter. I Jr. .\d.llns is a ;\Icthodist 
and a Reformer. Since 1857 he has heen a Freemao;on. He i" the imentor of a u"eful addition to dental apparatus. knO\\n 
a
 a root-e"\tractor. which can he screlled into routs and will draw them \\ ithout an) cutting of the flesh, He i
 both capahle 
and e"\perienced in his profe"sion. 


The care of the o;ick has not heen left in Toronto entirely to the good offiee
 of medical men. \\ïth the care also of 
the destitute. pro\"ision has heen made for the sick by the philanthropy of the citiæns. aided to some ntent by hoth the 
Corporation and the PrO\'incial I.egislature The Toronto {;eneral Hospital is a nohle e'\ample of the cit)'s humanih. and 
brge is the prU\ ision it has made. and annu- 
ally make", for the maintenar.ce and equip 
ment of the institution. _ \s early as 181 ï, 
the (;o\"ernment of l'pper ('.mada granted 
-}OO anes to\\ ards the foundation of a \ ;enera] 
Hoo;pital in the cit\, \\ïth this land appro, 
prialion, and .;(-t-.ooo donated h) the I o)al 
and Patriotic Societ\" of the PrO\ ince. heing 
unnpended mone\'s collected for the reliel 
of "ufferers in the \rar of 18 I 2. an hospital 
building wa
 erected, in 1817. at the corner 
of King and John Streds, near \\ hen, the 
,\rlington Hotd now "tands. I twas. hOIl- 
ner, not devoted to its purpu"es until 1821}, 
the (;O\'ernment ha\ ing appropriated it fi\ e 
years he fore fur the housing of the I egj
la- 
ture, fire ha\ ing destro) ed the Parliament 
Buildings. In 1 85-t-, the present Hospital 
...iit', occupying four acres, on (;errard Street 
Fa
t, beh\een Sach'ille and Sumach Streets, 
W.l
 "elected and buildings were erected. 
These have since been added to, and the 
nohle pile, of which we have gi\en an illustration on page 43. admirably fulfils its purpose. ,\n Ho'"'pital Tnbt \\as incorporated 
in 1 8-lj, which manages its affairs, aided hy the beneficent effort
 of a number of medical practitioners \\ ho form a consulting. 
an acting, and an E"\ecutive staff. The Board of Trustees consist
 of fiv(' gentlemen, one of whom is the :\Ia)or, \\ ith threc 
memhers appointed by the Ontario (
o\'Crnl11ent, the fifth being the appointee of the o;uhscrihers to the Ho"pital fund. The 
capal'it\' of the Hospital is 350 heds. .\tt:lched to the institution .ue the Burnside lying-in Ho...pital, \\ ith O\er thirt) heds, the 


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RE"WE,"CF OF DR. S. G, T. ll"Rro:-" llIf'OR :-;rRll<:l \\. 



lit 


THF HE.lUXC ART. A CHAPTER A1Wl T DOCTOR.s: 


\lercer E\l: .U1d Ear Infirmar), \\ith fort) heds; and a 
urses' Home, for the pupils of the Training School, with accommo- 
dation for filt) nur<;es, I'he Hospital receives an annual grant from the l'rO\incial (;O\ernment of nearly $25,000, and from the 
City Corporation of $16,500. 
.\nother heneficent institution i
 the 
House of I'rO\'idence, Power Street, near L) 
the (;eneral Ho
pital. It is supported by 
the Roman Catholic Church, and managed 
by its worthy and self-denying sisterhood. 
Its ohject is the relief of the aged, infirm, 
and destitute of both sexes, without distine, 
tion of creed, and of hapless orphaned 
humanity. It well desen'es the aid and 
s) mpathy of the charitable. The Hospital 
for Sick Children, on College ,henue, at the 
corner of EliLabeth Street, appeals with an 
unquestioned claim to every feding heart. 
The new and elegant IJUilding, "hich ha, 
just been erected, shows the response of the 
citiæns to this ðcellent charity; and ib 
hright interior, \\ ith the good offices of its 
kindly management, will make glad the heart 
of its suffering innl.ltes. Towards the erection 
of the new huilding, the city, in 1887, made 
"a Jubilee Grant" of $20,000. The hospital 
is designed for the relief of children as out- 
door patients from hirth to the age of fourteen 
years, and for the reception of children as 
in-door patient
 from t\\O to fourteen )ears, In connection \\ith the in
titution, thanks to the beneficence of :\Ir. John Ross 
Rohert
on. \\ho ga\e the mOI1l') for its erection, there is a comalescent branch on the Island, called the Lakeside Home. 
St. John'
 Hospital, on 
Iajor Street, is another e,"cellent institution which well merits recognition in these pages. 
In connection with the hospitals, it is hard to refrain from saying a word here of one or two of the city's charities, 
though \\e had hoped, had space permitted, to ha\,e gIven them a 
eparate chapter. The Industrial School is not altogether a 
ch:1rih, for the I'ro\ incial (;o\'ernment, \\ e believe, contrihutes to its maintenance, as does the city, and the (;overnment has 
gi\en it a plot of eight aere
 at :\Iimico, and leased it fort)-two acres in addition, The institution, which owes its inception to 
the leal of E"\-:\layor
 \r. H. Ho\\ land and \\" J:, ;\1c:\1 urrich, well dcsen'es the countenance and support of the citilens, Equall) 
lk
en ing of support i
 the :\e\\
hoys' lodging and Industrial Home. on Frederick Street, \\ hich receives the good offices of Ib 
long-time friend and benef.tdor, Sir I )aniel \\'ilson. and those of the lealous 
Ch:1irman of the Home, the Hon. Senator ,\lIan. 1>,<'.1.. Of other de
en'ing 
charitie
 \\L mu...t content lJUr...elves merely with their enumeration, ViI,: the 
Ilome for In('ur:1hlc
, on I )unn ."enue ; the House of lrtdu
tr), Elm Street ; 
the St. Xicholas Home, I om hard Street; the Infanb' Home and Infirmary, St. 
\laf) Street; the II illerest Convalescent Home; the "'ayfarers' Home; the 
I'ri
l)ner
' .\id; the ladies' ;\Iission and Relief Society; the Ha\'en for Pis. 
ch:1rged Female I'ri<;oners; the Induslrial Refuge; the :-)unnyside Children's 
Home; and the Indu<;trial Refuge for (;irls, a section of the institution known 
,\ the :\Ien:er Reformatory for Females, \\hich is supported hy the PrO\'incial 
( ;0\ ernment. To all the
c dtarities the cit) de\'ote
 ahout $30,000 yearl). 
To the, in<;titution<; h;1\ e to be added the Boys' Home, on (;eorge Street; the 
(;irI...' Boml.", on (;l."rrard Street Ea<;t; and the ()rphan
' Home, on I )O\ercourt 
Road all \Hlrth) objects of puhlic heneficence. For the excellent management 
"f th( 'charities, the city i
 indebted to many philanthropic ladies of Toronto. 
\\ ho find in them a \\orthy field for their acti\ ities. The Boys' Home is de
igned 
for the training and maintenanCt' of destitute boys not convicted of crime, from 
the agt ' of the to fourteen. The in
titution, which was opened in 1859, affords 
.\I"commodation for 0\ er 150 ho) s. Since it'; foundation, it has afforded a home 
for nearly 1,600 ho)
. The (;irls' Horne \\a... establi"hed a
 a puhlic nursery in 
the year 18 57, Some three years later, the in
titution was enlarged to admit girls up to the age of fifteen, and to train thl."m 
tor hou
ehold work. The Orph:1n.,' Home \\as founded in 1851 for the relief and support of all friendless orphans of members 
of all I'rote.,tant denominations. Beside... the"e charities, the city's destitute or distn:ssed arc materially helped h) the \'arious 
lJ.\tional 
ocictie
 and benu olent I)rg:1ni/ation
, e("clesia
tical and industrial. 



 

 


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DR. FIIEDERICK ""M. SI'\{,\SGF. 



EDUCATIOX AXD ITS PROFE.c,,','>"OR.c,," 


115 


CHAPTER X\'III. 


EI>LT.\TIOK _\XD ITS PROFESSORS. 


THE EDUC-\TIOX,-\L S\ STE\I OF O'\"T.-\RIO.- E-\RL\ PRO\ ISIOX FOR CO\l\IO"l SCHOOLS, GR,-\ \I\I.\R SCHOOl S, -\....IJ COLll.GES, 
- THE TOROXTO SCHUOL Uo \RD \XD ITS fRCST.- THE CIT\ SCHOOLS, [HE COLLE(;I \ I E I:--"TI1TTES, COLl.E';ES 
\ '\D LXI\ ERSITIEs. ,STArISTICS OF [HE COSI' OF OCR SCHOOLS .-\:S-D SCHOOL \1 \STERS 


E Dl"C\ nos, from an early period in the history of Upper Canada, has had a large share in the interests of the 
people, and fe\\ communities have more he
1\ ily and uncomplainingly ta'\ed themseh'es for its support than ha\'e the 
puhlic of the City and the PrO\ incl'. The lity's annual assessment for Puhlic Schools alone amounts now to about 
$600,000 ; \\ hill' it disburses nearly another hundred thousand in support of the Collegiate Institutes and Separate 
:,chools. These two sums e'\ceed in amount the \\ hole l.egislati\ e grant of the PrO\ incial l;O\ ernment for the ) e.lrl) mainten- 
ance of all grades of the schools in Ontario, induding the disbursement for inspection and general administration. Though 
Separate Schools continue to be recogniæd and aided hoth by the City and the PrO\ ince, the Educational S) stem of Ontario 
is, in the main, unsectarian, and the Puhlic Schools at least are free. The chief source of the school maintenance is local 
ta\ation, aided by GO\ ernment grants from the public chest, supplemented, in a small measure. h) "ome unl'"\pended balance 
from the Clergy Resen'es Fund. The total annual e'\pendiwre for school purposes throughout Ontario is said to amount to 
34 per cent. of all the t.nes collected upon the assessable property of the Province. Submitting to this enormous annual puhlic 



 
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TI:I" rv U;l.I\ FI{
ITY, 


hurden, it cannot be said that Ontario is indifferent, or I.1d.ing in public SpIrIt, in seeking the enlightenmcnt of her pcople. 
Her sl"hools are esscntially popular inslitutions, organÎlcd and sustained for the education not 01 an) pri\ ikged onlt-r or d.1SS, 
hut of the masses. They are open to the children alike of the most wealthy and the n10st humble home. 
The Public School S) stem of Ihe Pro\"Înce dates from the year 1816, \\ hen the I Lgisl.Hure of lJ ppcr C.m.HIa passed a 
Common or Elementar) :-;chool Law, and appropriated .1:5,000 sterling- -a like sum tu be granted annuall) - for the mainten- 
ance of the schools. Si\) ears later, a Board of Education for the I'rovincL was e
tabli"hed, \\ hich also for a time had under 
it 
uper\"ision the Royal Grammar Schools, for \\ hich prO\ ision had been made b) grants of the public domain when the 
I'rO\ince wa... founded. It wa
 not, however, until after the Cnion. in 1841. that efficient prO\ision \\.IS n1.1de throughout the 
PrO\ int'e for national education. In 1844, a further impdus was gi\'cn to the mO\uuent by the appointment of the Re\. I Jr. 
rgerton Ryerson to the chief superintendency, and a school system \\as founded of an edectic character, combining tilL" best 
fe tUfl5 of the educational svstem in \'ogue in X ew England and the Old "'orld. Sin"" that period tht' system then inaugurated 
h. ; made great strides, and to-day there are close upon 6,000 school-houses in the Prm ince, emplo) ing 0\ er 7,000 teachers, 
II ith a registered school populatIOn of nearly half a million. Besides the PubliC' Schools, the I'rO\ ince maintain
 1 15 High 
School
, of \\ hich twenty-si\ are lollegiate Institutes, employing o\'er 400 highly-qualified teachers, \\ ith a registered attend1nce 
of nearl) 18,000 pupils. These High Schools prmide an alhanced educ.nion in the Enghsh branches, ami a d.I""ical cour
e 



116 


EDCCATIO.N .LIND ITS PROFESSORS. 


\\ith modern langu.\gLs, to enable pupils to pass the matriculation e\amination in the l'nin
rsities, the te,\cher'" non-profe', 

ional e"\.unination, or to pass at once into the busine"s of life. In roronlo. the t\\O ('ollegi.lte Institute-; ha\'e o\er a thousand 
pupils on their rolls, and Upper ('anada ('ollege had. in 1889, an attendance of 4 0 9, of which I7.J were boarders. Thl 
teaching !>taff is large and highl) trained in both the College and thc Institutes, l'he educational system of the PrO\'ince i", " 
lIur rL.lder-; I.nO\\, pre"ided o\'er 11\ a :\Iini
ter of Education, who is also a memher of the (;o\'ernment. The school age 1'1 
()ntario i" from fi\l' to t\\ent) ,one, ,\ set,tion of the School .\ct compels the attendance at school of children bet\\een -;e\'t:n 
.lIld thirteen \ears of age for a period, at lea
t, of a hundr<:d days each year. This enactment is unhappily, however, nol 
"tricth enforced. The e\pemliture in the l'rm ince on sd1001 buildings during the past t\\ eh e ) cars e"\ceeds fi\'e millions of 
.loll.tr". .\ gratif\ ing fe.lture is the imprO\ed char.wter and increased equipment of these school huildings. The log school 
hou"L of the pa"t is f.l
t di-;appearing. there being onl) ahout 500 now in e\istence, against 1..J 6 (í in 18 5 0 , while hrick schoul 
huus ha\ e \\ ithin the s.une period increased from 100 to o\'er 2,000. 
rhe Public School "t.ltistics for the city mu-;t be gratifying to e\'<:ry citÎlen. Toronto docs nobly for education. and th" 
I.\\pa\ er, though he nuy grumhle at the I.Hge and increasing annual outlay, 11.Is the ".ltisfadion of \..nO\\ ing that his par"ntal 


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fl' pon
ihilitie' arc ;1lhanta,,("()u
ly a".,umed 11\ the State. The fla\\ in hi
 ointment will douhtless he the difference hd\\L"l'Jl thl' 
., .tu.11 ami th,' enrolled .lttend.lI\el, ill \\ hich there i" a great and unfortunate Iliscrepan('y. I n I 

I). the regi
ten
d attemI.lHll 
,It .\11 the '-choo\, of the cit) \\.1-; 28,28j. \\hile the a\erage daily attemI.mce \\as only 18,1)26. Of the latter, almost 5,000 
,lttended '('hool for Ic
., than 150 d.l) s in the school year. I n these figures there is an admonition for the school authorities and 

he ,tru,anq' officcr. Though thc fact to \\ hich wc ha\ e called attention is sufficiently deprcssing, and calculated to restr.tin our 
lululatlon O\cr the '>UCCt''>
 of the school ,>\stem, there is much at the same time on which the soher citi/en ma) rejoicc, \\ hen 
the )t.,ul) ta"\-bill t'omt.... in, if thi
 IS not always thought of, let the sight, on any important thoroughfare in the early morning or 
l.lrly afternoon, of the glad troops of youth... going to or from one or other of the schools, to become in time useful and \\Orth\ 
citi/en
, hani"h hoth impatience and misgi\ing. The cost of maintaining the schools. of \\ hich there are no\\ nearl) fifty in 
operation i
l th, it\., \\ith O\er 400 teachers, amounted in ISX9 to $267..JP' This gi\es a cost per child for the )ear of $1).45 
on the ha"", of rt 
htered attendancc, or of $q.13 on the ha-;is of a\eragc daily attendance. In addition to the e"\penditure 0/ 
$.?(íj,4.J2 1.1,,1 ',..Ir 11\ tI., ,'it} lor the 1ll.linkn,\I1('L of the ,("hools. there \\,l
 ,ll\ apprupri.ttion uf ne.\rIy $300,000 for ne\\ school 



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E/JCCITIO.V AXD ITS PROJ.ESSORS 


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'ilt!in;,:", 
iles, rep.lirs and impro\'emenh. rhe estin1.ltcd total \'alue of the cit)'" school sites, buildings and equipment is 
,,
e upon one .lIlt! a l)u.Hter millions, rhe gO\ernment of the 
chools is \e"ted in a Board uf t\\enty-si"\ members, representing 
,e tlllrleen \\'anl5 of the cit\, 
he I:"\ecuti\'e Officers of the 
(lard an' the Chairman, 

. . 
l
pector, 
;ecret.tn -Tre.lsurer, . 
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,Iicitor. :O;uperintendenl of 
uilding
, I )rill Instructor and 
ruant Officer. 
In it
 wealth of educa- 
mal inslitutions, Toronto 
-II) daim
 pre-eminence 
 
Hong the cities of the 
(l1U1I1l0n. . \t the head of 
[<' educational system of the 
ro\ inn> "t.mds the national 
_titution, I.no\\n as the C:\I- 
k._IT\ OF TORO'\TO. It \\as 
1
lUall) eSI.thlished 1)\ RO\al 
! arter in 182 ï, under the 
'"ignation of 
ing's Colkge, 
Ihlic lands ha\ ing been set 
ide for its endo\\ ment from 
Il' fir
t settlement of the 
J"O\'incL. The in"titution \\as 
rmall) opened in 18-1-3. and 
\ \eap.-. later ib name was 
1.\Ilged into that of the C ni- 
T_it) of I'uronto. In 1853, 
1 .\ct of the I egi
lature was 
L' d. under \\ hich the l" ni- 
r"it) \\as constituted \\ ith 
") corporations, the U ni\ ersit)' of Toronto, and C nÍ\'er
ity College, the functions of the former being limited to the e\amination 
candidates for degrees in the se\ eral faculties, or for the cunferring of scholarships and honour,,; those of the latter being 
confined to the teaching of subjects in the 
Faculty of .\rts. In 1850, it lost its denomi- 
national character, and became for the future 
a purdy unsectarian and State institution, 
though \\ ith it are federated and affiliated a 
number of denominational Cni\ersities and 
Colleges, and in 1887 it had restored to it its 
original Faculties of I a\\ and :\lcdicine, By 
the prO\'isions of the Act of 1887, a 
reorganÍLation in the teaching departments 
of the t:ni\'ersity took place, and in addition 
to the old chairs in .\rts, distinct chairs of 
:\Iathematics. Ph) sics, (;reek I anguage and 
Literature. the Oriental I anguages. and Poli- 
tical Science ha\'e been established. along 
\\ ith lectureship:- in the (;reeJ.. I.anguage and 
Literature, in the L1.tin I.anguageand Litera, 
ture, in Ancient (;reek and Roman Histor\", 
in the Italian and Spanish languages, .lIld 
in Physiolog). rhe lity of Toronto has also 
recently endcl\\ ed it \\ ith a chair of (;eology, 
and one of English Literature and Language 
,\bout a \ear ago, the he.llItiful Cni\ersit
 
uildin
<;, which were among; the finest on the continent, had the mi"fortune to be burned, and \\ ith th...m the well-ecJuip)led 
I,rary and museum. rhese, ho\\e\"er. are no\\ being replaced, and there h.ts latel) been erecteù ne\\ and separate accommodation 
Ir the I kpartl11ent" of Biology .1Ild \'h)'"iolog
. in addition to the building J..n()\\ n a<; the School of Praetical Science. founded 



 



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in 1R78, and affili.ltell \\ith the l'ni\ersity. The gO\ernment of Toronto Cni\'er"ity is \'ested in a Board of Trustee", of ten 
memhers ' a l' ni\'er-;It) ('ouncil of t\\ enty-four mcmher
 : a Senate, cOlbisting of a ChalH'ellor, \ ice-Chancellor, and lift) mem- 
hers tweh e elected hy COl1\u:ation 
and nine l1omin.lted hy the Lieul 
(;o\'ernor in Council. certain ex oj.. v 
memhers, the :\Iiniskr of Education. 
the President of C ni\usity Colle! 
rcpresentati\'es of the I .IW Societ). the 
:\Iedical Schools, and the gradu.ite in 
.\rts, 
Iedicine and 1 aw, the affili.lt II 
denominational Colleges, and the HI<:h 
School masters, two memhers of the 
Council of Uni\'ersity College, and a\l 
former Chancellors and \ïce-Chanl..' 
lors. Con\'ocation consists of \h. 
graduatcs in the se\'eral faculties. Ii) 
the C ni\ ersity Federation .\er, of IS1:>j, 
the Cni\ersit) functions of instruction 
hm e been re\'i\'ed in most hranche" of 
study in the Facultie" of .\rts, I a\\ and 
:\Iedicine; and the professors ami ICL' 
turers in .\rts and Science ha\e, \\ith:t 
fe\\ e'\ceptions, been reorgani/ed inlD 
a teaching faculty in the Uni\ersit\. 
This faculty consists of the l'residtnt. 
nine professors, si'\ fellows and t\\O ltC' 
RE
IIIE)(CF OF 'IR. TnO\IAS W. Dv A
, \\'ID
IER 
 IIU..F r. turers in .\rb; three professors and 
mne honorar) lecturers in 1.1\\; and eighteen profcssors, fourteen kcturers, de;nonstrators, assistant-demonstrators, anù 
instructors in \Iedicinc. Besides the Faculty of Toronto Cni\'e:-sity, L'ni\'ersit) College has a Faculty consisting of th
 
President, three professors, se\'en lecturers, and t\\O 
fello\\,,: \\ ith a 
eparate Corporation, consisting of the 
President and fi\e profes!o.ors. The present Chan- 
cellor i-; the Hon. Ed\\ard Blake, (2.('., 1.1..1>., :\1.1'.. 
and the \ïce-Pre"ident is 
Ir. "illiam Mulock, .\I..\.. 
<2,('.. :\1.1', The President of the Cni\ersity is Sir 
I )anid \\ ilson. 1.1..1).. who, in 188 I, succeeded its 
long-time head, the late Re\. Dr. John 
IcCaul. i\lr. 
H. H. Lmgton. B..\.. is Registrar, and Prof. .\Ifred 
Baker, \1..\" i" Dean of Residence, 
" Xo pl.lce in Canada so forcihly reminds me 
of O\ford as Trinity." ob
er\'es Professor Gold\\ in 
Smith, in "peaking of TRI;o.;I I \ CNI\TRSITY, founded 
in 1851, under a Pro\incial .\et hy the late Bishop 
Strachan, a
 a Church t:" ni\Lr"ity and College. By 
the prO\i
ions of the R0)31 Charter (July 15th, 18 5 2 ) 
the gO\ ernment of the L; ni\l.rsity i" \ L"ted in a cor- 
poration, compo-;ed of (I) the Bi"hop" of the fl\ e 
I )ioCt'-;e.. of the I'ro\ ince (Toronto, Huron. Ontario, 
.\Igoma and Kiagara) (2), the Trustees (three in num- 
ber), and (3) the Council, I'on"i
ting of the Chancellor 
and t'\-Chancellor,. of the Cni\er"ity, the Pro\O"t and 
I'rofl'

o["'-, in .\rh and I )i\ init) in Trinity College: cer, 
tain membcr", nominated b) the fi\e Bishop-; and by 
Lach 
Iedical School or College affiliated to the Cni- 
\er"ity; and certain member" elected hy the (
raduate 
memlwß and .\-;
ociate member" of Comocation. 
('ol1\ocation con
i..t'> of the Ch.lI1cellor (Hon. Ceo. 
\\" m. \ lIan, ]),('. 1..), the I'rO\ o
t ( Re\. C. \ \. I:. Body, 
\I.A" I>.C.I.." the I'rofe""ors, all \1..\. and all (
radu.ltc
 in IJi\inity, ] a\\ and 
Iedicine- in all, at prcsent, about 50 
IIIL'mhLr.. .md of" tl'iate-nwmh.'r", The I !t-!!rlL'-; of the l' ni\er"it) arc open to all persons \\ ithout any rdigious test, C\!"cpt 




 
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IIAZEIION A\E!WF COM;RFGATIOI'oAL CH\lRCH. 



EDUC.ITIO.V .1XD ITS PRO},ESSORS. 


'ca
e uf Ikgrecs in Di\init), candidates for \\hich ha\e to subscribe to certain dedarations, Trinity h.1S rerei\'ed, from its 
'cpt ion, nun) gcncrou
 hcncÜction
, in the shape of 1L-gacies. scholarships and priLC funds, and sinl'e I ÖÖ2 it has Iargdy 
TC
i';ed ib endo\\ nll:nt 11\ the praise\\ orthy efforts of the authorities anù friends of the institution. Of 
L' ye.Hs, a Com m:.ltion Hall and a heautiful College Chapd ha\ e heen huilt, and a ne\\ \\ ing is nO\\ 
ing completed for the e\tended u
e
 of the nO\\ ftouri
hing "C"niversit). Trinity has been fortunate in 
he.1dships, the ProHlsts \\llitaker and Body. as well as in its LCalous founder, .. and in the Chancellors and 
"e-Chancellors, who ha\'e t.lken an al'tive part in the gO\'erning of the insti- - f1, . tution, Trinity has attracted 
it, and in some instances has called into e"\istence, a number of affiliated or subsidiary institutions, such as 
imt) 
Iedical College, \\"omen's :\Iedical ('ollege, St. Hilda's Residential.' College for \\ omen, Trinity 
..Iege School for Boys, at Port Hope, etc" all of which add to the fame' and repute of the C ni\'ersity. 
the l'ni\'ersity there are now t\\ehe professors and lecturers in the .\rts and I>i\'init) subjects, besides 
lecturers and e"\aminers in L"1\\ and other special suhjects, together \\ith the e"\tensi\e Faculty of Pro- 
.
ors and Lecturers in :\Iedicine and its allied studies. It has also a Facult) of J.lusic. The Dean 
II Registrar of the l' niversit) is the Re\. 
<Jfe

or \\"m. Jones, IJ,C, L. 
K '\OX COLLEGE. the metropolitan 
,<Jlogical training-hall of the Canada 
e
b) terian Church, was founded in 18-J6. 
ìe\\ years after the Scottish lJisruption. 
Ie present handsome building on Spadina 
'enue (see page 32), \\as erected in 18i5, 
tI i
 of the (;othic order of architecture, 

 material being \\ hite brick, \\ ith dressings 
cut stone. It has a frontage of 230 feet, 
'h of the \\ings running northward about 
o feet. The main entrance is surmounted 
a massi\'e tower 130 feet high. The Col- 
. " has numerous lecture rooms and the 
.idence has accommodation for se\'enty-five 
ldents, There is also a fine library and 
Imocation Hall. It is gO\erned by a 
lard of 
Ianagement (appointed, \\ e helie\ e, 
nually by the General _\ssembl) of the 
lurch). composed of 3-J members, of which 
r. \\ m. :\Iortimer Clark, 1\L\., is Chairman. The Senate consists of the Principal, the Rev. \\'m. Cawn, D.n., the Professors 
d Lecturers of the College, and a number of gentlemen, clerical and lay, appointed by the (;eneral Assembly. The Theo- 
logical course e"\tends 0\ er three sessions, 
and there is at the disposal of the authori- 
ties a number of \aluable priLCs and scholar- 
ship
. Kno"\ College IS affiliated \\ ith 
Toronto l'niversity. 
\\'\ CIIFFF COLLE(a: (incorporated 
under the name of the Protestant Episcopal 
I>i\ inity School) is the theological training- 
hall of the E\'angelical section of the Church 
of England in Canada. It \\as founded in 
1879. and is affiliated \\ ith Toronto L" ni\ er- 
sit). It has for its aim the imparting of 
sOllnd and comprehensi\ e theological k.lch- 
ing "in accord.mce \\ ith the distinctive 
\ t principles of E\'angdil'al truth, as embodied 
in the Thirty-nine. \rtides," The College is 
doing e"\l'dlent wor!. and is turning out many 

 \\onhy clerg\men. Its Princip.11 is the Re\'. 
1>r. Sheraton. 
:\1c
1 \:,rER l'
1\ ERSIT\', situate on 
Bloor Street, at the northern limits of Queen's 
Park, is under the immediate control of a 
- - -=:....:- - Board of Governors and a Senate, which are 
ultimalel) re,;p()n
ihle, for the most part, to 


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EDCC.ITIVX AX.n ITS l'ROl.ESSOR....', 


and <2uehel' The UnÏ\er"it) ohtained the fullest powers from the Legislature in 188 5, and 
Selutor :\1c:\l.1ster, of Toronto, \\ ho contrihuted nearly a million of dollars to its funds. 
There are four departments in operation: \roodstoek ('ollege (founded hy the late 
Re\'. I>r. F) fc at \\' oodstock in IX 5 7 as The Canadian Literary I nstitute, for the 
purpose" of better literary and theological instruetiun): the .\cademic I >Cpartment, 
for ho) sand ) oung men: 
Ioulton College, on \Hoor Street East, Toronto, organ, 
i/ed in I ööö as an academic department for the education of young ladi",: 
I'oronto Iklptist College, organi/ed in dIS,. 
for the purposes of theological education: 
and the .\rts' College, organi/ed in d:>!)o, 
Thôe two latter departments arc .It prt .ent 
conducted in :\lc:\laster Hall, Bloor Street 
\\'cst, Toronto, The chaner n:<luires that 
:\1c:\laster shall he a ('hristiJ.n Cni\Crsit), 
and that the Bihle shall ue a te),t-hook in all 
it>> departments, all the professors, master- 
and teachers being members in good standing 
of evangelical churches. There is a princip,\1 
and si, ma"ters at \\'oodstock. The equip 
ment for English. Classical, Scientific and 

Iodern instruction is efficient, and a Manu: 
Training department has recently heen organ 
i/cd in connection with the College -the fir,1 
in Canada. Moulton I.adies' College ha
 , 
staff of se\'en teachers, besides special irbtTUc 
tors in music and painting, and provides re, 
dence also for those of its matriculants \\h( 
may enter the !\IcMaster .\rts' I)ep,mment 
Torontu l\.1ptist College has the large"l sla! 
of an) theological department in the I )ominion of Canada, and the recentl) -opened Arts' I )epartment is adequately equippe( 
for its \\ork, The staff of the latter department will shortl) he increased, until ample prO\'i"iun is made for the work of thl 
Cni\ersity in ib regular and honour courses. 1\1c:\laster Cniversit) is a self-sufficient and independent institution, It ha 
entered the field of the higher education 
under the stimulus of the highe'it ('hri"tian 
aim", \\ith the a\oO\\ed purpose of promot- 
ing nact and hroad scholarship and sound 
dis('ipline with a \ ie\\ to character and 
sen ice It will, Wt' douht not, command 
from the puhlic at large, as well as from 
the Bapti"t denomination, the fullest 
opportunites for the dndopment of it'i 
iùeals, 


ST. :\IiCH \FI'
 COil r <;E \\as 
L"tahli'ihed in 1 X 52, under the patronage 
of the \Io"t Re\. I )r, I >c( 'harhonnel, then 
Roman Cltholic Bishop of Toronto, hy 
the Ba
ilian Father". of \nnonay, France. 
I'he colle
 e huildlllg" \\ erL erected in 1 ö 56, 
.md ha\ e of late ) ear" heen Lonsiderahly 
extended, and a chapel ha" heen added to 
the cquipment>> of the irbtitution. St. 
:\Iichaer" \\as in ISÖ' affiliated \\ith the 
I'rO\ incial C niversit), and has a large and 
efficient teaching facult), 
LpPtR C\:>I\V\ COLI 
t;"', under 
the ahle Principahhip of 1\1 r. < ;eorge I )id.- 
"on, \1..\" maintain'i the high record and RFSIlIF"'f 01' \IR. 1:11 \5 ROla RS, DI' ER PARK 
honourahlc re l >Utt of thi., old hi.,toric ' ch o ( I It '" c' I .. --' . 
, " ) . IS 
oon to remO\ e .rom Its ong-tnne sIte, on K II1g Strect \\ est. to spa' 
ground", heauttfull) SItuated 111 the norlhern ,>uhurh'i of the cit). Then: a hand
ume pile of huihlings h.1S heen erected h} t 


the B.lpti"t Comention of Ontario 
\\ as named in honour of the late 
. 


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1'AL>lI'IA ,\\ Et\UE, 


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EDCCATfOX A \TD fTS PROFESSORS. 


The TORo", 1"0 SOW\I \I Sl'HOOI. 
nder the Principalship of "II', Thomas 
,irl-Iand, 
L \.. is an institution dcsigned 
,I' Ihe training of teachers. as a part of the 
10\ incial s\'stem of education. It \\as 
.unded in 18-1-7 at the in
t.Uln
 of the late 
:e\. I>r. R\ erson, Chief Superintendent of 
:ducation. and at fir
t held ib session
 in 
1e PrO\incial Education I >epartment. but 
1 1858 \\as transferretl tu its pre
ent home. 
'he "ork performed by the school is large!) profe..;
ional, the cour
e of <;tudies consistin 6 of the History and Science of Educa_ 
on. the Principles and Pr.j('t!n
 of Te.lChing. :-\chool Org.Ulllation and :\l.\I1.1g:emcnt, together "ith instruction in Engl ish, 
Irgiene. Chemistry, Ph)sj(.s, Dra" ing. Y ocal }.f usic, Calisthenics, Drill, etc. Its studento; ha\e the advantage of study and 
ractice in the class-'\ork of the adjoining 
Iodd School. 
Dr, Theodore H. Rand. Profe
sor of Education and Lthics in :'.Ic
laster C"ni\ersity, "as born at Corn\\allis. 
ova 
,'otia, in I Ö35, ..\fter a preparatory course in the public schools and at Horton ('ollegiate . \cademy, he entered \caclra College, 
om "hich he graduated in .\rb in Iö60. .\fter teaching for a time he was appointed to the chair of English and Classics in 
Ie ProÙncia! X ormal School, at Truro, Here he gm e himself to the "ork \\ ith the /eal and enthusIasm which ha\'e marked 
his subsequent career, He took an acti\'\
 
part in the preparation of the Frec s('hool 
.\ct of [1:16-1-. \\ hich 'Hought a great reform 
in the Public School system of Xma Scotia, 
and was suhsequentl} made Prm incial 
Superintendent of Education. His task wa" 
for a time an arduous one, for at first the 
.\ct was misunderstood .\I1d con"equently 
unpopular, Sub
el)uentl\", however, all diffi- 
culties were oven:ome. and :'.11', Ranù, in 
I X7 I, felt free to take up similar work in 
XC" Bruns\\ irk, \\ here he had accepted the 
office of Superintendent of Education for the 
Prm incl'. Here again he \\ as eminently "uc- 
Ct'o;sful. Prof. Rand - \\ ho had in [Xó-1- 
received hi" \1..\, in CQurse, and in 11:17-1- the 
dt'gree of I J.e. 1.., causa hOllorÎs- resigned his 
Prmincial office in 1883 to arrept the chair 
of Education and Histol'\ in ,\cadia College. 
Here he remained till I I:IS 5, \\ hen he remo\'\
d 
to Toronto, to take the chair of .\pologetics 
and Didactics in 
Ic"Ia!,ter Hall. .\fter a 
year spent in this work he consented, at the 
olicitation of the late Senator \Ic :'.Iaster and others, to a"sume the Principalship of the R1ptist College at \\ oodstock. Ht 
li"charged the duties of this position until 181:18, \\hen he returned to the ,\ork in \k\l.1steT Hall, "hich had been reorganlled. 


'ro\Ïnl'Ï.11 (;0\ ernn1L'nt for its u"e. and it n1.1\ 
I its wdl-\\on honours .md tr.lllitiOJ1.11 f.1Ine, 
1e Pro\ incl'. upon the model of the gre.lt 
ublie Schools of En
land. It has had a 
Ing and intimate connel'tion \\ ith the 
,ltioruluni,ersity. and for a numher of "ears 
.10; under its administration. It is no\\ gO\- 
Ined V) a BoarJ of Trustee" (of which 
1e Hon. John Be\'erle} Rohinson. E"\- 
Íeut.-\.mernor of ()ntario. is chairman). 
I'pointnl hy the 1'1'0\ incial E"\ecuti\ e. 
:ecenth its endu\\ ment h.b suffered at the 
U1ds of the Ontario I egislature. an act of 
,oliation as perilous as it was" ithout ".Jr- 
Int. :,uffi('ient, hO\\e\er, ha..; heen secured 
I it to ensure its continued life and 
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",Ifd) he predil,ted that it "ill continue to go don 11 the .Iges, addmg year h} ) ear 
!'he College" .IS founded in I Ö:!9 b
 Sir John Cui horne, Lieutenant-( ;o\'ernor of 


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RESIIIE'I"E OF "R A. \\'. !JODD, !Jc;r;'1 .-\\ EXl:E. 



.md b} .\, t of P.lrli.lln
nt, r.l1
ed to the rank of a unin:rsity, under the liberal endù\\ ment bequeathed bv 

nator :\1c:\la
ter 
The Toronto and \\'ooùstock Colleges became constituent part,; of the L' nin:rsity, The College year, 188 9-9 0 , \\ hich inter, 
n..ned before the opening of the .\rts 
department of the l! nin:rsit}, in \\ hich he 
had been de
ignated as Professor of Edu- 
cation and Etbics, 1 >r, Rand spent in 
England, \\ hither he had gone for purposes 
of study and obsen'ation in connection 
\\ ith uni\er"ity \\ork, He has now returned, 
hO\\e\er, and is acti\'dv engaged in the 
ùutie
 of his Professorship in the .\rts' 
I >epartment in the newly-opened College 
and as ('hairman of the Faculty. 
I'rofe"sor James loudon, \1..\., 
F. R.S.c., the learned Prof
ssor of Physics 
in Toronto L'ni\ersity, is a nati\e of Tor- 
onto and \\as horn here in the year I S,p. 
He \\as educated at Upper Canada Col- 
lege, and at the Cniversit} of Toronto, of 
which he is a distinguished honour-man 
in 
Iathematics, and graduate. He is also 
an :\L. \,' and for a time was I >ean of that 
national institution; a member of the 
Senate: and Professor of Ph}"ics in the l'ni\ersit}. He is a memher of several learned bodies, an eminent specialist in his 
department, and an e'l.pert and lul"Îd d...mon
trator. Professor 1.(Judon is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and an 
cnthusia"tir Canaùian. In religion, he is a member of the Preshyterian Church. 
Professor Charles Carpmael, \1..\., I'. R.S.C Direl"tor of the :\lagnetic Observator}, Toronto, and of the :\Ieteorologica 
Sen'ire of the Dominion, \\a
 born in IS-tÓ, at Streatham Hill. Surr...y, England. He was educat...d at Clapham (;r.lIl1Il1ar 
Srhonl, and at St. John's College, Cambridge, ,\t the latter imtitution his studies wcre chiefly those conn...ctl.'d with Xatural 
anù E'l.perimental Scienn', including chemistry, physirs and mathematics. \\'hik at College he \\on a minor scholarship an. 
a foundation scholarship, and graùual"'ù <;i'l.th \\f,mgler In IS70, he was ekcted a Fellow of his College. In the same }t,,, 
h
 was attached to the Briti"h Eclipse L'l.p...dition to :-ipain, and at E<;tepona, thirt}-fìve miles from (;ihraltar, took a sl'ec-tr(, 
scopic ohsenation of th... Corona. ()\\ing, however, to unfavourahle weather, the obseT\'ation \\as not successful. ('omin
 
thereafter to Canada, Professor Carpmad was in I ö7 2 appointed Deputy Superintendent of th... l\lcteorological Sen ice of tht 
Dominion, and, eight years later, Director of the :\Iagnetic Ohservatory and :-iuperintcnd...nt of the :\Ieteorological Scni(, 
both of \\hich posts he still ahly fills, He is also President of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, and was, in IRRó, Pre"ident 
the Science Section of the Royal Society of ('anada. 
\1 r. (;eorge Dickson, :\1..\., Principal of C pper Canada College, was born of Scotch e:\traction in :\Iarkham TO\\"Il" hi l' 
Ct). \" ork, in I ö-t6. For nearl} a quarter of a century he has been identified with educational pursuits and has had grca 
e"\pcri...nce as a teacher. He was himself 
educated at the Richmond II ill, :\lark- 
ham, and \\'hitby (;rammar Schools, and 
at Toronto and Victoria Uni\'ersities. .\t 
the former L'nin..rsity he matriculated with 
hunour" and at the latter he graduated 
\\ ith honours. I n 1866 he began hi" career 
as a teacher ill the Township of King, 
\\here \\e first rc('ogniæ :\Ir, I >jckson's 
special aptitudc for educational \\ork, for, 
as the re!-,ult of two }ears'lah(Jurs in King 
1'0\\ nship, tweh'e of his pupils oblaincd 
fir"t-class certificate
. In I ö68, :\Ir. Dick- 
<;on \\as appointed mathematical master in 
the Chatham (;rammar School, and from 
there pas<;ed, for a year, to the \\'oodstock 
I iterary Institute, where he had ('harge of 
the Cnivcr...it} class in English, mathe- 
matlc
, classIc!-' anù history. In IÖ72, he 
acrepted the a

istant-mastership of the 
('nl1egialL I n"titute, Hamilton, and in the 


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JIIO\\ing year. on, t
le appointment of \Ir. J. .:\1. Buchan (the Headmaster) to a High School Inspectorship, \Ir, Dickson sue 
t:etkd to the posItIon. Here 
le lahoured.\\I
h great succe
'i from 1873 to 1885. the Institute taking highest rank among the 
_'condary schools 
f the PrO\,II1:e, a.n? \\II1I1lng repute for the achie\ements of its pupils at the Departmental Examinations 
nd the :\1.ltnculatIons at the Lm\ er
ltles. 
uch \\as the fame of the school under its 
xperienced administrator, that the attend- 
nce rose \\ ithin his régime from 230 pupils 
I do'e upon six hundred. \\Ïthin ten 
t:ars of \Ir. Dickson's appointment, no 
." than 175 of his pupils passed the 
'ni\t.'rsity examinations and nineteen 
,'holarships \\ere awarded them. The 
It:partl11ental Examinations show like 
ratif) ing results. From 1880 to d;S 5, in 
ddition to his onerous duties as Princi- 
lal ofthe Collegiate Institute. \Ir. Dickson 
i..d charge of the organi/ation and man- 
Lgel11ent of the school s) stem of the Cit) 
,f Hamilton, He also organi/ed and \\as 
ir
t President of the Hamilton Teacher
' 
hsociation. In 1885, :'Ilr. Dickson was 
lppoin\ed b\ the Ontario (
O\ernment to 
he l'rincipalship of Cpper Canada Col, 
e<-e, \\hich position he continues to fill 
\ ith much success, In this ne\\ sphere 
Principal I )ickson's PO\\ ers of organi/a- 
ion. good discipline, and thorough 
msines'i-Iike administration, combined 
lith his all-round scholarship, fine tea('h- 
n
 abilit\, and the facult) of imhuing 
,tudent
 \\ith love of their \\ork, soon 
nanifested themseh-es and ga\'e a new 
mpetus to the old historic school of the Prmince, Cnder his management, not on I) has the College continued to flourish, but 
t has done increasingh' good work, as )early Cni\ersity honours prow, and IJ.I

ed through a crisis in its history which under 
I less \'i!!orous administration \\ould probably haH' been it
 doom, Prinripal I )ickson is a member of the Senate of Knox 
, 'ollege. and was also on the Senate of Toronto 1.; ni\ ersit). I n politic
, he is a Reformer; in religion, a Presbyterian. 
\Ir. ,\rchibald :\la('\1 urch\', :\1..\.. Rector of the ('ollegiate Institute, and Editur of the Canada Educatio1lal .J[o1lth
\', 
I\as horn of Highland Scottish parentage at Ste\\artficld, .\rgvleshire. and when quite young came \\ith his parents to Canada. 
Here he continued his education and at the same time taught school, until J!:; 5-1-, when he took a course at the Normal School, 
Toronto. .\fter recei\ ing his certificate, he engaged as a master in the Provincial 
\Iodel School. while taking his undergraduate ('ourse at the Cniversity of Toronto. 
Thruughout the latter course, :\Ir. :\lac:\lurchy was a first-class honour man in 
mathematics. English, French, and the Sciences, and graduated with honours and 
a medal. On graduating. he de\'oted himself to his life-\\ork as an educator, his 
high academic standing, ability as a teacher, and sterling character, sef\ ing him in 
good stead. In 1858. he \\as appointed mathematical master at the Toronto 
(
rammar School (nO\\ tht Collegiate Institute), and in 1872 succeeded to the 
Rectorship. .\s the head. for no\\ nearl) twenty )ears, of this excellent in
titution. 
:\Ir, :\Iac\lurdl) has nut onh earned for it a high and honourable repute, but has 
been able to turn out thousands of )oung men who, in numberless \\alks of life. 
have made or are making their mark in the I Jominion. His enthusiastic intere
t 
in his profcs.,ion is sh(m n abo in his able editorship of the Canada EducatÙl1lal 
J!t I 1lt/d)'. and as the author, in his 0\\ n department of mathematics, he has \\On 
deserved fame. \Ir. ;\lac:\lurchy was for years a memher of the Senate of Torunto 
Cni\l
rsit\. an actÎ\e \\orker and sometime PresIdent of the Ontario Tea('hers' .\ssO- 
ciation. . In religion, he is a Preshyterian, 100'al to the traditions of the Old Kirk 
section of that hod\ ; in politirs, he is a staunch Consef\'ative. 
The life of 'the professional man. whate\er may be his specialty, does not 
offer, as a rule. any great \ ariety of incident. Particularl) is this the case \\ ith the 
C'ollecTe I )un or the more humhle l.'llucator. H is habits as a student and scholar 
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limit hi... field of action. though, in fashioning the intellect and character of )outh, great 111.1) be the field (If hi... influence. In 
connection \\ ith education in till, cit\, there has scarcely been a better knO\\ n man, or one who for a lengthened period has held 
a more important pO"'ltion, than \1 r. John :\Iartland, \1. \" one of the oldest master
 of 
Cpper ('anad.l College, For a quarter of a ccntun he has bcen Residcnct> :\b"ter 
in that historie institution. and both in the Boarding Iiouse and in the College rl;,. 
rooms has been brought into intimate and daih' contact II ith a gcneration of C:mad:'lll 
) outh. H is influence has e\'er becn beneficent and many owe to him a life-long ddJl. 
Ha\ ing himself been cdue.lted at an English Public School and an English Cni\er...it), 
thc traditions of bOlh natur.llly dung to him. and became his model.... as to schol.ir,hil' 
as \lell as to personal habit... and dcmeanour. for the training of tho...e undcr him. Tu 
the succe"... of his methods there arc many to testify. while among old College ho), 
testimony is as \I.mn and emphatic in prai,e of the personal qualitie" of the nun, \Ir, 
\Iartland \la" born at Blackburn. I anca"hirc. ,\ugu...t 2óth. I
L!ö. Hi... father, IIho 
was a medil'al man and a 
Iagistr,tte of thc county, sent him for his education fir"t 10 
the Blackburn (;rammar :-,chool, and after\\ards to a \lell-known :'\orth of England 
school Sedhergh, in \\'estmorel,lIld. From the latrer he passed. as head-ho), to 
Oxford C ni\'t'rsity, where he gained a ;;70 scholarship, tenable for liw years, at 
(}uceIÙ. lollege, his tutors belllg the present ,\rchhishop of York, and \Ir, Heslop, 
a rare classical scholar and an Editor 
of Demosthcnes, In 1852, he gradua- 
ted Ilith a I'a...s degrce, illness having 
pre\ ented him from taking honours, 
. \fter le:n ing Oxford, :\1 r, :\l.1rtland 
trawlled ronsiderahl), and while in England coached pupils for the Cni\ersities 
.md the .\rm). Through the influence ùf the family of one of his pupils. he 
\Ia'> gi\ en letters of introduction to Sir Edmund Head. then (;o\'ernor-( ;eneral 
of C.mada, and came to \lontre,11 in I ÖÓO. For twO) ears he acted a... Rector'" 
assistant in the High School, \lontreal, and on the resignation, in 11-;Ó2, of the 
ReI. Pr. Scadding, he I\as appointed to a mastership in Cpper Canada Col- 
lege, and at once entered upon 
his duties, 1\10 )ears aftenlards, 
he \las entrusted with the charge 
of the College Boarding House, 
and since then has been largely 
instrumental, under s u cce ss i \'e 
I'rincipals, in gi\ ing character to 
the College Residence as \ldl as 
to the College itself. There is not 
a profe"sion. and hardly a count) 
in the J lominion, in which there 
are not College boys who know 
and venerate the name of 
Ir. 
John \Iartland. Cla...sical learn- 
ing. if it could spc.lk, would have 
also much to say for his warm in- 
terest, and that of hi... rolleague 
1\1 r. \\ edd, in all th.tt ha... tended -- 
to its ad\ancement in Canada. 
\Ir. Luther Edmund 
Emhre. :\1. .\., Headmasler of 
the I'arkdale ('ollegiate Institute, 
Toronto, \las horn in NOla 
cotia 
in [8-1--1-, and rame to this Prov- 
ince in 1 R62. lIe"igning to follow 
teachin
 as a profc"sion, he be 
gan his rareer in a public school 
in Co, Peel. and taught there for 
Ii\ L H..lr.... In 187 I, he entered - = 


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roronto l' ni\"er
il\. \\ mnlllg a douhle scholarship in classics and general pro 
ficienC\ ,\t his second year's examination he \\on the same two scholarships, 
,Illding to his honours the classical prill' of the) ear. In I Xi 3 he became as"istant- 
master in the roronto Collcgiate Institute. hut continued the language course in 
Ihe L'ni\er
il\. and graduated as a medallist in modern languages in 18i5, The 
follO\ling year he \\.b appointed Principal of the \ armouth Seminar\", in :\o"a 
:,cntia and rem,lineù in that position for four years. \\ hen he returned to Ontario, 
,\lid from IXXO to ISSS \\.IS sUlTes
i\eI) headm,lstcr of the Strathroy High 
choul 
and the \\'hitIJ\ ('ollegi,lte Institute. TW/l years ago, he recei\"ed the appointment 
of Principal of the Parkdale Collegiate Institute, \\ hich under his admini"tration 
has tal-en high rank among the second.1fY schoob of the I'rO\ ince. and attained a 

ucc....." that is almost phenomcnaL In 188-1-. :\Ir. Emhree was one of a committee 
of three appointed h) the Education I )epartment of the PrO\ ince to prepare the 
present series of Untario School Readers, a \\ork for \\ hich Principal Emhree had 
high literary and professional qualification;.. He holds ad\anced \'iell"s in educa- 
tional matters and takes an enthusiastic interest in all that pertains to the well- 
heing and ad\ancement of his profession. \Ir. Emhree is an arti\e memher of the 
Senate of the L'nÎ\'ersity of Toronto, to 
which he has heen Ihree times elected. 
as the repre
entati\T on that hod) of 
the High School 
Iasters of the PrO\- 
mce, :\1 r. Emhree helongs to the 
lethodi
t denomination. 

Ir. rhomas Kirkland, :\1..\.. Principal of the :\ormal School, Toronto, \\as 
horn in the Count\' of .\rmagh. Ireland, ,\ugust L!th, 1835. .\fter recei\illg" his 
earl) educatron in hIs natiw parish. and at the :\ormal School, I )uhlin. he took a 
course in agriculture at the .\Ihert Xational .\gricultural rraining Institution. at 
(;lasne\ in, and then entered (2ueerÙ College. Belfa
t. as a student of ci\ il engineer- 
ing. While in 1 )uhlin. designing to go abroad for his health. 
Ir. Kirkland attracted 
the notice of \rchbishop \\'hately. then Chairman of the Commissioners of Xational 
Education in Ireland. \\ ho ga\'e him a lettt.r of introduction to the Re\. Dr. 
R)erson, In 185-1-, :\Ir. Kirkland proceeded tu Canada. Here he ùC\'oted himself 
to education as his life's wor!.. and taught schuol su{'cessi\'t
ly at Oshawa, Whithy 
and Barrie. He then spent three \"ears at the Cni\"Crsit\ of I'oronto, winning a 
scholarship in :\lathematic... and honours in all suhjecls. From 1863 till 1871. he 
\\as Principal of the High :-ichool at \\'hith). and in the larter year 1I".IS selected hy 
Dr. R) erson to fill the position of Science master in the :\ ormal School, Toronto. 
This chair he held until 188-1-. \\ hen on the resignation of the Re\". I)r. I )a\ ies, he 
hecame Principal. \Ir. Kirkland is an 
eminent mathematician and a successful 
educationist. He \\as one of the first 
electi\e memhers of the Senate of Tor- 
onlo Cni\"ersity, and is also a member of the Senate of Knox College, For ten 
years he occupied the chair of Chemistry and Physics in Trinity 
Iedical School 
and \\as a lecturer on Botal1\'. 
lr. Kirl-Iand is the author of a numher of "eIl- 
known mathematical works and of a work on Statics. authoriled by the 1 Jepartment 
of Education for ()ntario. In religion, Principal Kirl-land is a Pres h) terian. and a 
Director of the L'ppcr Canada Bible Society. 
:\Ir. James ,\. \Id.ell:m, \1..\" 1.1 .n., Pirector of Teachers'lnstitutes 111 
Ontario. was born in 1\o\"a Scotia in IX32. His parents remO\ed to this I'rO\'ince 
III 1837, and his boyhood was spent at Thornhill. In that \Îllage. at \ïctoria 
('ollege. Cohourg. anù at Toronto L' ni\Trsit\' he \\a<; educated, the \\ hile de\'oting 
11Ill1self. in the inten'als of his stud\', to teaching, During his Cni\'e;'...ity career, 
he \\a... the \\ inner of first elass honours. chiefly in mathematic,.: and metaph) sic 
the recipient of two medals. and a general-proficient') "cholarship, In I !:Ii 3, hI;:' 
\\fote for his 
I..\, de
ree. and some\\hat later obtained from Toronto Uni\ersit) 
the degree of I.I..D, In his :\ormal School professional course he also stood high. 
and completed it by obtaining a first-class ((;rade .-\) certificate. For a time 1 Jr. 

[d dlan taught in the \\ hithy High School, in Cpper Canada College, and in 
J8ó{ "as Principal of the Yarmouth Seminar}', :\O\a Scotia. In ISil, he \\".15 


EDCCA TIO.\' A "D ITS PROFESSORS, 


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DR, ]A\tE".-\. :\kLEI LAN. 


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Uk. T. \I. \I \U="l \ Ja.. 



appointed h} the Ontario Fducational Dcpartment, Inspector of High Schools. and for long has ser\'(
d on the Central Com- 
mitke. or .\d\isory Hoard of the :\llIlister of Educ.11ion for the PrO\'ince, In these posts, Dr. :\IrLellan performed a large 
amount of hard work and. as the ablest of 
departmental e'-perts, did much to ad\'anL 
educational interests in Ontario, In IRR3, he 
was made lJirector of Kormal Schools, and 
suhsequently I )irector of Teachers' Institute 
in which positions he has rendered high 
service in quickening the professional mind, 
in hroadening the field of study, and mould- 
IIIg puhlic opinion on national education. 
I )r, :\Id .ellan's great gifts as a mathematician 
are well-known and appreciated throughout 
Canada, and his many valuahle \\orks on his 
favourite subject h3\'e also hrought him inlO 
note in the United States and in the Olù 
\\'orld. He is the author. also. of a work 
on ".\pplied Psychology: .\n Introduction 
to the Principks and Practice of Education,' 
which has met with warm approval as one 
of the most important works on educational 
psychology in the English language. 
:\Ir. r. :\1. :\Iacintyre, :\1..\., 1.1 .R, 
Ph,]),. Principal of the Preshyterian Ladie< 
('ollege, Bloor Street West, was horn in 
dtp in the To\\ nship of Orford, Co. Kent. Ont. .\fter recei\ ing his prcliminar) education in his native county, he continued 
his studies in the \\:mJ,aille (;rammar Schoul, and in IÖÓ-1- entered ,\Ibert College, graduating in .\rts in that institution and 
"ubsequently hecoming Professor of :\lathenl.ltics in the College, I ater on, he hecame, 'successively, headmaster in the High 
Schoo].; of BO\\mamille and Ingersoll, and in 187ö remo\'ed to Br.lI1tford, on his appointment to the Principalship of the Pres, 
h) tcrian LadieS' College in that city, In I X7ö, he ohtained his degree of 1.1.. 1\" .1Ild afterwards that of Doctor of Philosophy. 
L"nder his administration, the Brantford Ladies' College hecame fa\'ourahl} known for its elevated standard and the thorough- 
ness of ib work in the higher educalion of \Hlmen. When Toronto Uni\ersity made provision for the holding of local ",-ami- 
nations for women, I )r. :\Iacint} re secured for the College the advantages so wisely afforded, He has always taken a deep 
intere!ot in the educational questions of the da} and heen a strong advocate of a PrO\'incial University, with federated col1eges. 
('omhining and presening both State and denominational intercsts. !Jr. :\Iacint) re is a widely-rcad student, chiefly in English, 
history, and philosoph}, and has won a reputation as a puhlic lecturer on historical and cognate suhjects. ,\fter ha\ ing heen in 
charge of the Brantford 1 adies' College for eleven } ears, Dr. :\1.1('il11) re removed to 
Toronto, in 11)1)9, and purchased the Richard Institute, J:loor Street \\'est, where he 
estahli
hed the Preshyterian I adies' College. The first year, ha\'ing met with grati- 
f} ing SUCcL',
, it \\as found necessary to enlarge the accommodation and increase the 
facilities of the institution. This was done hy the erection of considerahle additions 
to the College, suitahle for lecture halls, art studios, and rooms for residence. In all 
respects, the institution is nO\\ admirahly equipped for its \\ork. 
\Ir. Frt.derick FittPa}ne :\Ianley. :\1..\" ,\djutant of the Royal (;renadiers, is 
of English hirth, being horn in the County of De\on, Dee. [3th, 1852. .\t an early 
,lge he c.lIne to Toronto. The winning of a puhlic school scholarship enahled him 
to attend the ('oronto (;raml11ar School, from \\ hich he passed to the Toronto U ni- 
ver...it), and carried off the highest honours, graduating in ,\rts, in IR7-1-, a medallist 
\\ ith first,da!os honours in mathematics, In the samc year he was appointed master 
of the prepar.ltor} form in the Toronto Collegiate In
titute, and was SCUJIl promoted to 
the a...si!otant-mastership in mathemati('
. Sincc the reorgani/ation of the Royal (;rena- 
dier
, Captain :\Ianley has heen ('ontinuously the adjutant of the regiment, and sen ed 
\\ith the ballant corps during the Xorth-\\ cst Rebellion. He wa
 President of the 
l;ni\Lr...ity ("Jllt..oe I iterary and Scientific Societ) in 1880, and \\a
 t\\ ice elected to the 
I Jirectorale of the Old Toront0 :\Ie('hanic
 Institute (nO\\ the Free Public l.ibrary). 
I Jr. Jame Carl) Ie, the teaching e'-pert of the Xorm.ll School, was born in 
I>umfrie , Sf'otland. 01 S,'otch parentage, being the son of John Carlylc, who was half- 
brother of the celebrated fhoma... Carl)le. Coming to Canada a mere bo} in 1837, he began at the age of Se\'CIlteen to 
teach in the Ileighbourhood of Brantford, He entered the I'rO\ incial :\Iodcl School in 1855, and immcdiately after graduating 
\\a
 appointed to a po...ition in the Central Sf'hool of Brantford, from which hc tr,U1sferred twO} ears later to the PrO\ ineial 


1:?6 


ED(T.ITIOX AND ITS rROFE5,;SORS. 


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EDUCATION AXD IT.S' PROFESSORS. 


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:\[l.dd School for Do\'s, Toronto, as principal. This position he filled for thirteen) ears, durmg \\ hich time he studied medicine 
and graduated from \Ïctoria \Iedical College. In 1871, Dr. Carl)le \\as promoted to the :\Iathematical master"hip of the 

()nnal School and since it has heen relieved of its academical training functions 
he has acted in the capacity of teaching e'l.pert, instructing students in the art of 
tC.lching, In politics Dr. Carlyle does not meddle; his SCf\ ices have done much 
to promote the cause of education in Ontario. He is an enthusiastic curler and a 
patron of all athletic sports. 
rhe name of :\Ir, James [ aughlin Hughes, Puhlic :-ichool In"pector for the 
(it\ of Toronto. has acquired more than local fame, Born Ilear Bo\\ mam ille, 
Ont.. Fehruar) 20th. o,-t 6 . \1 r. Hughes received his education in the puhlic schools 
and the rorontu X urmal School, from \\ hich he graduated in 1865. , \t the con- 
c\u"ion of his course he took charge of a school in Frankfort, and the follO\\ ing year 
lIa< appoinkd hy the I'ro\ incial Council of Puhlic Instruction to the position of 
as"istant-master of the Torontu \Iodel School. In 1869, :\Ir, Hughes uecame the 
Principal of the :\Iodel School, holding the office till 18H, when he was appointed 
Inspector of the Toronto Puhlic Schoob. :\Ir. H ughe., has taken a prominent part 
III all recent educationalmO\'Cments, and has contrihuted many \'aluahle works to 
the literature of education. He is an ahle and efficient admini
trator in his 
important public office. :\Ir. Hughes is a 7ealou
 Prote"tant and a Im'al memher 
of the Orange Order, of "hich he is 
Deputy (;rand 
Ia<;ter of Ontario. 
Taking a deep interest in Sunday 
School "ork, he ha,> heen l're
ident of 
the Toronw Sunday School . \ssocia- 
tlon, and Secretary for three )ears of the Provincial Sunda) School .hsociation. 
He is a Pa
t l\Iaster of St. ,\ndrew"s :\Iasonic lodge, a l'a!>t President of the Iri"h 
Protestant Bene\ olent Societ\" and was first Chief of the Toronto I odge of C;ood 
Templars, .:\Ir. Hughes has contested seats for the Ontario legislature hoth in 
the Consen'ati\e interest and as the nominee of the l:qual Rights .hM>ciation. He 
is a Methodi!>t, and has heen Superintendent of a Sunday School since ISó9' :\Ir. 
Hughes "as first President of the Canadian Branch of the Chautauqua I .iterarr and 
Scientific Circle and is Educatioml I )irector of thl Xiagara .h...emhly of that 
enterprise, 
l\Ir. William \Iagill is the Principal of the Toronto ,\eadem), the \\ell-knO\\n 
[nglish and Classical School for Junior Ro)s, 
imcoe :-;treet. Born in Duhlin, 
Ireland, Fehruar) Rth, 1823, :\Ir. 
:\Iagill ohtained his certificate as a 
teacher from the Board of Education 
in that city when hut twent) ) ears of 
age, .\fter teaching school for four 
\ears, he accepted the management of a large estate, \\hich position he held until 
I R66, \\ hen the estate was sold and he came to Canada. The school to which 
:\Ir, :\I.lgill now c1e\"Otes him
elf \\as estahlished hr Rev, . \Ic'l.ander "ïlljams, :\1..\,. 
Rector of::5t. John's Church, in lö66, and passed into :\Ir, :\lagiJrs hand
 in 11:;69, 
It ha!> sinn' grO\\ n in fa\'our as an institution for the English and classical education 
of junior ho)". \Ir. :\lagiJrs high character and repute are guarantees to parenh 
that their children's moral and intellectual nature are '>.'lfe in his hands. \Irs, :\lagill 
take" charge of the French and music departments. .i\lr. :\lagill is a mcmher of the 
Church of I:ngland. and is, in all respects a worth) citi/en. He has heen cun- 
nected \\Ith the Irish Protestant Henc\olent Society "ince ih inauguration in ISio, 
and has for many years hecn on its Council list. 
:\Ir. Samuel \ It- ,\lIister, the oldest master in the sen'ice of the Toronto 
School Board, and the highly-esteemed Principal of R\erson S,'hool, \\as horn on 
the 12th of .\ugust, 183-t, in the To\\n of Portafern', in the Xorth of Ireland, .\1 
the age of Í\\ eJn:. \\ ith his parent,; he remO\ ed to Li\'erpool, where his education 
\\.,,, continued in the Collegiate Institution. He remained in that city for ele\'en 
)LarS, during the greater part of the time heing employed as clerk in an iron,broker's 
offil't
, In 18Si, he emic:rated to Canada, and for a "hort time found 
'mplo) ment a".1 hook-keeper in Toronto. H.l\ ing de,'ided 
to gi\e up commerce forLteaching he took the position of English :\Lt"kr in an academy kept hy :\Ir. Uartlet, at \\hich m.1I1) \\ho 



 


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DR. JA\IE5 CARLYLE. 


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:\IR. \\'\1. 111.""11 L. 



.m: nm\ prominent citi/en.. of rownto rec
'i\ed their early training. In the year 18SG, ha\'ing ohtained a first-d.lss Count\' 
Bo.utl certilicate, ht.' enter
'd tht.' 
t.'r\"Ît"t.' of the Toronto Puhlic School Hoard. and is nO\\ Principal of Ryt.'rson School, which ha
 
an attendance of mer one thousand pupils. 
:\Ir, :\Ic.\llister, \\ ho has fine attainments 
as an t.'ducationist, has het.'n President of 
tht.' Toronto Teachers' .\.;sociation, the 
Toronto Principals' ,\ssociatinn, and the 
Ontario Tt.'achers' .\ssociation. He has 
contrihuted man) interesting articles on 
t.'ducational suhjects to The JIail, The 
Ueek, and the Educali{JnallJhmth/;', He 
is an acti\ e mem her of the. \. O. C."'. and 
Financit.'r of (;ranite I,odge. 
The Principal of "'dlesley School, 
:\Jr. .\Jam Fergus :\Iacdonald, \\as born in 
l'erthshin:, Scotland. Fehruary 12th, 1836. 
His preliminary education, commt.'nct.'d in 
a parish school, was cumpleted at the 
\Jollar .\eademy, Clackmannanshire, 
Scotland. Passing from the , \cadem)' 
with honours, he remained four years 
tcaching in :-icotland, the last of \\hich \\a
 
spent as headma"tcr of the .\Iva .\cademy. 
In ,8S6 :\Ir. :\I:u'donald came to Canada. His first appointment was at the puhlic school at Hagerman"" Corners, Markham, 
\\hich he held for t\\ehe ) ears. He then remO\ed to Eglinton, where he remained till ,Hi I, \\hen he became headmaster or 
I oui"a Street S('hool. In ,öii he was promoted to his present position, and under his charge "'ellesley Schoo] has gained a 
high repute. :\1 r. :\Iacdonald has heen a memher of King Solomon's Lodge, .\. F. & ,\, :\1., for the last fifteen year
. He \\as 
a charter memher of Cranite lodge, .\. (), t.:, \\'" and Legion 
o, 6, Sclert Knights, A. O. C, \\'., in hoth of which he ha
 
held office, He has a
sisted in the preparation of t\\O authorited educational works on penmanship and arithmetir, hoth ht.'ing 
of high 
tandard, l\J r. l\Iacdonald is a memher of the Presh) terian Church. 
:\Ir. Rohert'r. !>o.ln \\a
 horn near the \ïllage of <..)ueens\'ille in Xorth York. His early training received at the \'il]age 
schooll\.ls comp]eted in the Toronto Xormal School during the principalship of the late :\Ir, r, J. Rohertson, ('ommencing 
his profes"ion h) teaehing school in Section 
o. 8, East Cwillimhury, :\Ir, I Joan was soon invited to take charge of Aurora 
Puhlic Sdlool. In I Xi 2, he came to this cit), teaching successively in Parliament Street School, the Park Sehool, (;eorgt.' Street 
S('hool, \'icloria Street School, and I >ufferin School, of which ht.' is now the ahle and lealous principal. :\1 r. I Joan is a memher 
of the Bo.ml of E,aminers of Puhlic Srhool tea('hers for the County of \' ork, and Secretar) of the Ontario Teachers' .\ssocia- 
tion, He i
 E,-President of the Toronto 
. Teachers' .\ssociation, and a Past :\Iaster 
of St. Andrew's Lodge, 1\.F, & .\.1\1. :\Ir. 
I>oan i
 a Methodist and a member of 
Sherhourne Street :\Iethodist ('hurch. 
:\Ir, Levi 1- Clark, Principal of the 
Cit) :\Iode! School (\Ïctoria Sueet), was 
horn in the Township of Hawkeshury, 
Ontario, in 1842. His ancestors were 
among
t the earliest settlers in the Ottawa 
\' alley, his great grandparents ha\ ing come 
from :\Iassachusetts in the latter part of 
the last rentury. Having decided to pre- 
pare him
elf for the teaching profession, 
:\Ir, Clark 
pent some time at a school ten 
miles north of Toronto under the tuition 
of hi.. hrother, the late .\. B. Clark. 
Ha\ing ohtained a first-class certificate 
from the County Hoard. he ht.'gan teaching 
in 1863 at ClO\er H ill. Simcoe County. 
'1\\0 year
 later, he callie to the County 
of \ orl., and in I Xi 4. ha\ ing ohtained a first-class provirwial certificate. he received an appointment in Toronto, where he ha" 

il1Lè remained. H i
 interbt in puhlic que
tions led :\If. Clarl. recently to prepare a valuahle paper on the disposal of Toronto'" 
"<'\\:lgc, \\ hirh :ll 1..,',1 d public .ltl<:nti')Jl ,lIld much f;j\{)ur,lblc ('ommull. He ha" also Icalousl) and inlelligent]y .1t!\"I)("ated 


I:!
 


EDCCATIOX IXD ITS PROFES.'WRS. 


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...... sanitary reform in the cit) in the public 
press. He is an acti\e member of the 
Canadian Institute, and St. .\ndrew's 
lodge, .\. F. "- .\,:\1. Although not taking 
a prominent part in politic5, he has been 
a life-long Reformer, and, like his parents 
hefore him, he is a member of the :\fetho- 
dist Church. 
:\Ir. John Campbell, Principal of 
Bolton ,\\'enue School, \\as born in the 
Count) of\'iCtori.l. Ont., .\pril 28th, 183-t, 
He graduated from the PrU\'inn.l1 Xonnal 
School. Toronto, as a teacher in 1860, 
taught for si'l. years in !\Iarl-ham and 
Yaughan, and two years in \\ eston. In 
1 Rli8 he came to Toronto, and \\as en- 
gaged as a teacher in the public schoob. 
For the last t\\ent)-t\\o years he has been 
in the emplo) ment of the Puhlic School 
Board, and is now the second oldest in 
the senice. :\Ir. Campbell was appointed 
to his present position in !\Ia\', 1886. He \\as \'ice-President of the Caledonian Society two vears, and i
 \'ice-President of 
Ihe (;aeIic Societ
. :\Ir. Campbell IS a memher of the Presbvterian Church and the :\Ia"onie fraternit). 
:\Ir. \\'m. John Hendr), Principal of the Jesse Ketchum School, \\as born in Toronto in 18-t5. and recei\ed his primar) 
education in the Common Sr'hool at :\Iimico, Cntil he "as eighteen, he engaged in farm "or1.. \\ hen he determiner! to enter the 
teaching profession, and with that end in \ ie\\ entered the Toronto X onnal School. from which he graduated in 1 XliX, the holder 
of a first-class certificate. In 1873. he \\as appointed Headmaster of the Yorl-.\ ille Public School. Here he \\as n
ry success- 
ful, for when the s
 stem of Count) :\Iodel Schools for the training of third-cia"" teachers was introduced, hi
 school \\as selected 
as the 'Iodd School for the Co. of York. This continued for five \"ears until \ orl-.\ ille was brought \\ ithin thl' Toronto School 
s\"tem, \\hen the \ill.1ge "as ahsorbed in the city, In 1886, :\Ir. Hendry "as chosen hv the Toronto Public School Board to 
ol}(ani7t
 the Industrial School at :\Iimico, and for two years he acted as Superintendent of that useful institution, until he 
recei\ed his pre"ent appointment as Headmaster of the Jesse Ketchum Public School, Toronto, :\Ir. Hendr) i
 Hon. Sec. of 
the lndu"trial School ,\ssociation, President of the Toronto, and Treasurer of the Ontario, Teachers' .\ssociation. In church 
\\ork he also takes a deep interest, and is an elder in the Charles Street PreslJ\ terian Church. 
:'Ilr. .\ndre\\ Hendry, Principal of {;i\ins Street Public School, was born "ithin the limit
 of the present City of Toronto, 
in the )ea.r 18-t7, of Scotch e'l.traction, He entered the roronto 
orn1.l1 School in 1866, after recel\'ing a good grounding in 
elementary education in one the Etobicoke Puhlic Schools. In the 
ormal Sc'hooi he \\on a second-class certificate, and 
subsequently a fì.rst-cla
s certificate, :\Ir. Hendry has taught in rur.ll, \ illage and 
cit} ..chools in the Counties of York and \\'en1\\orth, and in the City of Toronto. 
For the last fifteen )ears he has heen in 
the sen'ice of the roronto Puhlic School 
Board, ha\ ing had charge of some of the 
largest public "dlOOls in the city, 
Ir. 
Hendn' has heen Secretar)- I"reasurer of 
the Toronto Teacher's ,\:.sociation for 
several years past, and takes a "ann in- 
terest in e\'erything that pertains to educa- 
tion. He i5 a member of the Preshyteri.ln 
Church, and acti\'ely connected with one 
of the western congregations in the cit). 
::\Ir. Connor O'Dea, proprietor of 
the British .\merican Business College, 
wa" born at Kilru5h, Clare Co., Ireland, 
June 25, 18-t-t. Coming to this countr} 
at the age of eight with his parents, he 
resided in Holton \'illage, Card" ell 
County, until in 186-t he entered and 
graduated from the British .\merican BU'ii. 
nt'ss College in this cit). He W,I" then 


EDUCATION AND ITS PROFESSORS. 



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\IR. JOH'I. CA\lPBELL. 


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engagt.d hy the principal..., Messrs. :\[usgrO\'e 
 "'right, as teacher of penmanship, hook-keeping, and arithmetic. This positiun 
he held for fifteen \ cars, until he was appointed Secretary and :\lanager, \\ hich he held till] 885, \\ hen he hecame proprietor. 
I'hrough hi.. dfort
 a \\eaJ... and financially 
ill\o!\ed in
titution \\as huilt up to Wh.lt is 
nm\ one of the mo...t flourishing of its kind in 
Canada. :\Ir. ()"nea is the author of t\\O 
te'-t-hooks used e'-ten
in
l) in business col- 
lege.. throughout ('anada and the L'nitt.d 
:->tates "The Practical Book-keeper:' and 
the "l\l.ulUal of ('orrespondence:' The latter 
i,. in it!. tenth edition, and nearl) 20,000 
copie'i ha\ e been ..old since its first publica- 
tion in 1887. 
:\1 r. Thoma
 Ikngough, a \\ ell-knO\\ n 
journali
t ami npert stenographer, \\as horn 
in Toronto in 1851. He beg.U1 his career as 
a printer's apprentict' in the office of the 
"llItby Ga:;
lIe, and 
ub
equentl) in that of 
the Toronto Globe. :\leal1\\ hile he mastered 
shorthand. He \\as for some tunc on the 
staff of the (;udph JItrCllr)' and, later on, 
cit) editor of the Toronto Liberal; after this 
for a short time he filled the editorial chair 
of the \\ hitll\ Gasell
. His thorough know- 
ledge of !.horthand \\fiting. ho\\ e\ er, ga\ e 
:\Ir. Bengough opening
 other than those afforded hy journalism, pure and simple. He \\as for two years Pri\'ate Secretaf) to 
the Hon. Oli\er \IO\\al ; at one time also shorthand correspondent for :\Ir. \\'hite, nO\\ Traffic :\[.lIlager of the :\[idland Division 
of the (;rand Trunk Ry,; and he now holds the post of official shorthand reporter to the York County Courts, to which he was 
appointed !.e\'en years ago. :\Ir. Bengough, \\ ho, by the way. i!. 
a brother of the popular cartoonist of Grip, originated the Cana- 
dian Shorthand Society, and in ]885 was elected President of the 
International .\ssociation of Shorthand \\"rilers of the Cnitcd 
States and Canada. 
The Canadian College of Commerce, whose home is in the 
College .\rcade, on the corner of Y onge and (;errard Streets, is an 
institution for the business training of )oung men design cd for 
commercial walks of life. Its proprietors are 
Iessrs, Thoma
 
Hengough. Official Court Reporter, and \\'. .\. "-arriner, a trained 
and e'-penenced accountant. Both men are e'-perts in their sen'ral 
departments of phonography and penmanship, and are thoroughly 
versed in the practical work of a Business College. In these 
busy days, our chiefs of commerce arc too much occupied in 
their \'entures to have time for the training of "raw materÎ.ll ,. in 
their derkships. and the young man \\ho \\oulll set out fa\'ourably 
in life is more likely to he sucu:
sful if, before entering an offin:, 
he spent.l session or two in a Business College, The Canadi.\I1 
College of Commerce, of which :\Ir. \\"arriner is Principal, is just 
such an institution as a young man \\oul" find it adv.mtageolb to 
graduate in, for it is thoroughly well equipped, and is ('omluctcd 
h) men \\ ho have had a large and varied practil'al e'-pericncc. 
In the newl) c'itahlished Training Institute in Toronto fortcachcrs 
in-training for High Schools, the Minister of Education appointed 
:\[essrs. Bengough and Warriner to positions on the staff. 
The close of a chapter is not the most ad\antagcous 
place to discuss the subject of :\[anual Training. It is, howe\'Cf, 
a department of school work which we would like to see mure 
generally introduced into our Schools and Colleges in Ontario. 
Xot only is manual training in itself an e'-cellent diseipline, but a 
ration.L1 mean... of obtaining and tran!.miuing u...cful kl10\\ ledge. On this subjcct we recommend the readcr to peruse the 1.lle 
report to the :\Iini
ter of Education. on " I'he High Schools of the Ea!.tern States" (U.:-;.), by an nceedingly able and 
e'-perit.ncul High SchlJo) IIl
l'u tor, \Ir, John St.'.llh, B..\., Torontu. 


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\IF, Its. Tllv\lA' Ihr..<.ùU;1I A'" \\'. A, \\ARRI!'.FIt. 



ART AND JIUSIC. 


131 


C H .-\ P T E R X I X. 


,\RT .\Xl> :\IL"SIC 


\RT ,\S \'Er I'\" Irs I'\F\xc\' I:"J ('\,"\11\0 -.\ X\TI\E SCHOOL rHF l>FSWJ"R-\rU\J. -C-\,"UI/-\:"J SCB)ECTS .-\HOCXDo -\RT 
.\c-\lIE\lHS \XD LOC\L .\RT .\SSOCI \T10XS.- .\RT rR-\IXIX(; 1"1 THE SCHOOLS., :\11 SIC I:"J TOROXTo.- THE I'HILH \R- 
\lO'\IC ,\:o<.V CHOR \1. SOCIE /'11.:";. :\11 SIC \1. CO'\"(;RFSSES.- LOC.-\L I'ROVLC no:>. OF OR,\lORIO';.- THF COLI EI;E OF 
:\1l'SIC ,\:o<./J THE CO:\SER\ ,nOR\ OF )o1l'SIC. 


Ä 'T, lik
 ol
terat
re, is still in its Î1
f
ncy Î1
 Canada. U
r, arti!>ts, howe\er, have mad
 a, hegÎl
I
ing, 
nd no little of their 
\\ark IS credltahle to them, partIcularl) m the less amllltlouS field of water-colour pamtIng. I here IS, naturally as )et, a 
manife
1 lack of originality and of effort to found a clistincti\oely Canadian School of. \rt. \\"ork in oils is for the most 
part crude, and \\ here it has merit it too frequemly reminds one of Old \\'orld models. Our best nati\ e pictures indicate 
that hoth the eye and the hand of Canadian pamters have oeen trained in England or on the Continent, and though the) show 
culli\ated ta
te and more or less of painstaking effort, they lack originality of de
ign and that true art-power to grasp and necute 
a good nati\'e subject. In water-colours, 
Canadian artisls are not open so much to 
this charge; though e\en in this department 
Ihere is a tendency to draw inspiration, not 
from :'\ature, but from Old World models, 
and particularl) from the Impre"sionist 
School of France. This, perhaps, is a phase 
of art-life in Canada through \\ hich it has 
to pas" hefore it rises to the higher region of 
original and creath e work, Increased stud), 
less cOl1\'entional and more original treat, 
ment, and a greater determination to go 
directly to Xature for subjects for the brush 
and for the inspiration for their adequate 
c\ecution, \\ ill doubtless cause these defects 
in time to di
appear. . \ greater measure of 
competent art criticism will also be helpful 
in imprO\ing the work of our nati\e artists, 
\lith a more liberal encouragement of art b) 
the weIl,to-do classes in the country. \\ïth 
the \\ealth and \ariet) of natural beaut) in 
Canada, the pidure"queness of some aspects 
of its life, especially in French Canada and among the Indians and half-breeds on the great plains of the \\'est, there is no 
rt,\son \\ hy the work of our artists should he commonplace or lacking in originality and local colour. Hi!>torical subjects, 
particularly in the French régime, aoound, \\hich it can hardly be said ha\e a
 )el been touched. Incidents in the life of the 
senler and pioneer furnish many themes for treatment, while the woods and l\".tters of the country "upply unlimited material for 
the deft handling of the skilled artist. Canadian 
ports, and many of the outdoor indu"trið o;uch a
 lumhering, fishing, fi"h- 
dn ing and canning, -running rapids in a canoe, and numerous agricultural operations, lend themseh es to art treatment; 1\ hile 
art education is hecoming increasingly necessary in the more skilled artisan pursuits, in the factories and \\orkshops. 
[ ocal art associatIOns 111 some of the chief cities of the older ]'1'0\ inces have been in e"istenn: for a number of yc.1fS and 
ha\e done much to educate taste in the fine arb. The Ro)al Canadian .\c
den1\, founded at Ottawa, in Ið8o, by Lord Lome, 
ha also given a great impetus to ,\rt in Canada. In Toronto, pri\ate enterprise has supplied the ('it\ with an e"cellent C.lllery 
of, \ft, accessible and well-lighted. Here loan e"hibitions of paintings, engra\ ings, ceramics and other \\ orks of art, are period- 
ically held, besides the attractive e"hihitions of the permanent collectiono In the 1'1'0\ ince of Ontario, a local SOloiety of \rtists 
wa founded a number of veal's ago and has done much to educate the public taste and e\oke an interest in .\rt, which hitherto 
had nothing but the annual e"hibitions at the \gricultural Fairs upon \\ hich to feed. {'hough this Society has done much to 
rai"e the standard of e"cellence among local artists, and, in its art rooms and annual e"hihitions, to furnish the mea.ns of hring, 
ing art productions before the puhlic, the limited \\ealth of the community has failed to gi\c the Society that measure of support 
needful for its acti\e nuintenance. 
or has it heen ahle, with the aid of a small (;mernment grant, to keep out of deht. Its 
financial management of reloent years has also been unfortunate. For a numher of )ears the Ontario Society of .\rtists 
maintained for the use of its memhers and such pupib as h.ld a döire to stud} _\rt, c/.1sses for model and life dra\\ing and 


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THE COLI EGE OF MUSIC. 



13
 


ART AND JfUSIe, 


the training in some departments of industrial dm\\ ing. The"e classes ha\e now heen transferred to the Education ()rlice 
and pl.1ced under the control of the Prc)\'incial Educ.1tion I )epartment. Much more than this, we are sure, ho\\evcr, ' 1n 
he done in Toronto for ,\rt. 


rhe progres'i of the art of :\It "IC in Toronto during the IXbt 1\\ent) years has heen commensurate \\ith the material 
gro\\th of the cit) T\\en1\ ) ears ago, there \\as not a single ('horal or orchestral society in e'l.istenCl\ the Toronto \lu"iL,tl 
l'nion. formed h) \Ir. John (',uter, in 18(11-2, having died for want of support. One or t\\O performances of opera anù an 
occa"ional concert con,>titutcd the artistic educational amusement of the musical puhliC". Ho\\" great an achance has since heen 
nude may be hest appreciated by calling to mind that there are no\\ in acti\'e operation two associations for the production of 
oratorios and other \\orks requiring hOlh 
chorus and orchestra, The Philharmonic and 
Choral Societie..; ; two orchestr,ll socil'tie". the 
Toronto S) mphony Orchestra, and the I"or- 
rington Orchestra, and two societies for the 
practice of unaccompanied part-songs, the 
Toronto Yocal Society and the Haslam ,"oeal 
Society. There are now, 11I0reO\'er, thrl'l 
theatres and se\'eral puhlic halls, at \\hich 
musical entertainments are often gl\en. 
\\'hile in 1870 a production of opera was ,I 
rare occurrence. we find that during the 

a- 
sun 1889-90, no fewer than fifty-si'l. operati( 
performances were gi\ en, while the numher 
of different operas prL'sented \\ as t\\ ent)-si\. 
,\mong the lyric dramas put on the Toronto 
st.lge within the }I.1st fì\'e years there may hL 
mentioned as specially \\orthy of noh::. \ra.. 
ner's .. Flying I )utchman" and" I.ohengrin:' 
(;oldmar1.'s .. (Jueen of Sheh,I," :\Ie\erheer', 
.. I.es Huguenots." and Rossini's "\\ïlliam 
TdL" It must not he forgotten, too, that of 
late years few artists of renO\\ n \\ ho ha\e 
\isited the United States ha\e omitted tn 
appear in the city. Still another feature of 
recent years has been the foundation ami 
de\'elopment of two large teaching in"tilU 
tions, the ('onsef\'atory of ;\Iusic and the 
College of :\1 usie, conducted on the plan 
found so successful hy the :\Iusical Traininf 
Schools of Europe, 
The event \\ hich perhaps may hL 
considered the 11I0st conspicuous Iandm:1.f
 
on the w,ld of progre"s \\ a" the :\1 u"i('a 
Festi\'al of 188ó, under the direction of ì\lr 
F, H. Torrington. The forces placed undel 
the haton of the conductor consisted of . 
chorus of one thousand singers and al 
orchestra of one hundred memher". Till 
pnncipal \\"or1.s gi\'en were (;ounod's trilug\ 
";\Iors et \ïta," and Handel"s "brad ÎI 
I:g\ pt. The fe,>ti\al \\a., a !!feat success and hrought visitors to the cit) from all parts of the country. rhe date of the "eConc 
k ,>ti\al h:b not as yet heen ckcided upon, hut no douht \\ hen it takes place the result \\ ill show that Toronto has made anothL 
important "tride in the den:lopment of mu.,ic, 
Though hut a recent acquisition to Canada, \Ir. Hamilton :\lacCarthy ha" already h) the s1.ilful use of his chisel hrough 
crerlit to the land of his adoption and added man) heauties of art to our national treasures, Mr. Hamilton C. T. 1', 1\lac 
Carthy \\ as horn on J ul) 21:1th, 18
6, .1t H) de Park ('orner, London, England, He is grand-nephew of the late C1pt. Ed\\an 
:\Ia('('arth), of the 50th Regiment, \\ho sened \\ith distinction III the I'..ninsula wars. and is the son of an eminent Lnglisl 

("ulptor, \\ hose '>piriterl animal suhjccb are famous throughout Europe \1 r. \laeCarthy was educated in his father's studios ÎI 
I ollllon and Belgium. H is long eonne('tinn \\ ith the \olunteers in Engl.lI1d has gi\ en him .1 deL:Ìckd penchant for suhjects when 


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'pirikd action and strong emotion are required. The statue of the ].Ite Col. \\'illiam,
 at Port Hope i" a splendid e\ample of his 
,J..iI1. :\Ir. 
1.lcCarth\" has e\.ecuted busts of the Far! of Beaconsfield, I ord \\olsek
\, the Earl of Derby, the I)ukeof \rellin;!- 
ton, .\rchhishop T.lit, \Ir. (;oldwin Smith, Re\, Dr. R)ersnn, and others. In 
1888 he wa" elected an \cademician of the Rop] Canadian .\cademy of .\rts. 
He i" a member of the E\.ecutive Council of the Ontario Society of Artists, a 
Director of the Toronto .-\rl School, a memher of St, (;eorg-e"s Societ), and the 
Sons of England. 
:\Ir. Frederic Herbert Torrington is an Englishman and \\as born in I )udley, 
\\ orcestershire, October, 18 37, He commenced pIa}ing the \ioJìn at seven }ears 
of .lge. He then studied the instrument under COl\1petent ma"ters, and \\as after- 
wards articled for four year" to the organist of St. (;eorge\ and St. :\Iary's Churche", 
Kidderminster, officiating both as organi"t and trainer of the choir hoys. He was 
organist of St. .\nn's Church, BCl\dley, for tl\O )ears, fir
t \iolin Kidderminster 
Philharmonic Societ\., and solo \io]inist at the :\Iusic Hall concerts, In 18 5 8 . he 
left England for .\Iontreal, 1\ here for twelve \ ears he I\as organist of St. James' 
Street :\Iethodist Church. and there e"tahlished se\eral orchestral and mcal 
societies. He wa
 also organist of the Je"uits' Church at the e\ening serÙces, and 
professor of the \iolin at the Jesuits' College. In 1869. he was engaged by 
Ir. 
1'. S. Ci]more to form a Cmadian contingent of the great Orchestra for the first 
Peace Jubilee held in Boston : wa
 one of the solo organists \\ho ga\e recitals upon 
the grand organ in the Boston :\Iusic Hall, and also took part in the first concert. 
Shortly after the Jubilee, he accepted the position of organist of King's Chapel, 
Boston. which he held for four years, and then became one of the regular solo 
nrbanisb at the :\Iusic Hall, and at the Xel\ England Comervatory of Music, at which in
titution he was one of the professional 
,Iaft' of teachers. \\11ile in Boston. he was conductor of man) musical societies, and one of the first \ iolins of the Harvard 

\mphol1\ Orchestra, Handel and Ha)dn Societ) \ Feslival and Oratorio Concerts, and in the English, (;erman and Italian 
operas gÏ\en \\ith Parepa,Rosa, NiIlsson, Patti and others. He conducted the general rehearsals of the great chorus of the 
,econd Boston Jubilee in 1872. of which :\Ir. 1'. S. (;ilmore was again the musical director, fi\'e of 
Ir. Torrington'!:, societies 
taJ..ing- part in the immense chorus of 20,000 \ oices, he being one of the first 300 \'iolins at all the concerts. In [8ï 3, :\Ir. Tor- 
rington was induced to come to Toronto, being offered the positions of organist and director of the choir at the :\Ietropolitan 
rhurch, and of conductor of the Toronto Philharmonic Society, In both these positions he has laboured incessantly for the 
musical cause. -\t the 'Ietro\-Jo]itan Church he organÎ/ed and maintained a volunteer choir of from si\t) to eight} voices, in 
Ilhich a large numher of choir leaders, solo \'ocalists, and organists holding prominent positions in Canada ha\e heen trained. 
rhe standard of mu"ic set up h) :\Ir. Torrington has been that of the most eminent church composers, and the influence thus 
'\erted has been an important factor in 

stahlishing a correct taste for good church 
music in Toronto, The field of :\Ir. Tor- 
rington's labours outside his church work 
has heen largely in connection \\ ith the 
Philharmonic Society. through which 
medium. the standard oratorios, çantatas. 
"lÌsl'ellaneous \'ocal and instrumental 
"orks of the great composers have been 
,tudied and introduced to the Toronto 
puhIic. .\mong the most celebrated of 
hL.,e are "Elijah" (five times), "
Ies"iah" 
,i\ times}, ., Redemption"" (twice), and 
.. :\Ior!t et \'ita'" (;ounod; .. Rose of 
'iharon," :\Iackemie; ., Spectre's Uride,-' 
J h-orak : . (;olden 1 egend," Sullivan: 
.. ,\rminiu,,'" Bruch, and selections from 
r'Jr grand \\ agner operas, etc., etc. rhe 
result of 'Ir. Torrinj!:ton"s \\ork was 
lanifested at the Toronto ::\Iusical Festi- 
lal held in June. 1886, at the Caledonian 
Rink. Kut the least amongst :\Ir. Tor- 
rington's efforts ha\'e been the steps he 
I,,,,, taken to establish an effective local 
.rche"tra in Toronto. The results ha\e 
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ART AND JIUSIC 


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('onn:rh gi\l
n 11\ the Toronto S\ mphol1\ Orchestra, which de\ eloped later into the Torrington Orchestra, and the Toronto 
()rche
tral \s"oClation, which h.b hco'n gi\ ing a >.erics of concerh annu.ll1y for four !>e,lsons l),1st. Cnder :\Ir. Torrington man)" of 
tho
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icians .It all the "ocidy concert>.. where orchestr.ls 
.ue emplo\ed, h.ne 1ll','ome compelent to do "0 through the opportunities \\ hich 
ht: h.b pnn ided tlll."m. In 1 X88, \1 r. I"orrington founded the Toronto College of 
\1 u...ic. \\ hich ha" heen remar\..ahl) "lJ(Tessful; in 18yo. this institution hecame a 
chartered joint-stoc\.. ,omp.u1\. \\ith a capital of $50,000. :\Ir. (;eorge (;ooderham 
i
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ident. and \Ir. J. K. Kerr. (Joe.. and Profes,",or J. \\. Lol!tlon arc \ïn."- 
I're"ident
 of the College, \\ hich is no\\ .1I'fiIi.1ted \\ ith the t. ni\ ersit) of Toronto. 
\Ir. Torrington heing appointed its representatiH.> on the Sen.He 
I"he name of \1 r. Ed\\ard Fisher, \1 usical Director of the Toronto 
( 'on"en ,ltory uf :\1 usic, i<. f.ulliliarly \..no\\ n not onl) to the citi/ens of Toronto, I Jut 
to the mu"ical puhlic throughout Canada. \1 r. Fisher's early life \\as passed in the 
l"niteù State", Bo"ton, \lass.. ha\ing been his home for se\eral )ear!> prior to his 
\l'a\ing that c(luntn. In tl1.1t cit\ he recei\ed his musical education, mainl) at the 
Boston Consen'ator) of \1 usic ' here also he oCf'upied at different times sC\'eral 
important church pt",itions a" organist and practised his profession as teacher of 
the pi.lIwforte, In 1874 he \\ent to Berlin to "tudy under the famou!> master" 
H.1Upt and I oescharn. On his return to ,\merica he was offered the directorship 
of mu"ic at the ()tt.1wa I adies College. which posilion he .lccepted and filled 
"ucn ""full) for se\eral ye.lrs, In I8jy, he r
mo\ed to Toronto in order to accept 
the PGsition of organi"t and ('hoirmaster in St. ,\ndrew's ('hurch, which he still 
holds, Soon after ta\..ing up his resuh."n('e here, the Toronto Choral Society \\as 
org.1I1iæd \\ ith :\1 r. Fisher as ('onductor. The history of thi" Society under \1 r. 
Fisher's direction has been one of uninterrupted sucress, its acti\'e membership varying in different years from 15 0 to 
oc 
\oice". \mong the more notahle \\orks performed hy the So('ietv under his haton ma) he mentioned the follo\\ ing oratorios: 
"The Creation;' "The \Iessiah," "St. Paul;' .. Eli;' "Samson;' and .. brael in Egypt." .\ large numher of cantatas, orchestra 
\\or\..!> and part songs are also included in the reþertoire of the Societ). In 1886, J\1r. Fisher decided that the auspicious time hat 
.uri\ ed for c.ur) ing into C'l-ecution a plan \\ hich he had long cherished of establishing a COIhenatory of Music, where instructiOl 
should he gi\'Cll on linð similar to those adopted by the leading consenatories in Europe. \\"ith this ohject a committl 
con"j"ting of "ome of the leading citÎ/ens of Toronto \\as formed and proceeded .It on('e to get in('orporall'd under the title f' 
the I"oronto ('onsen.ltor) of :\Iusic, the capit.ll, \\hich was placed at $50,000, being at once largely suh"cribed for b) publir 
spirited citi/ens. I"he Hon. {;, \\'. .\11.111 \\as elected President, and :\11', Fisher, :\Iusical I )irector the other memhers of th. 
Board of Directors being as follows, \i/., Hon. Chanccllor Boyd and \\'. n. :\k:\lurrich, (.!.f'" Yice-Presidents; :\Ic,,
r, 
\, \1. Cosl)\, Honoran Trea"urer; :\Ir. Justice 
Iaclennan Elmes Henderson; Henry 1'c1I.lU: E. ,\. Scadding. II. .\ 
(fSuIli\.1B. D,<".I..: S, If, J:lne.,. \1..\.; and Dr. (;. Sterlin
 Ryerson, The staff of teachers is an exceptionaIl\ strong onc anI 
include" among its memhers somt' of the most distinguished musicialb in th 
I )ominion, I:\er since it" incorporation the ('onsen'atory has attracted a Jar
 
attendance of pupils. ahout 400 having heen tl1l' a\erap:e up to the pre,",ent timl 
\1 r. Fisher \\.\S the Ie.Hling spirit among the professional musicians in the }'r()\ il1l 
\\ ho in I ðð7 met togethl."r and org.mi/ed the ('.lIladi,lIl Society of :\Iusicians. lie 
no\\ Presidem of this Society, \\hich is the representati\e organi/ation of th 
profes...ion in Canaùa, He is al"o \ ice-President for Ontario of the 
Iusic Te.lchL 
:\.ltiOll.lI.\
sociation. the largest and mo"t influential hody of musicians in .\merit 
The name of \Ir, .I, \\'. F H.urison is insepar.lbl) connected \\ith the hi"101 
of musil." in c'mada. .\t the ("it) of Bristol, I:ngland. wherL he \\.IS horn. 
Ir. Barr 
son reccived his flr"t in.,truction in the pi.1Boforte from Signor Esam, a promine 
Spani"h teacher. ,\fter pursuing his studies in London he \\as gi\en in 1'.lris h 
fìnishin
 Ie-sons 1)\ Erne"t I.uhec\.., the gre.lt (;enn.1I1 pianist. ()n the organ, 
I 
H.lrri"on \\'.\S a pupil of :\Ir. \ ;eorge Risele). organist of Bristol Cathedral. .111 

uhse4uentl) studied 111 Xaples under \ïncen/O :\1.1,!:nett.l, in \\ hich l'Îtv he \\,1- I' 
a time choirma.,ter of the English Church, ,\s a director his first .lppc.lr.lnce \\ 
at the .,.
c of t\\ ent) \\ hen he prep.ued a chorus for the production of ":\Ic

iah 
IlL \\.b .Iften\ ard" engaged to conduct music in connection \\ ith the dr.un.I' 
re.,(ling" of :\Irs. Scott Siddolb, \Irs. Slirling. amI :\Ir. J. :\1. Hdle\\. In IXj2 :\1 
H:lrri
on LamL to Canada and \\.1" .lppointed orp:.1Ilist of 
t. (;eorgl."" ('hurr 
:\Iontreal. \\ hill.' there he produced for the fìr"t time in {'an.lda. :\lenddssohr 
".\ntigonL and "(Edipu,,:' Being offered the position of \Iusical lIirector of tl 
I .,eli, " ( '"Ik
e .lI1d org.1Ili"t ,It ('hrist ('hurch. ()tl.l\\a. he rel11O\ l'(1 to the cal'it,11 


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IR. ED\\" \RII FISHER. 



 


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'D7CJ, \\ here he 
H.lpli
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founded the Ott.HI.I Philharmonic SOf'iL't\, In, 886 \1 r. H.urison lIas appoinkd organist of Ian i., Street 
roronto. He surrendered thi" po"t to take charge of the choir of the nell church of St. Simon's, and has SJllI'l 
devoted himself to the imprO\ ement 
of the choral "en ice of that church, 
being a .lealous member of tht. 
('hurch of Engl.lIld. In 'DiY. \Ir. 
Harrison m.uried Miss S. Fr.lJ1ces 

 iley, of I"oronto, one of the 
de\ crest of our C.madian litcran 
\\ omen, and herself an accomplished 
musician and COmposer. l"his lad), 
it i" hard" necessar) to say. is \\ell- 
knOll n by her 110m de plume of 
"Seranus,-- as well as b) the pro- 
ductions of her pen, in pro"e and 
verse, under her married name, 
'Ir. Harrison is him
elf also a I'on- 
tributor to the n.ltive literature, 
chiefly on musi('al suhjects. 
:\Ir. H. (;uest Collins is a son 
of the late Re\. (). I.. Collins, renor 
in the \ illage of (>Ssett, in the \ \ est 
Riding of Yorkshire, England. His 
early education \Ias primarily under 
pri\ate tutors at home, . \t the age 
of nine, he commenced the study of 
music and de\doped an absorhing 
interc
t in the art. Fortunately for him, the family possessed an e'\cellent musical !ilJrar) , and of this the loung musician 
"lare the utmo"t po""il,le use. In 185Y. the famih mO\ed to \ork for the benefit of the (;r.:nnnar School, and here 
Ir. 
Collin.,' alread) highh'-de\ doped taste for music was culti\ ated and tra incd, S) mptoms of cataract. howe\'er, had begun to 
,holl thenbeln:s in the e) es, and in 186-J, the doctors ha\'ing forhidden reading and II riting. \Ir. Collins came to ('anad.1 :or the 
purpu of farming. settling in the 1'0\\ nship of \Iad, ham. He deri\ ed great hendì[ from the dim.ltt.' :JJ1d once more den>ted 
himself to music. For se\en )ears he ga\t' 
")"truction, after which he accepted the post 
of organisl in Christ ("hurch, I )eer Park, 
rorünto. In r 8i 2. he mO\ed to ,\11 Saints' 
('hurch and remained there fourteen years. 
\Ir. Gue,.\ Collins was on the first committee 
of the Philharmonic Societ), and has filled 
'If' posts of Honorar) Secretary and \ïce- 
I're-iùt:l1t of the Canadian Society of 
\Iuslcian,., 


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\Ir. J. Churchill -\rlidge, lanad.I's 
,It)pular flute \ irtuuso. W.I" born at Stratford- 
,>I ,\\on, I'ngland. :\Iareh r ith, rX
y, .\[ 
, '1 t..rh age he de\ doped a talent for mu"ic, 
,lI1d made his first puhlic appearance as a 
, ,Iv flauti"t at the Cr) stal I'.llace, I omlon. 
'-hen nine, e.us old. C nder such teachers 
h Benjamin \\ ells, \ntonio 'Iina"i, (;eorge 
Ru 1 II, and Sidney !'r.ltten, )oung .\rlidge 
m l'n:at progre"" , \t the age of si '\tcen 
II 'nt to Belgium. II here he remained !IIO 
IL under the tutelage of Svensden and 

L nmins. He subsel/uenth sludied music 
[II ars in Pari", . \fter his return to r ng- 
'lI1Ò he \\., .lssociated II ith man) of the he
t 
.Irti r" in I ondon, In ,1)7-J he made an 
rimcnt.ll trip to \lIlerica. remaining a 
Il r in the l'nilul SI.1ll'
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Engl.lntl, whl:rl: he rl:III.lined till 11>1>5. when he c.IIne to Toronto .lIld too\.. part in thl: mU
H'al 
H i
 wor\.. SiIlCl: then is \\ ell kncm n to all 1m l:r
 of music. :\1 r. . \rlidgl: is a ml:mhl:r of 
thl: teaching 
t:Jff of the ('ollege of ;\I usic, allli for the past three 
 e.us has h..en 
org.lIlist and choinn.I"ter of c.ulton Stred :\1 dhmlist Church. 
M 1', Clarence LUC.IS, of thl: Toronto College of :\1 usic, and son of thl: 
Rev. 1>. \, Lucas of this cit), \\.1S hl.rn at Smitl1\ ilk, ('ounty of Lincoln, Ontario, 
on the H)th of October, 1866, \\ hl:n a mere child he gave evidence of the 
po
session of musical taknt, and after some prdiminary instruction hl:, at the age 
of fifteen, studIl:d harmony under a distinguishl:d professor and also took Ic

ons 
on the piano unda the most prufll:il:nt maskrs. In 1 
I> 5, hl: Wl:nt to Europl: and 
stutliLd two years at the ., Conscrvatoire 1\ationak de l\Iusi4uc;" at l'.uis, .\bo at 
Roml:. FlorenCl.\ and I.ondon. Lpon his return to ('anada he joined the staff 
of the College of :\1 usic, Toronto, and was subsequently musical director at the 
\\ esleyan 1 adies' College, Hamilton, In Sqltember last (1890) he accepted a 
position at the Consenatory of :\Iusic, Ctica, 
, \, :\11'. l.ucas has written a 
numhl:r of musical ("om positions, some of them of a high order. In [888, )Ir. 
I ucas married :\Iiss Clara .\sher, a young and tall:ntl:d English lady, \\ ho in 
infancy was a musical prodigy. and \\as appointl:d pianist to the Prince of \rall" 
bdore entering hl:r teens, )1.1(lame I.ucas gives instruction on the piano tl 
alhanced pupils only, 
l'here is no more popular haritone and few more successful musical director, 
in Canada, than the leader of Sherhourne Strl:d :\Iethodist Church choir. Dorn a 
Xorthampton, England, in 1852, :\Ir. Fred, \\'arrington was ten years of age \\hel 
he came with his parents to Canada, .\fter residing a short timl: at ()uehec h, 
settkd in Toronto. In d,(1), whu1 a memher of the choir of the old .\delaitle Street :\Iethodist Church, young \rarrington' 
\oice heg.U1 to attract attention. ,\t the inception of the Philharmonic Societ), in 1872, he hecame a memher and took sol, 
parts in the first production of the" Creation" hy this Society. Lnder the instruction of :\Trs. (;rassick and :\11'. Torringtor 
I'onsiderahle ad\'ance \\as maùe and :\11'. Warrington's voice was further dl:\'doped by study \\ith the most eminl:nt teachl:rs 0 
Boston and Xe\\ York. .\fter being leader of the choir of Bloor Street :\Iethotlist Church for two years, ;\1 r. \rarrington aCl'cptcI 
thl: directorship of Elm Strl:d choir in 1880, \\ hich !-Ie soon matlL one of the hest in thl: city. Si"\ )TarS I.lter he remO\Td to 
Shl:rhourne Stred \Idhodist Church, the choir of which is now undl:r his leadership. :\Ir. \rarnngton has shown remarbhl 
\a"atilit
, heing almost equally at home in m.lssive oratorio, in h.lIl.1d, and in light opera. He has hel:n associated \\ith sue 
eminent artists as :\Irs. ,\. L Osgood, )Ii<;s .\gnes Huntingdon, :\Irs. Cald\\ell, :\Irs, (;ertrude Luther, !\ew YOI'\.. , \\. H 
('ourtenay, han 1\1 ora \\Sk I, :\Irs. \\, Winch, Boston, I). 1\1. Bahc()('k, Carl /ehran, Boston, and m.lIl)" others, whose inftuell" 
in music is an inspir.ltion. 
\1 iss Sarah :\Iaud \Iary Harris, one of Toronto's most e"\pert pianists, was 
horn in the" ()ueen City," .\ugust 1 st, 1 86-t. .\t an early age, she began the study 
of the pianoforte, though her tuition \\as unavoidahl) inkrrupted until a later period 
when it was resumed a!'li\ eh' under 
noted masters in Fr.mce and England. 
In her se\enteenth year she went to 
(;ermany, where she studied undcr 
Professor Oscar Paul, of I eipsic, and 
1)1'. Theodor Kullak, of Berlin, recei\- 
ing much encouragement under these 
eminent profcssors. Subsequently, 
1\1 iss Harris pursued her studies in 
Hoston, under the late Dr. louis :\laas, 
and in New \ ork, under \Ir. Sehastian 
1\.1<"h :\lills. From the tuition of these 
masters she rl:I'Ci\"ed much bencfit, 
and for the last three years she h,IS 
heen teaching her art succcssfully in 
Toronto. In 1H83, :\Iiss Harris \\".1" 
for a time I'ianiste to the Toronto 
('hor.I1 Socidy, .1I1d sinp' then h.ls 
gi\en e\ iùence of enhanced music.II 
talent. 1\1 iss Harris is a member of 
the '\e\\ Jerusalem Church. 


1:\1. 


in C.II1.III.I. He .Ig.lin returned to 
Il'sti\al helll in Ihl: following \ e.lr. 


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:\Ii,.,,., Emma 
t.wton :'Ildlish. :'Ilu,.,. !J.w,. /'rillit} l'lliH
r,.,itr, ,Im.l teacher o! lI.trlllon} .It Ihe ('orontl) ('onsen,ltor} of 
.\Iu,.,i(" ,.,ince that institution I\,IS founded, is one of the" Swed girl graduate,., ,. of wholll. or ratha of the t
 pc of which. the 
Poe! I aure,He "pt.'aks. If our (',wadi.1Il Gni\<:rsilies ,ne to open their door<; for 
the higher education of \\omen, no one will say them na\ \\hen the field of their 
,.,tmh is the e,.,,.,enti.llI
 feminine one of music. :\[iss :\lelli,.,h is .1 music.d graduate 
f IXS6) of our c'lIladi,lI1 Trinity. ,lI1d W.IS one of the first ladie
 in Canada upon \\ hOIll 
the degree of Ibchelor of :\Iu,.,ic \\as conferred. She \\a,., for some time a pupil of 
'Ir. .\rlhur E. Fisher, of Toronto. and is accomplished in her ,ut. On the, 2th 

o\'emher. ,1\9 0 , :\liss :\Idli,.,h. \\ ho is a dau!;hter of the Re\. Rural I Jean .\Ielli,.,h, 
of Caledonia, married \Ir. .\. :\1. I >
 monti, I ,,1\\-Secret,ny in the office of the Hon, 
the, \ttorney-{ ;eneral of the I'ro\'Înce, 
,\mong the resident professional musician,., of Toronto, there are perhaps 
fe\\ \\ ho haw t,lken a more acti\'e part in its mu,.,ic.11 life during the past twenty- 
Ii\<' years than :'I Irs. S. R. Bradle\. Her early studies in smgin!; and pianoforte 
p\a
ing were directed hy .\Ir. \ ,Ill Koerher. of POr! Hope, Suhsequentl} .\lrs. 
Bradle
 recei\"ed instruction from :\Ir. John ('.Irter and :\Irs. Grassick. Her \'oice 
j" ,1 hrilli.lI1t soprano and ib striking l)11.llities, f'omhined \\ ith an attr.lCti\"e sl\'le, 
ha\"t. won for her gener.ll f.1\ our. , \t the agt.' of se\"enteen she was entrusted \\ ith 
one of the principal solos at ,I puhlic performance of .. The .\lessi.1h" in Toronto. 
Since that time she has taken a prominent part in mOst of the gre.lt musical e\"t.'nts 
associated wIth the city, :\Irs. Bradle
 
has heen for se\ en ye,u,., direl'tress of 
the choir of Bcrkele\' Street \Iethodist 
{'hurch. She has charge of the \"()(".ll 
department of the Whithy ladies' {'ol- 
lege. and is instructor in \oÌl'e culture at St. Joseph"" ('OI1\'ent. .\Ir,." Bradle\'s 
leper/oirt' e'l-tends mer a wide range of music. hoth operatic and saned, 
\Iiss I.i//ie Higgins, an accomplished pianist. is a nati\e Canadian. She 
,.,tudied musÌl' in this country \\ ith the hest a\'ailahle master,.,. and finished her 
professional education at the Ro\"al {'onser\'atory of :\Iusic, I.eipsic, Cerm,lIl}, 
where she \\",IS a pupil of Zwintscher, ZeichmÜller. I >rs, Paul ,lIld (Juasrlorf. \fter 
her return to Toronto, :\Iiss Higgins was attached to the College of .\Iusic as a 
teacher of the l)ianoforte, In' 889. upon her m,lrri,lge with :'Ilr, (;eorge \Ie Pherson, 
of Hamilton, she hecame a resident of .\[ontre,11. 
:\Ir. \ïncent Perry Hunt was horn at \\ hith}, Ont.. .\ugust 121h. 1851). ,\t 
the age of seventeen he decided to adopt mu,.,i{, as his profe......ion. and ardently 
set out to equip himself f(Ir his life-\\orJ.... .\fter ,.,i\ }e,lrS' ,.,tud
 he \\en! to 
(;ermal1\' in ,881. and entered the 
Royal {'on"en'atory .It I.eipsic under 
the tuition of "uch distinguishl:d 
ma,.,tl:rs a,., Ilr. Carl Reinecke. llruno 
/.\\ inhcher. Prof. I >r. Pappt.'rit/, and 
Jad,l"sohn. Recei\"ing the I >irectori,11 Iliploma in I SHS. he returned to Canada in 
the 
ame year and hecame a resident of /'oronto, \Ir. Hunt ha<; hel:n connected 
\\ith the Toronto {'onsenator
 of .\Iusic since its ilwl:ption. He has heen Director 
of :\Iusi,' in I >emill I .Idies' Colk..:e. Osha\\a. for the ]'a,.,t tì\e years. .h is re!"Orded 
on his Directorial Diploma. .. \1 r. Hunt possesse,., a \er} finl: and correct necution, 
comhined \\ilh an intelligent {'(IIl('CptJOn, and rdined musical abilit}." His r.1pid 
SU'"l'e", as .1 1l:acher in Toronto spe,lks well for his future prosPl:cts. :\Ir. Hunt i,., a 
.\Icthodist anrl the son of a .\ldhodisl minister. 
rhl: lcadl:r of the dlOir of Ihe Central Preshy1l:rian ('hun'h. 1\Ir. .\le\aIHler 
T. C'ringan. \\,IS horn at ('arluke, I anarkshire. Scotland. Octo her '3th. ,H6o. 
Rn,ei\ ing his earl} training at the local Crammar School. he got his musical 
education at the Toni" Sol F,I College. London, Eng., \I here he took the s)lecial 
subjt.Cb of harmony and \'oi{"e training and the art of teachin!; music. :\Ir. 
Cring-an is a graduate and licentiate of the Tonic Sol Fa College, h:ning the 
degre of (;. I.. T.:'. C. In 1887 he \\as appoinlt'd Superintendent of \Iusic for 
the Toronto Puhlic Schools. He \\as conductor of the Tonic Sol Fa Socid
 
during ,886-7, Sinn ,887 he has heen identified \\ ith the Scotti,.,h Sdect ('hoir 
and the 
ummer Schoo) of \Iusi,' of thl: \mt.ric,\1l '0..,,1 :\rusic \sso,Ütion, :\rr. (',ing,1I1 i... the author of Iht.' Can,Hli.1I1 


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\Iu"ic ('OUN .\I1d I'e.wlll."r.., 1l.lllllhoo\.., I It conducteù \\ ith m.u\..ell .Ihilit\ Ihe ..,chool c'hi!dren \. ('Ollcert III the 1'.1\ ilion 
\Iu"ic \1:111. \1:1rch 21"t. IRc)o, :1nd the Cuni\:11 Concert in the Cr\"st:11 
1'.ll.ll L in the "lmL ",.u. Since I 

ï he h,b heen choirm.l"ter at the ("entral 
l'rL ..,1" teri.ln ("hun-h, 
\Ir. III rhert J.. l1ar\..e. I'ornd ..;oloist. i" a son of :\Ir. \\ m. Horatio 
Clar\.. formerh' !'rg.1I1Ist of I'Ini..; :-\treel ]:,Ipti!.t Church. He wa
 horn :1t 
, Boston. \Iass" Septemher 12th, 
1Xh7. Ha\Îng decideù musical 
t.1'ites, he took up the stud) of 
the c'orne! in I XX T, and hecoming 
an efficient performer on it, he 
trm elled considerahl) through 
the l' niled St:1tes :1nd (':1n:111a 
gi\ ing solo perform:1I1ces, In 
] 
86, he \\ on the championship 
of Indi:1na :1S a cornet soloi"t, 
and in the following summer was 
engaged as a performer on his 
fa\ourite instrument at Charlotte, 
Rochester\ summer resort. In 
T X8 7, he settled in Toronto 3nù 
Ius been a memher ofthL (Jueell's 
(hnl Ban(l,and aL"ornd "pecÎali"t. 
:\ 1 r. ( 'larke, who is no\\ leader of 
Heintnl1an's B:1nd, is also an 
:1rr:1nger 
)f l11usic for nrche"tra 
.1\1d milit:1r) h:1nds. !\h. II FRBERT L. CI AH.F.. 
\1 r, ['erc) \. (;reenwo(l(1 i..,.1 n.lti\'e of H,lhtead, Esse', Engl.1I1d. He was edl[l'.Hed at the (;r.ll11m:1r Schoul of hi, 
11.1li\ e to\\ n, .tIld .Icquirul .1 thorough knl)\dedge of music hefore coming 10 Canada, .1 young 111,1\1 of tWl'lIt), in 1 XX3. "';horth 
.Itter t:1\..ing up hi" rL,,,idencL in thi" Pre 1\ incL. he acceptcd the position of organist in the .\nglic.ln ChurC'h at 1'.lris (lilt.. \\hich 
he tilled a("("ept.lhl) for" >ll1e tink, ,\fter his re111O\'.11 to Toronto. he \\.IS organist of ,\11 Saint,;' Church, and a l11emher of the 
te.lching ...t.lff of the College of \1 u..;ic. 1 n 1881), he surrendered hoth of his positions in Toronlo, in order to accept th.11 of 
org.uTi..,t in the Church of St. John the E\'.lngeli"t, :1t Boston. I\I.1Ss" \\here he rem.lined onL' year. rel11O\ing thenCl' bst f.11I 10 
Houghton. \Iich., \\ here he now pre"ides:1t the organ in the EpisC'op:11 ('hurch in th.lt placc. 
.\Ir. (;. ,\rthur Ilepew \\.I!. horn at Clinton, J uh' 2
th, 18CJI), :1nù :1t the 
of four e,hihited music:11 t:1lents. He 
cOI11I11Lnn:d 'itu(h ing the pi:1no .It si" 
3nd \\hen onl) nine )ears old \\:1!. 
org.1I1ist of 1'.lr\.. Stred \Iethodist 
('hurch SUIllIa\" School, ('h:1th:1l11. 
('ol11ing to this city at the :1ge of 
thirteen, he W:1S pl.lccd under the 
tuition of :\Ir. ,\rthur E. Fisher, :1nd 
l11:1de good progress with the piano, 
the \ iolin, the org:1n, and the study of 
harmony .\t the :1ge of fourteen he 
pre"ided at the urg:111 of Sherhourne 
Street I\lethodist Church two 1110nth", 
.1\1d frol11 that tllne has supplied l11:1n)" 
of the I'oronto churches. \\"hen hut 


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se\enteen he wa" :1ppojnted organist of 
Old St. .\mlre\\ 's, which position he 
no\\ hold". For the last three )e.lrs 
he ha!. heen .onductor of the 
('haut:1uqua (Irche"tr:1, at 
ï:1gar:1, 
\\fiting .md arranging m.my songs .1I1d 
chom.... ,. :\Ir. Ilepe\\ h:1S already 
1'.1' e(1 t\\O e,.unination" for the degree 
f)f \1 u"ic.tI Bachelor, .It Trinit\ C ni\ er- 
I h 1- ,illl'"\./'diellt 3("("ol11panist, and h.I" the pro"pL'ch of.1 hrilli.lI1t future in Ihe l11usical \\orld. 


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139 


\Ir. :-;amud Richardson. \1 ho i
 kno\\ n to the mu
ical \\orld a... Sims Riclunb. \\;.,., born in London, Eng1.lnd, \I.I} 
,S-li. ,\,., a child he had a tine I uin:, .md at the age of eight \\a
.1 paid chori...ter in St. Stephen's Church, \\'e,.,tmin
ter. 
nine till de\'en } ear,., uf age he led the 
inging of 1,1)00 children in the Sunda} 
:'1"11001 of the I :ccle,.,tun Squ.ue Congregational Church. . \t the age of t\\ eh L his 
\ oice \\a,.,.dlowed a long rest and suh,.,equemh' it de\eloped into a fine tenor. ('oming 
to ('anaci,l in ,X6q, he settled in \1 uskoka, taking charge of the choir of St. Thoma,.,' 
Church. Br.lcehridge. He suhs
quently remo\ cd to Ros
eau, \\ here he had charge 
of a choir for se\ en \ cars. Returning to l:ngland to ha\ chis \ oice trained, he 
receinxl in...truction from :\Jr. (,harlc,., L I.inne\. ('horal \ icar of:-;t. Pau]"" ('athedraL 
He then came back to ('anada and made a successful tour \\ ith a Concert ('ompan), 
,Ifter \lhich he \lent to "ew York for further studIo. "'hile there he accepted a 
I'o"ition in Rc\" Hem\' Ward Bcecher'" ('hurch. \\ hich he hdd t\\ 0 years. and abo 
-ang in I"ahnage"" Tabenucle. a,., \\ell as at ,.,e\eral conccrts, In ,RXz, he settled 
in roronto. making hi... fir,.,t appearance under the auspices of the Philharmonic 

ociet\", Hi,., succe,.,ses in thi,., cit\ are \\ ell-knOll n. and he ne\ er fails to please his 
,mdienn:s. \Ir. Richard,., is a memher of the Church of England, and a strong 
temperance man. He \Ias sergeant-major and drill instructor in the ,")rd :\Iiddle,.,e" 
\rtillen, I.ondon, and onc of thc hest ...\\ ordsmen and rifle shots in the regiment. He 
is a memher of \loric lodge, ,\.\-" 
 .\,\1, 
:\Ir. Richard... is solo tenor at ('.ulton Street 
:\Icthodist Church. He is much sought after 
for concerh as a \'ocalist, and has upon man\' 
OlTlsions e"hihited a marked talent as a 
rcader. 


2"
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\fR, Sl\b RICII-\RIJ" 


\I r. Ed\\ in . hhdo\\ n. IlUhic publisher, \Ias born in london. Engl.lIld. \lcn."mber 
2nd, II:L!(Í, In IX-1-S he entered into partnership \\ith :\Ir. P.ur) and embarked in the 
mu,.,ic publi,.,hing tr.Hlc under the firm of ,\"'hdo\\n ,'I( Parn. In IX60 he 
u('("eeded to the 
husine...... of \\ ersd ,\. Co., est.lblished II:> 10. The ,.,ole bl",ine,.,s has since 11:>8-1- heen 
carried on b) :'olr. ,\"'hdown, rhe puhl:c.ltions of the fÌrl'l consist of music of e\ery 
de...niption .1Ild indude man\' Luge. important \\ orks. :\1 r. ,\shdO\\ n \"isited ('.mada ...ome 
} car" ago and estahlished a hou...e here. 
ince \\ hieh timl." hi... public.uions h;1\ (' continuall\" 
gained in faHJlJr, H l' is po...sibl) Ihe large"t I:nglish mu"ic publi...hl."r and diref.ts special 
attl."ntion to music of the I."duc.ltional 
d.hS. He has connt."l"tion" in all p.Uh of 
the \\orld. more particul.ul} in Cm.ul.l, 
, \u"tralia. \ e\\ / eal.md. r.1,.,mani.l, tIll." 
C nited St.lte,.,. I ndi.l. and :-;uuth . \frica. 
ror ,.,oml." } ears hL ha 
 bel."n represented 
in Toronto by his ...on, \lr, S,Hlne\' ,\shdO\ln, \\ho i,., abu :\Ianager of the \nglo- 
('anadi.1Il \Iusic I'uhli"her,., .\ssof.j.ltion (I imiteJ), 
Profl."ssor 1. F. I>a\'is lIas born at Oak \ illl.", in the \ car 1835. \fter 
Ita\ ing rl."ceived a liheral education hI." rl."mo\"ed to Toronto, in [X 55, since which 
time his name h.lS become f.'1mous in connection \\ ith the art of dancing. 
I'rofèS
or I >a\'is is the author of .. rhe \Iof\ern I >anct' Tutor,'- \\ hich has had a 
brge circulation. H I." is the origll1awr of a number of popular danct'
, including 
[he J er"e} Ripple, I e Bronco, I:ureka, (;a\ ottt.' I ancer
 and others. He has 
in\ented a method h) \\ hir-h the acquisition of new dances i
 greath simplified. 
I'rofe,.,,.,or I >.1\'is is a Il1l."mber of the Xational .\ssociation of Teachers of J>.Ulcing 
"f the Cnited States and Canada. The fancy dances composed b} him for tlw 
recent kermL""''''cs recci\'ed \ I."n fa\ ourable comment. I nstruction in instrumental 
mu
ic and calisthenics. as \\ell as dancll1g. is gi\en 1)\" Professor I>a\ is, at hi,., 
re,.,idl."nce. on \\ïlton .\venul.", 
\\ïth all that has been ,.,aid of musk and mu,.,ician
, the confe"sion. \\e 
fl."ar. must be made th.lt Toronto i,., not di,.,tincti\e!ya music.ll cit\, rhe nus,.,,,,,, 
perhaps are more fond of sport. Yet Toronto po,.,sesses t\\ a good militan' hands and ,.,llll1t. e",'dlent I11t",ical cOluluctors, \\ ith 
more than a\'erage material for park and isl.lI1d instrumental conl."ert.... FI."\\ out-door I."llIertainmenh for the people are morl." 
\Iorthyof encouragement than thl."se "umml."r hand-('oncl."rt
 on tht. i,.,land and in the cit) p.uks. In attr.lcting thl." m.1Ss'-'s tn 
them, thl."} not onl) afford innocent delights. but art. potent cOllntl."r-altr.\I"tiulb tu the st.'llS.ltiol1.11 drama and the s.l1oon. 


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J'lIE CIn 'S EO II E.'>: TI/O....E 11'110 OT1T FL.L\
 .1XD HCIl D THE II. 


CII \PTER ::-"'X. 


1'111: t'11T'S II():\IES: nH)
E \\ Hu (I\\
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I> BlïLl) I'HE:\1. 


I'HI' ('11'1/1"\ 1101,... "\01' RI \11\ h."\O\1 H.... ('II\. To\{o'\"ro's \01 :\(; \\'()\IA"\HllOD \(PRE F\\IIII.\R IIII'll Irs I'RO\II-:\\I'I' 
I H \"\ \111"11 Irs E"\\lRo:'h. \ "'I ("(IRS I'R \lSF";. CII'ILF:\SIIlI':'\O LON(;ER ,\ SOl'l\" BO:\II, Till' XF\I'ER ({"'I- 
III "n \I S mFF rs Fs 1'111- nl' \II \ (\)"\"IIIERFIl. b rHE ({F\'(\ \1. OF 01 II EN' ;USH .\ Rl'HllTl' ITRF SI I rED ro 01 R 
('II\( III? THI' HO\II' Ot T\sn \I \1 \\s rHF HO\IE OF Sl\ll'lIl'lTY. ({E:>IrS, \;'0;11 THF L.\:"(1I10RII ,\NII Tr1\\I\1 
(Jl 1'''; 1'10"\, rHI 
t rn I R'''; 1,0(;- HUCSE .\:\1' rHF. ('I nZFN's :\1 \NsIOl>. .\IISF;'o;CF OF HISTORIC, 1.1 rFR \R\ ,I>IJ 
Son\l ''iITRF''ir I" T()I{():\ro's 110\11-". SCIII'RI:\'\" \ III.\s ,\1\"D rHEIR OCT-OF,TO\II> SirEs. .\ :\IFrROI'OIlT\\ 
Honl. 


C ) ({ I) \1,\ (' ,\ l' I. ,\ Y had the reputation of ha\'ing \\alked through eyery street in london. Though only a mini,ltur
 
cop\' of the great metropolis, we douht if it can he said that an\' citi/en has \\alked through eyer) street in Toronto. 
To e\l:n the oldest resident such a peramhul.ltion would he a surprise and delight. Of those who liYe in the cit\'. 
few rea1l1 kno\\ it. H ow often do we OIl e to the \ isitor a knowledge of places in Toronto of which we had nt'\er 
klll)\\ n, ,\I1d an ,1C'Iu,lintance with streds of \1 hich \\e had neYer heard. Yet we think we liye with our eyes open, and inculcate 
in our children the h.lhit of o(,sen'ing things. \1 hich hrings \\ ith it plea-;ure as well as instruction, rhe truth is few of us 
.1S...iduously ,ulti\ .lk the hahit, and we miss much. e\ en in our own town, that would at least add to our store of reminiscence 
In the ne\\er p.uts, particularly, of Toronto, there .ne humes so (,e.lIltiful that if we had seen them ahroad we would haye comc 
h.lck amI r.ned ahout them. \\ ith e\'t,'n the e"istence of the stred" or a\t:nues on which they are 
ituate we hayc heen 
ignorant. For all that we knew, the streets 
,lIld the homes, and those who Jiye in them. 
might hayc heen part of another cÏt\'. \\ t 
are all, more or less, creatures of hahit. and 
as a rule we are singularly local in our 
en\'Íronment. The husiness man knows 
little of the town hut his own hahitat and 
the route which he daily trayerses het\leen 
his home and his office. EYen to the young 
womanhood of the household, much of 
Toronto, though it is their place of hirth, 
is an unknown city: they are commonly 
more familiar with its puhlic promenade' 
than with its deserted ell\'irons. 1'0 a 
chance drive, or a rare stray walk, are the) 
indehted for revealing a Toronto of \Ihich 
they haye not even dreamed. 
But we he
r it asked, .. \\'here is th" 
Turonto of which its citiæns kno\\ little, and 
in what con"ists its heauty?" It lies all 
ahout east, north, and west amI yaried 
are the elements in the compositiun of the 
picture. The modern homes of Toronto 
.lrL. for the 1I10st part. to he found \\est of Trinity üni\ersity, east of the I jon, anù north of College and C,ulton Slreet... 
1'0 t.lh a dri\e throu!!h e:H'h of the"e fa"t'growing section
 of the city is, socially and artistically, to unlock the door on a 
multitmk of ple.,,,ing perceptions. To the 10\ er of his kind, not the least of the pleasure will he deri\'ed from nl.lking 
.Kl(uaint.lI1C1 \\ ith the cit)' doml.'slic shrines .lI1d the hum,\I1 associations that attach to them. To knol\' the city is to knm\ 
the people, .111<1 \ery hunl.lni/ing and tending to patriotism is it to know anù come into cont.lct \\ ith one's ol\'n to\\ nsmen, [n 
t
i
 
n(
dern age. cities ,ue mort and more losing their old character, and citi/enship is no longer a bond. \\'hat is true of the 
f'lt\ I
 111 part true of the nation, and hence the deca\", or the arrested grfJ\\th, of national sentiment. If we do not knOll our 
fcllo\\'cili/en
 ho\\ shall \\e kno\1 our comp,ltriots? I.et us return, then to the old social wa)s and make real the tie of 
citi/en"hip, ' 
hid
 from the pre\,uling i...ol.ltion and the ahsence of anything like fellowship, the aspects of city life, in its dOll1eSliC 
pha . are 111 the pn ,ent da) \ery gratif\ ing. In the ne\\er residential streets of Toronto, not only is there the nl.lnife"latioll 
of gre.ller plent?, (,ut an el(u.\II) m.lI1ifest pro\ i-;ion for the ,omfort and health of the people. Estheticall), there is also a 
\\lJl1llcrful...hO\\II1" \ new('r ll ' n h . 1 ' 1 -" h I I I I ' , c I 
-. ous!:- >lI1 lllllg as ( ,HI ne( all( stred-arc lllecture IS no longer commonplace and leature ,'ss, 


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THE ClT}"'S lfO JfT.S: TffOSE 11 NO OlVN, ['f. 1.\, A YD RCll D THE.1f. 


\\ e .ue Iwt 
ure that the re\'i\'al in our midst of ()Id Engli
h st} les of architecture \\ i11 pro\ e suitahle to the dim.lte, or that 
pinnacle" and 
ahles .1I1d f..1I1ciful e"krior decoration wi11 t.lke well with the 
now, But the picturesque dfe..ts .1fe undoubted, 
.wd \ariet\ is pleasing. though "implicit) is not to be llenied its ,'hartn. True, sho\\ iness is not alwa\ s comfort, nor is a fine 
house with lu"urious "urroundings always to he preferred to one of le,,
 pretensions. \\ hose sanitar) credentials arc perfect, allli 
\\ hl're the mi"tre"" is not "uciet\ 's sl.1\ e .lIld a hondwoman in her 0\\ n home. N othing I
 more ignoble a
 \\ ell as pernicious 
in ils e".lIllple. th 111 the spirit which prompts \\ ealth to A.HlIlt itself. Simplicity and refinement arc not t) rants ; ostentatiou
 
di"pl.1\ and JI..Irade for F.lshion"s sake, are. "'e som.:times nuke for ourseh'e
 str.mge goJs; in the hOlne, societ) and its 
claims oC<'.lSionall) be('(lIlle a Fetich. 
The home of t.l
te is alw.lYs the home of simplicit), even though it be th.lt of \\ ealth and gentility. House-huilders and 
reakstate men arc not alw.lYs impressed \\ ith the truism; though in the residential streds of mlXlern Torontl' it is rare to meet 
\\ ith any gross \'iolations of the canons of tasteful house construction, or with anything that otherwise offends, The art taste 
is e"cellent in the ard1itectural designs of the t'ity's modern homes, and there is. hesides, a plea
ing variety. It nl.l\" he a 
question \\hether we arc not huilding beyond the wants as well as beyond the wealth of the cit). The Ill111lher of e"pensi\e 
houses ma\" he greater than the means of the people justify. It is said that it is difficult tv get a new house, Jllodern]y de
igned, 
at a modest rent.ll. It is perilous fqr landlord '1<; we11 a
 tenant to make house-rent too dear. The cost of living is currently 
increasing in the city, and, if it continue" to rise, people \\ ith limited income
 \\ ill be deterred from coming, or if the} ha\"e 
already come, the) \\ ill make haste to he gone. 
In Toronto, We have gone a long way in hou"e aCI'ommod.ltion from the log-house of the early settler. Taking" Russell 
,\hbe) .. as a t) pe of the home of opulence at the beginning of the century, We ha\'e also \ astly imprO\ ed upon that. Our hOlllCS, 
howC\er. have not the literar) and 
ocial 
interest \I hich helong tv those in Old ""orld 
communities. E\ en the oldest city homes, 
compared with the historic mansions of the 

1otherland, are but of yesterda). You can 
count upon the fingers of one hand those 
that to-day have any pretensions to antiquity, 
Had primogeniture and entail heen allowed 
to take root in the early da) s of the I'rO\'ince, 
it would have heen difficult to have handed 
do\\n the family roof. Hitherto, it has not 
been the rule to huild for posterit), E\ en 
had this heen otherwise, fire and f.tmil) 
\icissitude would have made sad ha\ol' of 
hereditary designs, .\11 we ha\'e, therefore. 
to cherish is the family pedigree,tbt.f, in some 
fortunate instances, the family portraits and 
the remains of the famil) plate. But the 
modern citi/en has another and a suhstantial 
grie\ance. The fir"t "ettler
 owned the houses 
they li\ed in : tho
e of to-day, as a rule, do 
not. In old times, it was the eweption to 
rent a house; now.ldays, it is the e"ception 
for the tenant to 0\\ n a house. I >cspite this, 
the number and beauty of the city's homes 
is the \'isitor's constant theme of praise, In 
the newer strccts, in the residential part of 
the town, the villas and their surroundings 
are an ever-recurring picture, Uur pages give many e"amples at once of the architect\ and the owner's taste. 
or are these 
('onfined to any sing-Ie section of the city, The) are to be found in all directions, gi\ ing character to and adorning the streds. 
"ïth the gro\\ th of wealth will come the country residence, \\ithin measureable distance of the town. .\lready, opulence is 
building homes for itself in the outskirts, and e\'en going sevcral miles drive from the cit), East and west, on the lake-front, arc 
man\' picturesque sites for a suhurhan villa, as well as north, along the ridge o\'erlooking the I>a\enport Road, and on 
commanding elevations on the Upper I )on and the Humber. As the city continue" to grcl\\, the real estate agent may be trusted 
to find these eligible spots out, and in time to bring them into the market. In hotels, we ha\T as )et nothing \err elaborate to 
boast of, though whcn the Ro"sin Hou
e was built it was deemed, no douht, a considerable enterprise, Some da), presumahly 
not far di
tant, Toronto will erect a ho
telrr in keeping \\ ith its W.lIlts and its metropolitan character. 


1-11 


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"THE EI.\IS," RESIL)E!\CE 0.... 
I R. L. A. :\IORRISO:\, llF\ f- RI EY Sr. 


The condition
 of life in a new country, with dcmol"fatic a
cendancy, are unf..nourahle to any hard and fast line of class- 
distinction and to the organi.wtion of duhs with any pretension tv e\clusi\eness. The trades and the professions mingle 
together, the differentiation, \\ here it occurs, not being hetween the t\\o. stin less 1.d\\een different order" of profc""ivnal men, 



II:"! 


THE ('IT}' S HO lIES: THOSE !rHO 011 N. FLU: .1.\'D RUILD THEJI. 


hut rather ht.'t\\Ct.n the duh \\here the coo\.. and the ccl!.lr are hoth e"..ellent and the duh \\here either or hoth arc bad or 
indifferent. E
IIl:cialh i
 thi!> the case among social organi.l.1tions \\hich ha\l: had their origin in de\otion to sports or ga\l1e
 
to yachting. cricket. curling. tcnni, 
and bowls, or to in-door amusements, 
such as whist, euchre and billiards 
In this fraternity of common intere t 
the doctor will jostle the merchant, 
and c\'cn thc hank-wicket \\ ill ruh 
elhows with the hank-parlour. If 
there is at all a gulf of social separa 
tion, it is bet\\ een all these and the 
struggling literary man or journalist, 
or it may be, the out-of-clllo\\s 
painter, who has genius but lad.s 
the patron to gi\'e him bread. The 
fault, of course, is nobody's, and 
nobody cares or complains. If there 
is e\'er a hreath of repining, it ma} 
come from a man of education and 
brains, who has heen misguided 
enough to take to intellectual pur- 
suits for a li\'ing, instead of going 
into the liquor traffic, keeping an 
hotel or hecoming a sugar-hroker\ 
clerk. Happy is the man and \I1ore 
happy the country that kno\\ s no 
distinctions of class, If the countr} 
must ha\"C an aristocraC}, let us all pray that it he not th.1t of wealth only. but of wealth anù intellect. 
\\ e ha\'e d!>e\\here, in these pages, spoken of the hahitat, at le.lst, of Toronto's clubs. Of those connected with recrea- 
tion or amusement, 1\\0 arc speci.lll} to be noted, namely, the R()\al Canadian Yacht ('luh, and the \ïctoria Cluh, Both are 
flourishing in
titutions, the one ha\ing special attractions for thc summer, the other for the winter. .\nother successful organi/a' 
tion is the (;ranite (,Iuh, on Chur('h Strcet. rHI' \ (( !"OK I \ C[ n:, though hardly more than three years old. is alrcad\ strong- 
and lu
t), and gi\'e
 promise of a long and prosperous career. It has alread\' a membership of 
OO, \\ ith a centrally-situated, 
arti
tic building, tastefull} furni
hed rooms, and spaciou,; ('O\'Cred and open rink, for ('urling, howls and tennis. The Cluh io 
go\'erned hy a I'resident, \ïCl:-l'resident, Sel'fctar) and Tre.l
urer, and a Board of sc\en I )irectors. There are a
socialions 
\\ithin the Club, each \\ith its O\\n e"ecuti\"e head, de\oted to the different games, of which the following arc the chief: Curling 
(I'residult. \Ir. Thomas 
:\Ic( ;a\\), I awn Tenni
 
(President, Dr. E. \\'. 
Spragge), Bowling 
(I'resident, \Ir. E, II, 
I )uggan), and Whist 
(I'resident, :\1 r. J. E. 
J{ohert-;on). The Club 
\\a'o nrg.mi/ed in 1887, 
under charter, by a 
]Olllt sto('k ('ompan), 
\\ ith an authori/ed capi- 
t.11 of $50,000. The 
elcgant building \\a
 .- 
10flnally opened, J anu- 
.Iry 
th, 18Sy, h) lord ill 
Stanle), the (;O\ernor- 
(;eneral, .md the Club 
i... admirahl) managed 
under it'> popular Pre''!- 
dent, :\1r. .\. \1. ('o'-hy, 
The !>uik, of room" 
indudinJ..( the ren:plion, 


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THF. Srl'\\J
R "CII:OIA" LF.-\VIII>I. FOR NIAGARA. 



TilE CIT}'"S IIOJ!ES: THOSE WHO OWN, PLrL\: .LVD RUIf D THEJ! 


reading, "moking, billi.lrd and dining rooms, are bright and attracti\ L, and the \I hole i" per\'aderl b\" an atmo"phere of quiet 
dq;ann.. and cumfort. \\ hen the pIa} is on, the rink and tennis court .ue full of life and mO\'ement. fhe :ìecretar} (If the 
\ïctoria ('Iub is ('apt. Burns; the Treasurer, 
:\lr, ('asimir Ilickson. 
\I r. John (' Fitch, one of Toronto's 
\\onhie"t and most respected sons, and for 
lifn \'Cars a resident of the cÎt\, \I as born in 
the PrO\'ince of (2uebec, in 1820, He came 
to Toronto when Quite a lad. and commenced 
business in 18SI. in partnership \\Ìth Sir 
\\ 111. 1'. Howland, as wholesale grocer and 
commission merchant. This p.utnership of 
recent } cars was \I ell kno\l n under the style 
of \!cssrs. Fitch & 1)3\ idson, the latter 
member of the finn being the present Presi- 
dent of the Toronto Board of Trade, I IUrin
 
the past few years, :\1 r. Fitch has retired from 
actiw life, ha\ ing sold his busine"s interest to 
:\Ir. I la\"idson, his late partner. Throughout 
his career, :\Ir. Fitch has been held in high 
esteem for those qualities of personal honour 
and business integrity which distinguished 
the old-time merchant in days when specula- 
tion and sharp dealing were Ièss rife, and 
\\ hen men were more punctilious about their 
dealings with one another. :\1 r. Fitch took a 
\\ann intercs!, some years ago, in the Toronto 
& :\ipissing Raih\ay and in otlter public-spirited project.., tending to the de\'clopment of the cit} 's trade, In IB8S, 
Ir. Fitch's 
p.ltriotism as a citiæn \las put to a melancholy test by having to sUJIl11lt to the loss of his son, I.ieutenant Fitch, of the 
(;renadiers. in the storming of Batoche during the Rid Rebellion, On that o('('asion, he and his famil} receiwd the profound 
and heart-felt sympath\' of e\ery citi/en. [n religion, :\[r. Fitch is a member of the Church of England. .\ \ie\l of his 
commodious re"idence, sóó J an is Street, appears on this p.lge, 

Ir, _\Ifred :\Iorgan Cosby, manager of the I onùon .\:. Ontario Imestment Compan}, and one of the most \lell-\..no\ln 
and popular of Toronto's cili/L'n". was born in the ('()unt
 of Weiland. September I [th, 18
0. His anc..
tors \lere Cnited 
Empire I opli,.,ts, and he owes to them the fine racial qualities which òi"tinguish that best of all unions. the Scoto-Irish stock. 
:\Ir. ('0,,11\ recein:d hi" education in Toronto, and too\.. a\\a
 from the sl'hools such knowledge as \\as deemed ample as \lell as 
most practical for a business life, ,\t the outset of his career he chose ban\..ing for a calling. and in [861 entered the ser\ ice of 
the Bank of Toronto. In the empJo\'lnent of 
this in
titution his e"cellent business ability 
soon led to preferment, .md he \\ as given 
charge of the Port Hope branch of the Han\... 
This responsible position he held until 18jó. 
\\hen he removed to roronto to accept the 
managership of the I.ondon & Ontario 
Investment Company, Here he finòs scope 
for his acti\'ities, and, pOssessed of a dear 
head and a sound judgment, administer
 the 
aff.'1irs of his important trust \\ ith credit and 

IIlTe"S, Since the \ïctoria Cluh was 
founded he has been its President, and b\ 
hi
 geni.ll as \\ ell as prudent management has 
made it an anr.1cti\e and popular resort. In 
I Rjo. 'I r. ('osll\ married a daughter of the 
late \r r. J. (;. \\ oTts, of the firm of :\lessrs. 
(;ooderham .'- \rorb, and his home is the 
heauliful ròidence, .. :\lapleh} rn' (h)'111 sign i- 
f\ ing corner), at the north-east corner of College 
and St. (;eor
t:' Streets. In politics, :\Ir. Cosby 
is a I.iberal : in religion, he is a Presh} teri.1Il 
.1Ild a I11L'Jl1her of St. \nùre\\ 's ('hurch. 


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I . I 


TilE CITJ".'; HOlfES. TIIO......E WHO OTr.'
 PLI'
 .1Xn RCI! n THEN. 


\1.-. Simeon Hem.1I1 J.1I1e
. :\1..\,. one of I'ownto's succt'
sful men of IIU
iness, \\as born in the I'ownship of \\'e
t 
(hford. Februan 5th. 1 R
3. The famih b of old H uguenot 
tock. its earliest representati\'e on thi
 continent haYing sdtkd in 
\ra

.\I"hu
etb 
hortl\' after the coming of the Pilgrim F.llher
 to Xcw England. 
Ir. Janes received his early education at 
the Ingl.'rsoll (;r.unmar School, and in IX6I entered \ïctoria l'niversit). from \\hieh 
he graduated 1:..\. in 1866 as the \aledictorian of his class. Six Yl.'ar
 later, he \\.l
 
admitkd to the degrt:e of \1..\. in the same Cniwrsity. \Ir. Janes had studied 
\\Ïth the \ie\\ of devoting himself to the profession of Ia\\, but he had a "\ronh 
predilection for commercial pursuits. and for a numher of years was eng.lged in 
tr.ule. as the head of a large \\ hole
.llc dry,goods hou
e in Toronto. .\hout ten 
)ear
 ago, when real pro pert) in the ,ity began to become active, 
\Ir. Janes \\Ïth 
considerable discernment turned his attention to real estate, and has hecome one of 
Ihl.' largest. shrl.'wdl.'st and most successful olJerators on the market. His specula- 
tions ha\e been on a I.uge scale, and their results have amply justifuxl thl.' sound 
judgment. as \\l.'11 as the daring, with which they ha\'t
 been entered upon anu 
cleverh carried through. ,\n acti\'e and far-seeing husiness man. he is at the same 
time a well-read student and a thoughtful obsen'er of men and things. He has heen 
an e'-tensi\'e contrihutor to the perIodical lJress of Canada, and takes a large and 
intelligent interest in economical and s,ientific qUl.'stions and holds advanccu \ ie\\s 
in I.iheral politics, :\Ir. Janes is an ad\'ocate of free trade relations with our O\\n 
continent. and has acti\eh promulgated his views on the platform and in the 
press: in religion he is a member of the ,\ngliean Church. 
The re
idence of :\Ir, S. H. Janes. which is now being complt'ted. is situated 
on the late Senator Mc :\Ia
ter'
 property. \\ est of the home of the late Senator :\lac, 
donald. and on the hrow of the ridge th.lt until rcccntly stemmed thc northern 
c\tension of the cit). The site is comm.mding. and the m.I1bion i
 a worthy, and 
likelv to he a lasting. adornmcnt of its fine situation. Thc 
tvlc ,)( architecture is pure 'IJ orman, the massivencss of the huge 
grey stone of which it is huilt being relieved 11\' the maroon tiling of thc rO'Þf and the rather 'Iuaint rontinental design of it
 
corner tower
, rhe building is in the form of an I.. and is approached b) a winding dri\ e from the massive lodge, \\ ith ih 
heautiful gates and curved stone \\ all that Aank the ground
 on . h'enue ({oad, r t is a splendid piece of masonry. which PUh 
to 
hame the Aim
y ephemeral edificcs, \\ ith their stuccoes and Vcnl.'ers, of modcrn hou
e construction. The interior of Ihe 
house i... designed to he in keeping \\ ith its exterior grandeur, The m.Iin entrance is on the cast. where a porte {o{here and the 
declJ emhrasured \\ indows of the long dining-room and the bilh.ud hall o\'l.'r-head break the ma
si\ enl.'SS of the eastern wall. 
On tlw 
outhern or city-side. i
 also an entrance from the pial/a. \\ith a low stonc,wall enclosure: and on the \\,-'stern A.Ink are 
the consl.'natorie
,opening out of the dra\\ ing- 
room. mu
ic room, and main hall. The in, 
terior furnishings and decorations are unique, 
rhc w.llls of the ...pacious hall are wood- 
panelled for eight feet from the Aoor, 
\\ ith emho
sed leather carried up to thc 
(eiling. The dining-room \\all
 \\ ill bc hung 
\\ ith rare tapestrie
. the spoil... of old Italian 
palaces; and man) co
tI) treasures from 
the citu:... of the ancient I'lorentine ({epubli(' 
\\ ill adorn this modern Toronto man
ion. 
,\mong the latter are a ({om.m san-oph.lgus, 

tatuett,- ; in marble, anu a heautiful specimen 
of thc hcaten iron Janak (or lamp) a copy 
of that in the Palano Strol/i \\ hich the 
authoritie, of Florence all(J\\ed '1Il1y to the 
mo...t di...tingui
hcd of her citi/cns, The 
dra\\ in
-room \\ill he treated aftcr the manner 
of I oui
 Seiæ, and the music room and 
hbrary \\ ill ea('h have it
 0\\ n distincti\ c 
de"orati\e feature
 The ground
, \\hich are 
fi\e and a h.llf acre c in e'-tent, are to he the 
..."em' of the land...('app-gardener'" art. rhe 
re
idence, a, a \\hole, though unique and 

umptuous, i.. in it
 general effecl quiet and ta
tcful. It ha
 hccn ere\lcd. under the 
upen ision of an npcricnced Kcw 
\ ork ar('hitc. t. from plan
 dc
ig-ncd or .ldllptcd 11\ ils 0\\ nero 


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filE CI7T',S HO IIE.\'; THO.\E 11'110 011'X FLLV, .JXD RU.lLD TIILJE. 


"
herbourlll: \ïlb," the re
idence of \lr. (;eorge ,\. ('0\, I'röldent of the nánk of ('ollllllen'e. situated at ,BY :-hcr, 
hourne 
tred. i
 one of the old mansions that a quarter of a centur
 ago ga\e eyidencc uf the rising \\calth of Toronto and 
Ihe taste of her peoplc, It \\ as erectcd b) 
the late \Ir, Ridout. ant! pa"sed into the 
hand
 of \lr. ('0'.. on his relllll\'al from 
l'l."terhorn' to this cin in IS87. :\Ir. (;. .\. 
('0' is a ('an.ulian b
 hirth, haying been 
born in the ('ount\ of Xorthumberland, 
:.\1.1) 7th, 18"0. He hegan lifc as a telcgraph 
operator, and at an earl) age \\.IS giyen charge 
of the :\Iontreal Telegraph Comp.un'
 office 
at Peterhow', \\ here he became idcntifÌeù 
\\ith business and puhlic interests, In IS7X, 
he was appointed President and :\1.lI1aging 
Director of thc :.\lidland Raih\a\', and 11\ hi
 
energy and financial ahilit
 raised the \'aluc 
of the "tock from "e\ entcen cents on the 
dollar to onc hundred and t\\ eh'e on thc 
london marker. He hecame President of 
the Central C.mada loan i:<.: Sa\ingo; ('om- 
pal1\' in I S83, on its organi,lation, :\Ir. ('0' 
i" \ï.cc-President of the \\'cstern Fire .\"'sur- 
ance ('ompany, Director of the (;eneral 
rrusto; Compan\', and Pre
ident of the Bank 
of Commerce, 1'0 attain to this high po"ition 
in the hanking circles of Toronto, implie" 
the possession of unusual gifts, and these 
:'Ilr. Co, possesses. He has ah\a)s taken an 
acti\'c interest in e\ erything pertaining to the 
:.\Iethodist Church, of which he io; a prominent 
mem her. 
rhe re"i(knce of \Ir, E. \L CO" a 
representation of \\ hich is gi\ en in these 
pages. is situ.lted at IÓZ Is.lhella Street. in 
une ufthe most ùcsirahle localities in Toronto. 
:\Ir. E, \\ Co, is the eldest son of :\Ir. 
<:eorge ,-\, ('0', President of the B.mk of 
Commerce, with whom he is associated III 
the management of the Eastern Ontario and l' nited States hranches of the Canada I.ife ,-\ssuranct: Compam. This institution, 
\\ hich is one of the strongest of the kind in the J )ominion. has secured a large 
hare of the husiness of Eastern Canada and the 
Cnited States through the dforts uf 'Ir. ('u'. Though 
a 
oung m.m. he gi\e" promise of much u.,efulness a" 
a citi/en of the Proyincial metropolis, 
. \mong the many palatÜI re"idences on .I an is 
Street, the home of :\Ir. James Carruthers. though 
not the most pretentiuus, is one of the'most modern 
and ornate in thc neighhourhood. It was erccted t\\O 
\'ears ago under the supen ision of :\Iessrs. J angle\' l"- 
Burke, Its 0\\ ner, :\1 r. Carruthers, was horn in 
Toronto in 185... He is a member of the firm of 
'!es"rs, Xorris 
 ('arrulhers, grain merchants, corner 
of Scott and Colborne Streets, .\1 r. Carruthcr
 
re.,iùence is at 5"5 .Ian is 
trcet. 
rhe elegant re"iùence, on the corner of 
Hoskin. \\-enue and St. (;eorge 
treet, recentl
 built 
of ('reùit \ alle\ "tone and prcs"cd brick, IS thc home 
of :\Ir. \\. I). :\l.1tthc\\s. \t Burford, in the Count
 
of Brant, -'unc zznd, ISso, 'Ir, :\Iatthcws was horn, 
.lI1d at the :\lodc1 
('hool. Toronto, he \\a" cduc.ltcd. 


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TH!: CIn ...... IIOJIES. THOSE /rHO O/r.l\
 rL41'
 .IND RUII D THE-If. 


grain merchant. and in 1873 was admitted as a partner. 
the husiness alone under the original name of the houst 
\\. I), ,\Iatthews .s.. ('0, He was President 
of the Corn E",hange and for two years 
President of the Toronto Board of Trade 
:\1 r. I\latthews, \\ ho is an ahle husiness man, 
i
 a I )irector of the Can.ldi.m I'a,ific Rail- 
\\ay, the Dominion Bank, anù the Con- 
federation Life _ \ssociation. He is President 
of the Toronto Incandescent Eleclric I,ight 
Co, and the Toronto Safe Deposit Compan). 
H is denominational connection is \\ ith the 
:\Idhodist Church, 
The handsome and lu"urious resI- 
dence of 1\11', John Foy is situated at {O 
Bloor Street \rest. It was erected in I8S7 
under the supef\'ision of ;\f essrs. 1 )arling &. 
Curry. \1 r. Foy is a natiw of Toronto. 
ha \"ing heen horn here in June. I S{6. Hl- 
was educated at St. l\Iichael's Col1ege. and 
at L.: shaw College, England. Fur n1.ll1\ 
years he has heen connected with the 
i.1gara 
Xavigation COmpal1\", of which he is at 
R
SIIlF'\n O
 \11{, JOIN FO\, LIOOR STRFEI' \\'. present the manager. He has heen Director 
of the HOllie Sa\ ings and I.oan Co., the Kiagar.l Xavig,ltion Co" and President of the Xiagara River Company. :\11'. Fuy is 
a memher of the Roman Catholic Communion, and is connected with St. B.lsil's Church. 
" I'he Elms" is the name of the fine residence. on Beverley Street, of :\Ir. J.\e\\el1yn .\. :\Iorrison. This gentleman was 
horn in I'cterhoro' County, and until 1866 was occupied on his father's farm, and in the lumher \\oods, .\fter passing a )ear 
at X of\\ood (;r,lmmar School, and Ì\\ 0 years in school teachlllg, he spent sume time in the C nited States, engaging in mechanical 
indu-.;tries, Returning to Toronto, he opened a machinery \\areroom, the heginning of the present Suho I\lachine Brokerage, 
and 
ince that time has hccn closely identified with the growth of machinery husiness in Canada. :\Ir. l\Iorrison I
 a regular 
contrihutor of articles on mechanics to technical and scientific periodicals, His literary gifts have led him also to compose a 
numher of sacred poems and hymns. His patrioti, "Tocsin ,. Songs are already finding a place in ('anadian homes. 
.. H.lddon \ïl1a,' the residelltT of \11'. Rohert Simpson, is situated on the north side of Bloor Street. at the head of 
Church Street. It
 o\\ner is one of the most l."-tensi\'e merchants in Toronto. Born in 
Iorayshire (Elginshire). Scotl,lIld, 
Septemher 17th, I S3{, :\Ir, Simpson recei\ ed a good commercial training he fore coming to Can,Hla. I n 1872. he hegan his 
successful mercantile career in Toronto, II is present m.unmoth premisLs at the corner of \' unge and Queen Streets ,a partial 
\ ie\\ onl\" of which is given ebewhere -consist of fuur cunnected huildings. three anù four flats high. having a floor area of nearly 
three acres. \Ir. Simpson, \\ho is a capahle as \\el1 as an honourahle husiness man, is a memher of St. .\nJre\\'s Socidy, and 
of Old St. .\nùrew's PreslJ\ teri,lIl Church. 
\ representation in these pages is 
gin:n of the resiùence of :\1 r. J uhn R. 
Baile). It is a hro\\ n 
tone huilding of 
\ ery neat appearance on St. (;eorge Street. 
:\1 r. Hailey h.ls for the past fifteen years 
heen one of the leading coal merchants 
of Toronto, a useful and worthy citi/en, 
and a 
uccessful man of husiness, 
:\Ir. S,lIlùerson Pearcy, wholesale 
dealer in paints, oils, glass, dC,. is a native 
of Toronto and \\as horn i\pril 2{th. I!-Î{I. 
I lIs education \\as acquired in the puhlic 

chools and city night schools. In I SÓ2 
he went to British Columhia and eng.lged 
in gold mining in the ('arihoo Iljstrict, 
\\ here he rem,lined ten years, meeting 
\\ ith great success, Returning to Toronto 
in 1872. he founded the commL'rcial 
enterpri
e of whi,h he is ,It present 
JlloIIIÌctO.., lIei" a I.ugc (Inner (If real 


In I86ó he entered as a cler\.. the office of his father, an e"tellsi\'e 
L'pun the death of his I'.lfent. in (DDS, :\11'. 
1.1tthews continued 


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THE CITJ"'S HO lIES: THO.\E WHO OW_'
 PLAlI
 .-1Al) BUILD TJILN. 


e
tatc in the central part of t
le city and resilks at 9 2 I:]oor Street \\'est. 1\lr. Pearcy'
 residence, of \\hich a picture is here\\ith 
giwn. i" an elegant and comfortable modern 
tructun: :\Ir, Pearcy is a lo\'er of good horses and h.1S e\ceedmgly \\ell appointed 
stahles and 
ome "plendidly hred animals. He 
i, a 1'.I
t \1.lsler of . \shlar :\Ia"onic I odge and 
an attendant of the Central :\Iethodist ('hurch, 
"(;Ien /eph}r" is the residence of :\Ir. 

turgeon Stt'\\art, :\l.lI1aging-Director of the 
Eno Steam (;encrator Company. It is situated 
on \)o\\ling A\enue. :\Ir. Stc\\art \\.lS born in 
the Count\ of Simcoe, :\Ia\ loth, 1855. .\fter 
a primary education he took a three } ears' course 
in theology at \ïctoria Cniwrsity, passing the 
öaminations \\ ith honours, For three } ear
 
after lea\'ing college :\[r. Stewart was acti\ eI} 
engaged in ministerial work, hut "as compelled 
to rdire on account of ill-health. He published 
the Liberal newspaper at Richmond Hill for the 
ne-..t six years, and in 18ð7 he organÍled the 
Brpn :\lanufacturing Compal1\' for the produc- 
tion of haTlh\Ood "pecialties. He \\a" :\Ianaging- 
\)iredor of this company till 1 ð89, when he 
retired and hecame its President, which position 
he still holds. I ast year :\Ir. Ste\\art organiæd 
the Eno Steam (;enerator Compan} (r .imited), 
of which he is :\lanaging-1 )irector. He is a 
local preacher and one of the founders of Parl..- 
dale :\[ethodist Church. :\lr. Stewart \\as a 
member of the Parl,dale rown Council se\'eral } ears and Public School Trustee. 
.\ssociation, and although a Liberal is in s}mpathy \\ith {'anada'., Xew Part}. 
In a comfortable home at 88 Charles Street resides :\lr. .\lfred Harris. He is a native of Toronto and \\a
 born on the 
..th of July, 1863, His education was acquired at Upper ('anada College, at a pri\'ate school in England. at the I.rcee de :\Iont- 
pellier, France, and in S\\ itærland. :\Ir. Harris has retired from acti\'e business, and has never sought publicit\ or prominence. 
He is a Director of the Sheppard Publishing Company, and a member of the Prcsh) terian Church. 
:\Ir. Richard Thorne's residence on Jameson .\venue, in St. .\Iban\ Ward, is a 
plendid specimen of Toronto'" com- 
fortable homes, Born at Thornhill, on .\ugu"t 22nd. 18"0, :\Ir. Thorne came to Toronto for his eduG.1.tion. and was for :-.ome 
\'ears a "tudent at Cpper Canaùa College. .\fter hi
 College career, he spent :-.e\'eral }ear:-. in commercial pursuit
. and in 1880 
establi
hed the factory of :\lessrs. R, Thorne 
::..:. Co" Pearl Stred, for the manuf.1.eture of 
folding beds, \\ 0\ en wire nlo1.ttresses, moulding 
and picture frames, Since that time he has 
built up one of the most e"tl.'nsive industries 
of the kind in \\-e"tern Ontario. \Ir, Thorne 
is a member of the Church of England, 
.. Pon \ïlla," Broad\'Ïe\\" .\n:nue, is 
one of the olùest of the substanti.ll re
iùence" 
in E.1
t Toronlo, It W.IS built in 185 Z. b\' 
the late Robert I )efries, then postmaster in 
the House of ,\ssembly, a po"ition he filled 
for thirt\ si" } e.us. .. I )on \ ilia n is now 
0\\ ned anù occupieù b} :\1 r. Samuel H. 
I kfries, one of the olde
t )la
sengerconductors 
on the (;rand TrunJ.. R,1iI\\.1\", :\Ir. I kfries is 
,\11 E\-I're
ident of the '"Old Reli.1hle' J<.ÚI- 
road Conùuctor's life Insurann .\"soci.1tion 
of the C nited St.ltes .md l.mada. H t:' i
 a 
memher of the (}fùer of R.lih\ay Conductors, 
Toronto I )i\ i"ion, :-. o. I 7, :\1 r. I k-fries W.IS 
born in Toront(), in 1838. .\IId i" a nun of 
\\orlh .1'> \\ell .10' ot' \\l'.llth. 



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RESIIJE;>;CF. OF 
IR. SA:>Il>ERSO/'oo PEARC\', BLOOR SI REEf ,Yo 


He was Secretary of the \\'e
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l'he he,IlUiful re,idenLe of :\1 r. :\"od :\l.lrsh.llI, "ituated at 98 Smith Street, is surrounded h) e'"tcnsi\'e grounds, tastcfllll) 
laid out. and planted \\ ith tre. s .lIld Ao\\ers. The house, \\ hich i, huilt of red hric\.. \\ Ith ('redit \'alley stone facings, \\as erecteu 
in I ðð9. from designs made h) the :\lcssrs, 
\!.tllor) Brus. :\Ir. Marshall is a nati\'eof 
I ,ondon, Eng" where he \\.lS horn on the 
30th of Ilcremher, IðS:?, He came to 
('anada at an early age, and attended 
school in Toronto until his t\\elfth year, 
\\ hen he entered the employ of :\lcssrs. 
I h Coffee ,'\. Co., grain merchants, with 
\\hom he remained three \ears, de\'oting 
his e\ enings to study at night schools, He 
was afterwards engaged h) 
lessrs. (;eo, 
Chaffey &: Bro., coal merchants, \\ hich 
husiness he has followed uninterruptedly 
e\ersince, In I878hehecameconnected 
\\ ith the firm of :\It.ssrs. C. J, Smith &: 
Company. \\ hen. in Ú\89, the Smith Coal 
Company \\as formed, he hecame ih \'ice- 
President and ì\Ianagin
-1 )irector. This 
compan) is said to he the largest dealers 
in \\(Jod in the I )ominion, handling ahoU[ 
60,000 cords yearly. Their coal trade is 
mainl) 10c.ll, wholesale as well as retail. !\Ir. Marshall is a Royal .\rch Mason, a member of the Ropl Arcanum, and a Son of 
England, He is Warden of St. :\Iatthe\\ 's (Anglican) Church, a member of the Public School Board, and \ïce-President of the 
Propert\ ()\\ ners' .\ssociation. 
In the comfortahle residence shown in our illustration resides :\Ir. Benjamin I angley, at 
,p Broad\'iew .\venue. 
Ir. 
Langley is a native of Toronto, and has always felt a deep interest in this city. He was born on the 25th of July, 1835, and 
anluired as a )outh in Toronto the education to fit him for after-life. For many years, ì\lr. Langley has heen a clerk in the 
po
t office Hi
 integrit\., diligence and careful attention to duty h:l\'e ohtained for him a reputation for trustworthiness, which 
j, so essential for the work in \\ hidl he is engaged. :\Ir. 14'1ngley is an acti\'e memher of the Baptist Church. 
\Ir. I:. J, I en no,", architect, \\as born of Irish parents. in Toronto. in the year 1855. \\ïth an education acquired at 
the old (;rammar and :\Iodel Schools, he attended the architectural drawing classes in the old :\lcchanics' Institute in I8H, 
.uul carried off the first prile and diploma in a class of si,"t\, of whieh he \\as the youngest pupil. For the ne,"t tì\'e \ears he 
studied architecture in the office of the late \\ïlliam Ining. .\fter travelling for a time, another fi\'e years were spent as a 
mLlllhcr of the firm of I enno," :x. :\k(;aw, Since then, :\1 r. Lenno," has heen in husiness alone and has built up one of the 
largest practices in Canada. The high reputation for beaut) of design and e:\ecuti\'e ahility, which :\Ir. Lennox has acquired. 
causes him to he frequently emplo)ed a
 a comliiting architect. .\mong the man) buildings erected under his supervision in 
l'ornnto arc Bnnd Street Congregational Church, Bloor Street Baptist Church, and Erskine Presh) terian Church. He i
 no\\ 
superintending the erection of the City 
and Count\' 1\1 unicipal buildings of Tor- 
onto, the Freehold Loan &: Sa\Ïngs 
('ompal1\' huilding, and the neW .\thletic 
('Iub building. Although a young man. 
:\1 r, l.e11l10," is alread\' in the front rank of 
hi
 profession in Canada. 
rhe firm of :\lLssrs. I.angley &: 
Bur\..e, architeeh, ha\'e erected many of 
the finest buildings in Toronto, and ha\'e 
pbced throughout the Pro\ ince bsting 
monuments of their profession.11 skill. In 
such buildings as ì\1c:\laster Hall, Old :->1. 
.\nelre\\'s Chur('h, J.lnis Street Baptist 
Church, St. Jame
' Cnhedral, and many 
a business house and pri\ak residence. 
this finn h.n t:' e,"ecutcd designs which 
heautih and bring credit to Toronto. 
Hem) I angle), senior memher of the 
firm. is a n.llin' of this cit)", anti was horn 


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rHE CiTY'."" I10,'IIES, 'rHÒSE WHO onl.'
 PLAN, A/I/D ß[T/LD THEM" 


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111 1
3ó, H
 studied .lfchitecture in the office of \\ïlliam Hay, and in IRó2 formed a partnership with 
Ir. Thuma
 Cund}, of 
lonLlon, Engl.lI1d. From 186 9 till 18 73. 
Ir. Langley practi
ed alone, and at the I.1tter date entered into J>artner
hip \\ith hi::. 
hrother, 'Ir. Ed\\.lrd Langlc
, and hi
 
neph
w. 
Ir. l:ùmund Burke. On the 
retirement of .:\Ir. Ed\\ard I angley. in 
lð83, the fìnn became Langle\' &- Burke. 
anù cuntinues under that name, :\1 r. 
Burke is a rorontonian h
 hirth, and is 
no\\ in his fortieth 
ear. He was eùue.Ited 
in C pper ClI1aù.l College. and entered 
\1 r. I .1I1glq's office as a stuùent. in I ti6 5. 
Both are members of the Turonto \rchi- 
tectur.I1 (;uild and Ontario .\s
ul'i.Ition of 
\rti::.ts, :\Ir. Burke i
 a member of the 
<. 'ouncil of the I.1tter, and :\1 r. I.anglev is 
.1 memher of the Bo.ud of Tr.Ide. 
The City Engineer of Toronto, 
\[r. \\ïlliam T. J ennings, wa
 horn in this 
rity, 1\b.y 19th, 18-1-6. .\fter being edu- 
rated at the :\lodel Grammar School and 
l' pper Canada College, he commenced 
his profes
ional career a::. an engineer in 
186 9, under the late 1\lr. 
Ioles\\orth. 

ur\'eying the swamp lands of Crey and 
Bruce for improvemenb, From 1
70 
till I ti7 5, he was on the engineering staff 
of the Great \\'estern Rail\\ay, whi
h he 
left in 1875, to enter the service of the 
I )ominion GO\'ernment. Se\'eral impor- 
tant ::.urveys on the Can.Iùian Pacific Raih\ay were made by 
Ir. Jennings while in the emplo}lnent of the (;o\'erl11nent, the 
Con
truction Company, and the C. p, R. Compan}, In ltiS6, he took charge of the surveys and e"\aminations for the C. P. R. 
in Ontario, and in 1890 was appointed to his present position. :\Ir. Jennings is a memher of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, the Institution of Civil Engineers, the .\mencan Society of Ci\il Engineers, and the .\merican .\ssociation for the 
,\dvancement of Science. He is connected with the I'oronto. Rideau and (;ranite Cluhs. \Ir. Jennings is a member of the 
old l'nited Presbyterian Church of Canada, of which his father. the late Rev. Dr. Jennings, W.IS a pastor. 

Ir. Charles Unwin, of the firm of .:\lessrs. l'11\\ in. Foster &: Proudfoot, wa
 born at :\Iansfield, K ottingham
hire, Eng- 
land, December 30th, 1829, In his early years he was a student at Cpper Canada College, at \\ hich so many of the prominent 
Canadians of to-day ha\'e heen educated. In 1851-2 :\Ir. CI1\\in was assistant to Co\. J. Stoughton Dennis in laying out the 
Indian Reserves on Lake Huron. Sinc
 then he has had an e\tensi\'e experience as a Dominion and PrO\'incial Land 

ur\'eyor. .:\Ir. CIl\\in is a member of 
the Church of England, 

1r. Frederic Fortescue Pass- 
more, land sUr\'eyor, was born III Selby, 
Yorkshire, England, January 13th, 
11';2-1-. He was educated at the 
(;rammar School, Bideford, De\'on- 
shire, He came to Canada in his 
early manhood and \\as admitted as a 
I and SUr\'eyor, ()ctober 1st, 18-1-6. 
Mr. Pa
smore was appoIl1ted Secretary 
of the Board of E\aminers of Land 
Surveyors of Upper Canada, in .\pril, 
1852. ,'\nd was made a memher of the 
Board in ]anuar), 1859. He is a 
memher of the Church of England. 
"Thornhurst," the residence of 
:\1r. (;eorge Plunkett l\Iagann, is situ- 
ated at the foot of Dowling A\'enue, on 
the .Iake shore, overlooking Humber 
Ha
, The house was erecteù in 1881), 



 


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RFSIDE:<iCE OF ;,\IR. RICHARD THORNE, ]A1IESON A\'EJ\VE. 


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:'I1f(. F, F. PASS\IORE, 


:'IIR. CHARLK
 UNWIS. 




 


'--V 


TIfE CITY'S HOJIES: THOSE WHO a WN. PLAN, AND Bl'ILD THEIl. 


the 
trects of which he has since -in the capacity of contractor -made his 
Board of Trade. 
The energetic firm of 
lcssrs. Brown &: love, building contractors and dcalers in 
Frederick 1>. BrO\\n and H. C. Love. Before settling in Canada both of these gentlemen 
training and e"\perience as builders in England. Their handiwork adorns man} 
of the chief business streets of the cit}. The first structure
 of importance erected 
11\ the firm in Turonto. \\ere the British America Assurance Company's buildings, 
.wd the < ;a
 Company's offices, Toronto Street. These \\ ere follO\\ ed by such 
edifieo , a
 The J/ni! building, Hank of Commerce, Canada Life building, l\Ianning 
,\rcade, \\ estern .\ssurance Company's huilding, \fyld, <;rasett &: Darling's ware- 
hou
e, and St. James' Square Presbyterian Church. .\t Hamilton, the firm erected 
the head office of the Canada Life Insurance Company, the Post Office, and the 
Cu
tom House, This firm have no\\ in hand the erection of the Confederation 
I.ife Insurance Companv'
 building and the magnificent residence of :\Ir. C ;eorge 
(;ooderham, Bloor 
treet. Many of the abO\ e are illustrated in this volume. 
\11'. .\dam .\rmstrong's residence on St. (;eorge Street (see page 5-1-), is a 
tine specimen of C;rxro-Roman architecture. It was erected of Credit Yalley 
stone and red brick, in 1887-8, from plans adapted by its 0\\ ner, who was also its 
builder. 
I r. _\rmstrong, who is of Scotch descent, \\as born in the East Riding 
of York, Ont., on the 21st of -' une, 18-1-7. He received a common school education, 
supplemented by a commercial course, When quite young he was employed as an 
a,>sistant bv his father, who \\as a master-carpenter and joiner, but upon attaining 


150 


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RESIDENCE OF ]\[1{, A. HARRIS, CHARLFS SrREF r. 


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from plans furnished by Its owner, \\hile its 
construction was supervised by J).lvid Roberts, 
architect. The material used was a combination 
of Credit \' alley stone, Scotch freestone, reù 
brick, terra cotta and tile. The interior is 
finished in natural wouds, quarter-cut. The 
grounds, which are laid out in lawns and terr.lces, 
and ornamented with forest trees, slope 
}m 
metrically to the south, fringed by an esplanade 
along the lake-front. :\Ir. l\Iagann is a nati\t 
of Dublin, Ireland, but came to Canada in earl
 
childhood, and was educated at Hamilton, Ont. 
He is descended both on his father's and his 
mother's side from well-known families, "hose 
male heads were prominent in the legal profes- 
sion. For many years 1\11'. l\Iagann has been a 
railway contractor and a dealer in railway 
supplies. He is a IargeO\\nerof milland\essd 
property, as well as of real estate in Canada and 
the C nited States. 
l\Ir. John :\lcBean, a well-knO\\ll city 
contractor, is descended from a staunch and 
sturdy family of Cnited Empire Loyalists. He 
was born in the County of (;Iengarry, Ontario, 
on the 29th of l\Iarch, 1834. .\fter acquiring 
a common school, and the rudiments of a com- 
mercial, education, he was seiæd \\ ith the gold 
fever and when but little more than fifteen 
years of age set out for California, where he 
arrived early in 1850. He subsequently \'isited 
Australia, Colorado and British Columhia, anù 
spent seventeen years of his eventful life in 
gold-mining in various parts of the \\orld. For 
three years he resided in Chicago, and in con, 
junction with his father and brothers, introduced 
the Xicho\son pa\'ement in that city. In Itij 2. 
he returned to Ontario, settling in Toronto, upon 
mark. .\11'. :\IcBean is a member of the Torontl 



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stone, was organiæd in 18j5 1 J\ 
had the advantage of prartica 


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:'ItR. Jom, McBEAN. 



THE rITJ"'S HOllIES.. THOSE WHO OWN, PLAN. AND HC/LD THE.JJI 


'151 


his majorit) he abandoned his trade, and 
.:ngaged in mercantile life as a salesman and 
commercial tra\eller. In 1879 he hegan 
I.uilding operations in Toronto, devoting 
himself mainly to the erection of residential 
,tructures, huilding principall) upon real 
",tate which he 0\1 ned indi\'idu:tlly. or over 
Ilhich he had control. Ht. is a large 
property-owner. and not unusually owns at 
one time from fifty to one hundred houses 
for rent or sale. 
I r. Armstrong is a 
Reformer in politics and a Presb) terian in 
religiun, 
{)e
onia, the residence of :\Ir. 
( , R. S. I )innick, on St, George Street, was 
erected in 1887 from plans made by the 
OIl ner. 
Ir. Pinnick is a natil e of f)
n en- 
port. Devonshire, England, where he was 
horn on the 22nd of . \ugust, 18-t-t. He was 
apprenticed at an early age to a carpenter 
;md joiner with whom he sen ed sel'en ) ears. 
:-ihortly after the e"\piration of his apprentice, 
,hip he came to Canada, locating in Turonto 
ahout the year 1870, and followed his trade 
a
 a journeyman sel eral } ears, \1 hen he 
enbragt:d in IJU!>ine!>s on his 0\\ n account as a 
contractor and builder. He pays special 
,mention to the craft of a huilder, and enjoys 
the reputation of ha\'ing erected more houses 
for sale than an\' other one huilder in the 
city. It is onl} twenty years since :\Ir. 
Binniei-. came to Toronto empty-handed. hut hy diligence and integrity he h.IS nO\l amassed a handsome competence. He is a 
member of Trinity :\Iethodist Church, a \Iason, and an Oddfellow. and helongs to the Ropl .\rcanum. 
The late 
Ir. Lionel Yorke was. in his day, one of the most e"\tensiw contractors in Toronto. Burn at \\Ï-;bech, 
Camhridgeshire, England. :\Iarch 17th. 183-t. he was fift)-fil'e } ears ()fage at the time of his death in .-\pril, 1889. 
Ir. Yorke 
came to Canada thirty years ago, and after a 
------=-. residence of ten )ears in Peterboro'settled 
in Toronto. The first work he undertook 
was the erection of the (;O\ernment House. 
He lias afterwards identified \\ ith man} of 
the largest building enterpri!>es in Toronto, 
including Yonge Street .\rcade, Old St, 
-\udrew's Church, Carlton Street Church, the 
Bank of :\Iontreal, and the Standard Bank. 

Ir. \' orke, \I ho wa" a man of great industry 
and probit}. was .1 prominent memher of 
Bond Street Congregational Church. His 
death .It a cOIllparati\ eh earl} age \I as deeply 
regretted. 
The suhstantial residence of :\Ir. 
Henr} LW'.l-;, contractor, at 860 College 
Street, \\a-; erected in 1889, h} himself. 
Ir. 
I.ucas has erected man} important building-; 
in Toronto, including the Sick Children's 
Hospital, College ,"enue. the Toronto Cluh, 
\ ork and \\ ellington Streets. the Burnsiùe 
L) ing,in Hospital, and the Barher .\: Ellis 
Company's warehouse. I"his \I ell-known 
contractor i-; a nati\'e of I'urbmouth. England, 
II here he wa, horn. Ilecemher 31 st. 1 ð-f6. 


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 '\fR. STURGF.O"" STEWART, IJOWLl'òG 1\1 FNUF. 


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RFsrnl''\:CF OF :\fR. XOFI :\L-\R,"U r, S\II I'll Sr RFH. 



152 


THE CIT}"SHOlJ1ES: THO
E WHO OWX PLAlI: AND BUILD THEJf. 


He came to Canada in I 8ï I, ha\ ing prc\'iously \\ell,mastered his trade, and has since been fully occupied. He \\as first High 
('hief Rang;er of the .\ncient Order of Foresters in the Dominion, and was largely instrumental in obtaining the charter from 
, England for the Subsidiary High Court for Canada. :\lr. Lucas is a Baptist, and a 
member of Doric Lodge, ,-\, F. & .\, :\1. 

Ir. John :\laloney, dealer in stone and huilding material, was born of Irish 
parents in Toronto, . \ugust 15th, I8-Jti. ..\ftCI' recei\ ing a primary education in the 
Separate Schools, :\11'. :\laloney began business life as a teamster and two years after, 
\\ards hecame a dealer in lJUilding stone. Subsequently he was appointed agent fur 
the Credit Forks Stone Quarries. In 1885 he purchased a quarry at Shaw Station on 
the c.P. R, and shortly aftcr\\ards opened a hrick yard at the Humber, from which he 
now turns out a large amount of huilding material. )11'. :\lalone) lives on Brock 
.\\enue, and a vie\\ of his cosy home is given in thi
 work. He is a member uf the 
Ancient Order of Foresters and Treasurer of the Catholic ;\1 utual Benefit .-\ssociation. 
The neat and suhstantial suhurhan home of l\lr. James Clarkson, on Parkdale 
.\venue, is situate on e"\tensi\e grounds in a dcsirahle section of the city no\\ heing 
laid out in huilding sites, The re
idence is of red brick, with a western outlook, and 
is modern in style and picturesque in appearance, :\11'. Clarkson, who is of .-\merican 
descent, \\as horn in the County of York, in 1838, his father, Mr. Hiliary Clarkson, 
having many years ago emigrated from Kew York, of which State he was a nati\e, and 
............ settled in the 1'0\\ nship of l\Iarkham, \\ here he long resided and was much respected 
THE LATE 
IR. LIO:-/EL YORKE. hy all who !...new him, The subject of this sketch was engaged in agricultural pursuih 
until ahout the )ear I8H, when he remm'ed to Toronto. Previous to his coming here, ;\Ir. Clarkson purchased the valuahle 
property on which he now resides, and for se\eral years had it under cultivation as a market-garden. I atterly, some portion> 
01 the property have been laid out in lots 
suitable for suhurhan residences, .\hout 
ele\en )ears ago, l\lr. Clarksun married 
:\Iiss Catherine Boulton, of Toronto. 
He is a Reformer in politics. 
The Queen's Hotel has long held 
a leadir1g place among the resorts of the 
travelling puhlic in Toronto. The pro- 
prietors, l\lösrs. :\IcGaw 
 \\ïnnett, 
heside<; possessing great personal popular- 
it\', are expert,> in catering to the wants of 
their guests. Such distinguished visitors 
as the (;rand I )uke Alnis of Russia, Prince 
Leopold, Prince (;eorp:e, the Duke and 
I )uches
 of Connaught, the 
Iarquis of 
Lome, the E.ul and CountLss of Dufferin, 
the l\larquis uf LansdO\\ ne, Lord and 
I ad) Stanle), and Sir John ;\Iacdonald, 
h.lve made the Queen's their home while 
in Toronto. The hotd, which for more 
than a generation has heen identified \\ ith 
the grO\\ th and de\ elopment of the city, 
commands a splendid \'ie\\ of Toronto Ray 
and I,ake Ontario, I t is elegantly furnished 
Ihroughout, and is surrounded by beauti- 
lul grounds, It has an e"\cellent cuisine 
.1IlÙ \\ ine-cellar, and the tahle-attendance 
.md general management are such as give 
unhounded <;atisfaction. 
['he Rossin House is one of the best 
kno\\n and mo
t centrally located hotels 
in Toronto. Situated at the corner of 
"-ing and York Streets, it is on the route of almost every line of street-cars that traver
e the city. For forty years thi,; hot. 
has been one of the institutiom of the city. and on more that one occasion it has been the home of vi<;iting royalty. 
Prince of \\'ales, Prince ,\Ifred, and Princc Lcopuld, have all made the Rossin 
heir headquarters \\hile in Toronto. 


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"DON YII I.A," RESIDE!\CE OF 1\11<.. S. II. IìErRIFS, RRO-\D\'IEW A\'ENUF. 


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THE CITY'S HONES: THOSE WHO OWN, PLAN, AND BUILD THEM. 


,roprietors, 
Icssrs. 
eJson Bros., formerly of Halifa'(. X.S., ha\e recentl) been improving the interior decorations, and have 
0\ ered the \\ ails and ceilings of man) rooms and parlours \\ ith magnificent works of art. The decorations of the spacious 
ining room are e\.ccedingly beautiful and ornate. The house i" capable of accommodating four hundred and fì.ft) guests, It 
, kno\\n among the \\ealthier classes of 
,;1\'elling .\mericans from :\Iaine to Cali, 
)rma. Every imprO\ement that modern 
('ience can suggest has been added to the 
Zossin, and to-day it is one of the most 
.opular hutels in Canada. 
The Walker House is the first hotel 
)f any prominence that meets the eye of the 
ra\eller on his arrival at Toronto. It is 
ituated at the corner of Yor\... and Front 

Ireets, it O\crlooks the Bay and lake 
)ntario, and is e\.ceedingly com'enient to 
he station. The scrupulous cleanlIness of 
he building and the homelike comforts it 
ffords always ensure it a large share of the 
.atronap:e of the travelling public. Guests 
o the number of 170 can be seated in the 
arge and cheerful dining-room, ,-\n ele\atur 
ffords easy access to the 135 sleeping 
 
partmenb, all of which are connerted b) 
'Iectric calls with the office. The upper 
'orridors are laid out in the shape of a 
quare, ha\ ing e\.its from t\\ 0 opposite corners, This makes it impossible for fire to cut off retreat, and at the same time secures 
hat perfect \'entilation \\hich makes the \ralker House one of the coolest hotels in Canada for summer guests. On the opposite 
orner of Front Street, the \\'alker House anne\. affords e\.cellent sample rooms for commercial men. .hsociated \\ ith !\II'. 
)a\id Walker in the proprietorship is :\11'. John \\'right, under whose management the business has been for some time past. 
n the office the face of 
Ir. J>a\'id Livingston has been familiar for the past tweh'e years, while nIl'. John Grimes, formerly of 
he Grand "Cnion, Ottawa, and 
Ir. James T. H, Findlay, are more recent though scarcely le"s popular attachés. 
The Lake\"Ìew Hotel, of \\hich 
Ir. John .\)re is proprietor, occupies a commanding site at the corner of Parliament 
md \\ïnchester Streets. It is an e\.cellent up,town hotel and is rapidly gro\\ing in fa\our as a resort for the tra\'elling public 
md families. Electric bells and bath-rooms are pro\ided on e\'ery flat. There is a good la\\n, telephone communication and 
com'enient access to cars for all parts of the 
city. Iron and patent rope fire-escapes are 
placed in every apartment, so that guests are 
secure from danger of fire. This hotel is 
not far from the Horticultural Gardens and 
Riverdale Park. It is kept scrupulously neat 
and im'iting throughout. 
The Elliott House is situated at the 
corner of Church and ShuteI' Streets, in a 
locality \\ hich affords a pleasing \ iew from 
e\ery window. It is a comfortable family 
hotel and has recently been enlirely refitted, 
The proprietors, :\11'. John Hirst and \11'. J. 
\r. Hirst, \\ ho is abo manager, are e\.perienc<:d 
hotelkeepers, The former has been Ihirt\ 
years in the business, and the latter has 
tra\'elled eJe\en years through the ])ominion. 
.\djoining the hotel is a large Ia\\ n shaded b) 
SOme fine trees, The cuisine is one of the 
best equipped in Toronto, The Elliott 
Huu
e has si\.t) sleeping apartments, be>'ldes 
ample parlours and reading roums. ,-\lthough 
near the centre uf the rity it p()sses
es all the 
:1(h ,Ultages of an up-tm\ n hotel. 


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\\AIKER HOU
E,COR:-'ER OF FRO""I A:o..I, YOR"- 
lhFFh. 



l"í.t 


REAL ESTATE, AND THOSE WHO TRAFFIC IN IT. 


CHAPTER XXI. 


RE-\I EST-\TE, .\Xn THOSE \rHO TR.\FFIC IX IT. 


TORO'i:TO E'\", -\Rla" HI-.R 
\rF -\1 rH \XD Cn Ie 
.\X:\l"\I. E",p-\xslo:>l? 


BOI :'\()\R\. I'HI"'\"O:\II''i:,\I I:'\CRF-\SF 1:'\ I"HE ('In"
 RE.-\Ln, 
{'O'\"SFI}IT:\'CF. \rII I. TORO'i: I'n B,\C....SUDF OR \L\I:'\T,\I'\ THI' 
S \ '\"1;lï'\"F \'\"11 KO'\"-S,\M;lï:\ F \ IFWS OF I'HE Fl'I'URF. 


-\II\'.-\KCF IX Porn \TIm" 
R,\TlO OF I I'S PRF
'" \"1 


C :,\ I'S and bounds is the figure which most accurately denotes the 
assessahle property of Toronto within the past two decades. 
phenomenal. In 1879, the value of 
the city's asse
sahle property was a 
Irifie mer fifty millions, of which ahout a si"\th 
represented personal propert} and inrome. the 
remainder heing realty. last} ear (J1U\ç) the 
asscs<;ment 
'alues had risen to o\'er one hundred 
and thirty-six millions! Than thöe figures, 
\\ ith those which mark the equally gratifying 
increase of population within the same period, 
nothing could better indicate the great stride the 
city has taken in the past ten years, The 
ahsorption O} the city of the suhurhan 
 illages 
to 
ome e"tent, of course, accounts for this 
.Istounding increa<;e and the creation of four 
ne
\ \\ards. The less sanguine citi7en, we know, 
tdb u<; that we are forging ahead too fast, that 
\\ e are gro\\ ing at the expense of the smaller 
lu\\ ns uf the l'rm ince, and that we cannot 
e"\pect, in the near future at any rate, to 
maintain anything like the ratio of this rapid 
e"lJ.lnsion. Possihly he is right. On the other 
hand. It is unlikely that the city, having reached 
such a position as it has now attained and 
e
tahlished itself in all the elements of \\ ealth 
.lJ1d consequence, will in any degree hackslide 
or lose its present metropolitan eminence, 
Xe
erthele<;s, in recent \ ears. Toronto has taken into its corporate emhrace a \ery large and far out-spread area, which \\e ma} 
for a time find it difficult profitahly to utili/e, the more so as speculation, rather 
than actual need, has rather extravagantly run up its value. But we are no Cassandra, 
and have faith in the future, believing that the enterprise of il1\"estors in city propert} 
will in due time meet \\ ith its reward, and that in the real estate men of Toronto 
and their ventures, Wisdom will he justified of her children. When one recall, 
from what the city has gro\\ n. nu hounds seem in reason possihle to set for it- 
future, \rhat (;overnor Simcoe\ feelings would he \\ere his shade now to revÌ!,il 
the SCene of his once embryo capital, it would take a romancist to ùescrihe. E\l:n 
Toronto's first mayor would be at a loss to recogni/e the city, still less its modern 
water,front, into which the youthful idolators of the Family Compact threw the great 
Radical's fonts of type and printing-press. ,\t every point sharp cuntrasts pre,cnt 
themselves, the e"\treme being that which puts the value of the assessable propert\ 
of the city to-day against the sum (ten shillings
) for which, tradition h.l<; it. the 
whole tract on \\ hich roronto is nO\\ huilt was originall) purchased from thl 
:\Iississaga 1 ndians. 
1\11'. Francis Cayley, son of the late Hon. William Cayley, \\as horn at Ehmlc\ 
\"illa, Toronto, February 7th, 1845. He was educated at L"pper {'anaùa College. 
and was for more than fifteen years connected \\ ith the H.mk of Toronto. Sinn
 
18t; I, when he entered the real estate business, :\1 r. Cayley has heen doseh' identified 
with the growth and development of Toronto. His intimate knowledge of the \alue 
of properties. and hi<; high reputation as a man of business ha
e caused his ad\'in: 


successive stages in the nsmg scale of \alues in the 
The increase even in the last ten years has been 


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\[R. FI,A:o.' I' CAYlFY. 



REAL ESTATE, AND THOSE WHO TRAFFIC IN IT. 


155 


to be wideh sought. Tracing his lineage hack to one of the oldest families of England, :\11'. ('a) ley is naturally inclined to 
Conservatism in politics. To acti\oe and industrious habits he O\\es his sucres!; in busines
. and these and other e"\cellent 


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qualities h
ne earned for him eminence in his walk of life. as well as the respect and confidence of the community. In religion, 
\1 r. Cayley is a member of the Church of En
land. His hrother is the \\ orth\ Rector of St. (;eor
e', 
:\11'. Herbert Hale \\ïlliams, real estate and financial broker. \\as born September 21 st. 1862. \\'hile a pupil at Louisa 
Street School, he was awarded a scholarship, hy which he \\as enahled to hecome a student at the Toronto lollegiate Institute. 
Since opening his present offices. at 5-J Church Street, \11'. \\ïlliams has established a reputation a-; an exceptionalh' expert 
hroker. and one who attends to the interests of his clients in the wa\ most profitahle tu them. His offices are handsomel) 
furnished and ha\ e a fireproof \ault where documents of clients are safe!) filed away, :\11'. \\ïlliams is a memher of the :\Iasonic 
fraternity, the Sons of En
land. and the Presb) terian Church. 
:\11'. Hugh :\Iac:\lath \\as horn in the Township of (;oderich. Countv of Huron. July 30th. 18-JI. .\fter recei\ing a 
training in the] ,ondon Commercial College. he entered the business of accountant. real estate and insurance agent. His present 
office is in St. .\Ihan's \rard, formerly known as I'arkdale. :\11'. :\lac:\lath \\as Reeve of the \ïllage and 1'O\\n of I'arkdale from 
188-J till 188ï, and \\as trustee of the Collegiate Institute in 1888. He IS treasurer of the Home for Incurahles. and takes an 
actiw interest in Sunda\ School and Central Prison work. :\11'. :\lac:\lath is a memher of the Preshyterian Church. and has 
long heen connected \\ ith the :\Iasonic fra- 
ternity, 
l\Ir. Isaac I en no", land agent, \\as 
horn in the County of Simcoe, August 17th. 
18-J2, Until twenty-nine years of age :\11'. 
I enno"\ \\as a tiller of the soil. He spent 
five years thereafter in the milling business. 
removinf.\ to Toronto, in 18ï6, to engage in 
the lumher trade. This calling he follo\\ed 
se\'eral } ears, till he relinquished it to hecome 
a land agent. :\11'. I cnnu"\ \\as a memher of 
I'arkdale Council in I 88-J, Reeve in 1887. 
anù on the anne"\ation of the to\\ n to Toronto 
in 1888, he hecame one of the aldermanir 
represemati\'es of the l1e\\ \\ ard of St. ,-\ll>ans. 
:\11'. ] enno"\ is an acti\ e memher of I'arkdak 
:\Iethodist Church, and as Chairman of the 
Building C'0I1u11lttee, too\.. an important part 
in securing the erection of the magnificent 
ne\\ edifice at Ihe corner of King ::,treet and 
I )unn ."'enue. 
:\11'. Ernest .\Ihert :\Iacdonald. \\ell 
\..no\\ n as the founder of Chester, from his 
rlo"e identific.Jtion \\ ilh that rising suburb. 



 


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REAL ESTATE, AND THOSE WHO TRAFFIC IN IT. 


was horn near the 1'o\\n of Brocb'iIIe, Ont.. :-';O\'embcr I
t, 1859, He recei\ed a general education at Toronto. and a militan 
training at Kingston. \Ir. :\lacdonald carries on an e...tensi\'e husiness as a builder anù dealer in real estate, In IRRó he I\:JL 
elected In the \oter'i ofSt. 
1.lrk's Ward, to repre'ient them in the City Council. He has since remained an acti\'C member 01 
that hod
. being no\\ the aldermanic representatiH
 of :-'1. Jame
' \\ ard. 
Ir. 'lacdonald contesteù E.lst Toronto at the ]a
t 
(;encral Dominion Election. as an I ndependent candidate. Though still a } oung man. his name is a well-knO\\ n one in ['uronto, 
In politics. \Ir. 'I.H
donald is a Liheral-Consen ali\'e. and in religion. a Pn....IJ, 
terian, He is a memher of the :\Iasonic. 
( )ùdfellow and (;ood ['emplar Orders. 
;\Ir. (;eurge \\ ilson Hanks, estate. 
insurance and general agent, corner of 
()ueen and \ ictoria Streets. \\as horn on 
:\Iarch qth. 1851, in Li\ erpool, England. 
He came to Toronto in 1862, and after 
recei\ ing a good educational grounding in 
thi
 city was a

uciated for elC\ en years 
\\ith 
Ir. \\'. T. l\lason in bu
ine"s. Since 
IRjó. 'Ir. Banks has followed his present 
ocrupation \\ ith increasing SUlTess. The 
Pre'ih
 lerian bo(1\ recei\es hi'i support, 
'I r. J. J, Threlkeld was born in 
Toronto in the \ear 1862, and has since 
resided in this city. Hc attended, as a 
)outh. the Publir and 
Iodd Schools. 
Since entering tht. real estatc husiness a
 
head of the firm uf J, J. Threlkeld ,,,- ('0,. 
he has had a wide e"'perienee in handling 
propertie
. ['he office of the firm is at II} ,\delaide Street Ea
1. \Ir. Iluelkeld was idenlitied with Ihe c,uly growth of the 
'1'0\\ n of Parkdale. of which he wa
 a Councillor in I RRó and 1887. He is a Liberal in politics, and a I're'ib} lerian in religion. 
:\Ir. \\ïlliam Hell \\a'i born at \\ 001\\ ieh, England. Septemher 9th, 183ú. Ikmg brought to ('anada at a \ery earl\' a<<e 
he learned the trade of machinist in 'Iontreal. ,\t the age of eighteen he joined the Orange :-:;ociet
 in :\Iontreal and ha
 
ince 
occupied the chair'i up to that 01 Count\ '1.1,;rer. which he tills at present. He was a memher of tilt' Public School Hoard of 


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\IR. J. I. TURE[hf'[[>, 


\11<. III'GII \1,\(;:11..1. [ II. 


I'oronto for ei"ht \ears be g innin' ' tl v v I . 8 0 ' h I .' '" I 
, . .... ., b \\ I 1 10 7 0 , 'rom 1 ,
[ to [R8
 e W.1'i a mem ler of Iht: ( It\' CounCil, re"lgnmg tu ta\". t 1t 
positIOn of ta x collector In 888 h , I . d d ' . , . . .. 
. 1 e \\a... rc-e el te an l'i stili the representatJ\'c of SI. Stephen s \\ anI. In politics 
Ir. Bell 
\\as a staunch Con'ienati\e until the {Ia q f tl , ' I ' , H ' II d h ' h . , , H I 
, . . ", 1ge II 1l', CðUIt '.stalt''i 'I cause 1111 to se\'er lI11self from [J.lrt} pulItlcs. e las 
,,1I11'C heen a LU I > { >orter of the F I al D' ht \ " . I ' f ' h ' ., I 
. .( u, '" Ig 
, 

uclatlOn, III t 1C I\1terest 0 \\ hlc he maùc a 
ood run 111 I uronto for Ihe LOl.\ 
I.c!'.,.I.ttureatthl'bsldcl'tÌ<n \Ir 1 " ]1 I Ii ,. I I ' \\ I . . .' , 
co . I . . Ie \\,\... t 1(' Irst to Jom t 1C 'f1I1I"(' of ,\ c
 Rq,:nncnt III :'-Iontn:al al1llcnll'rcd for 
l"r\H"L 



REAL ESTATE. Ai\D THOSE WHO TRAFFIC Ii\' IT. 


15; 


\\ ith the Queen's (h\ n Rifles during the Trent .1ff:.tir. He is a memher of the :\bsonic fraternity, Sons of England, Ropl 
\rcanum. 
1. (;eorge's 
ociety, ,\,0. C .W.. Order of Chosen Friends, Select Knights of .\,0,1..'. W., and the Toronto Board of 
rrade. :\Ir. Dell is a :\Iethodi"t and Imperial Federationist. He is senior memoerofthe firm of \\"m. Bell & Son, coal and \\ood 
merchants, and real estate 
and insurance agents. 
:\Ir. Erne<;t \\-, ]), Hut- 
ler, \\ as horn 111 ] )u b]lI1, 
Ireland, June 16th, 1853. 
Being hrought to Canada at 
an early age he recei\"Cd hi!-o 
education in Toronto, Hi... 
present enterprise, estahlished 
by his f.'lther in 1860, and 
carried on hy \Ir. Hutler since 
1880, is that of selling. pur- 
chasing and managing proper, 
tie
, im e"ting money, \'aluing, 
arbitrating,.lIlt! doing a life and 
fire insurance business. :\Ir. 
Hutler is President of the 
Canadian Saying.;. loan and 
Building hsociation, and 
\'aluator for se\'era] loan 
compallles. He is (;rand 
Secretary for the SO\ ereign 
S.lnnuary of Canada and 
X ewfoundland, R 0) a I and 
Oriental Freemasonry, 33, 
36 , 90 , and is a memoer of 
the I. O. O. F., the I. O. F., 
Board of Trade. :\Ir. Dutler is a 



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RE"II,E:\rE OF "R. GEO. F AlII K:l:ER, COKJIoER OF KIM: S fREEf AND Don Ll!\Õ(, ,-\\'E:IOI"E. 


Ro\al ,\rcanum, Orange .\ssociation, Young :\lcn's Liberal-Consery
ti\e .\ssociation, and 
Pre"hnerian and a Consenati\'c, belic\ ing in the E4ua] Rights mO\ement and supporting it. 
:\Ir. ] ouis O. P. (;enerem" of the finn of Generem, &: Llo)d, real estate brokers, \\as born at Berthier, I:n Haut, Jul) 
.:n"t, 18:;1. He received a good commercial education at St. \ inteur College, Herthier. Puring his connertion \\ilh the real 



 


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:'tIK. J. J. GRAIIA\I. 


\lR. J. J. :'tld:<1\'kE. 


- tate hu<;iness \1 r. (;enereu, has had charge of the \ aughan estate, the :\Iiles estate, the \\ .t\.,efìdd estate, the "")c\.. wood Terrace 
'-. tate, and many others. He is :\Ianagin
-I )irertor of 
the City and District I and .1I1t! I.oan Company of Toronto. , h a real 
Lstate broker he is well and fa\'ouraoh known in the cit\". His busines rareer has heen a \er) succl,sful one His rareful 
attention to the interest of clients and liÍ,C[.ll use of ad\erti
ing mediums enahle him almost imariah]y to effect "pccd\' sale", 



1!'i
 


REAL ESTATE, AND THOSE WHO TRAFFIC IN IT. 


\Ir. Ceorge Faulkner, real estate broker, was horn in 
l:nniskillen, Ireland, .\ugust 11th. 1842, and educated at the 
Ropl :'chool, Portora, Ireland. :\Ir. Faulkner was '-or fi\e 
\ cars a,
o,.jated \\ith :\Ir. J:rastus \\ïman in the ne\\s puhlishing 
hu
ine'" and after\\ ards continued in the same line on hIs 0\\ n 
.llT'Junt. He \\a<.. engaged for 
ome time in the hoot and shoe 
trade. till in 1 Sj 3 he entered the real estate husiness. His 
]lft....ent OffiCL 1, at :! 1 \delaide Slreet East. :\Ir. Faulkner has 
heen one of the City .-\s
essors and Emigrant .\gent in Ontario 
for British Columhia. His fine residence is at the corner of 
King Street and 1>0\\ ling ,h emil.', and is some\\ hat in the 
\Ioori...h style of architecture. 
\fr. John J. \lclnt\Te, real ötate .Igent and \'aluator, is 
\.. birth a Canadian, ha\ing heen horn 
larch 1St, 18-1-7, in the 
rO\\I1ship of 
 orth (;ore. ('ounty of l 'arleton. Ontario. The 
puhlic schools in the localit) \\ here he \\as horn equipped him 
\\ ith the education \\ ith which he started on his husiness 
('.lrCer, ,\t t\\ ch e \ ear... of age he \\ ent into the lumber husJlless 
.It (Htawa. He cam.. to Toronto and for se\en vears was fore- 
man of the Toronto Bult and Iron \\ orks. For se\'eral years 
]la
t he has devoted his attention to real estate, \Ir. :\klnt) re 
is a l'resh\ terian and an acti\ e memher of the Independent 
Order of Foresters, 
,\mong the enterprising younger real estate agents in 
roronto, is thc firm of \Iessrs. :\Iurdoch &. \\ïlson, composed 
..I henneth 
Iurdoch and I'homas \\ïl
on. The former is a 
native of Kingston, although mo
t of his life was spent ill 
rorontn, and the latter, .. to the manner Lorn:' Roth gentle- 
mcn had a practical husiness e..perience hefore joining in 
their present enterprise. .\t the time of their advent as estale 
.Igents there \\ere not more than h\enty agencies of that ilk in 
roronto, and the \ oung firm soon had a prosperous and 
profitahle hu<..ines.... I'heir offices \\ere originally on \\'ellingtoll 
Street: nine )earS ago the) located on \Ïctoria Street, where they remain. In addition to the husiness usually trans.lcted III 
.\1\ ðtate agenn, they make a specialt) of lending money on first,dass city and farm property and avoid all spt'eulatin
 \cntuft:s, 
preferring to guide their clients in safe il1\'estments, 
\1 r. I>onald Camphell. real estate hroker, horn near Barrie, J ul) <}th, 18-1-7, comes of Scotch parents. H i
 education 
\\as ohtained at the Barrie (;rammar School, from which he came to Toronto, and entered the employment of Hughes lITOs.. 
\\holesale dr
-good
 merchant.... Suhsequently he served three years in the Bank of Toronto, when he was appointed J\lanager 
of the Barrie hranch. He afterwards was 
for four years associated with the Inspec- 
tor's department of the Hank. Being 
compelled hy ill-he.llth to relax attention 
to husiness he took an c..tended on:an 
\ oyage, and on returning spent some 
 ears 
in the lumhering husiness, a
s()ciated \\ ith 
\\, R. Hurt & ('0, In IR8j. he entercd 
his present husiness, huilding an imposing 
hlock at \\ est Toronto Junetion, which 
he sold for $60,000. l\1r. Camphell is a 
Pre
h) terian. Through his efforts St. 
,\ndre\\ \ Societ) at B.urie was organi/cd 
in 18j I, and he is nO\\ an honoured life 
memher of the Society, 
:\1 r. Frederick (;eorge Lee, of the 
firm of F. G. I.et' & ('0., real est.lte, 
financial and in"uranee hrokers, \\as horn 
at Southampton, Hampshire, Engl.1nd. 
His f.1ther was killed \\ hile attempting to 
rUIl the hlock.Hle during the ,\meric.lIl 


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:\11{, Kt:<::o<t"1"II ;\II'RI10CII. 



REAL ESTATE, AND THOSE WHO TRAFFIC IN IT. 


159 


war of secession.. Bein
, left an 
rphan at an earl} age, }oung 1 ee started bu
iness on his own account before he was seventeen 
\ears old, C011111111; to I oronto 111 1872 he 
1ad
 his first venture as an upholsterer, and carried on a succes
ful business, lea\ing 
It SIX years ago to d
vote his attention to real estate, in which line he is equally 
successful. Mr. I.ee IS a member of the LO,O.F., the Sons of En<Tland and the 
R IT I <> , 
oya emp ars of Tcmperance. He o\\es his success entire!} to British pluck, 
:\Ir. Rufus Ormond \rhith
, of the firm of (;raham ò:. \\ hitl)\', real estate 
and financial brokers, \\as born in the County of I ceds, Ontario, in the \'ear 186I. 
Hc resided for some time at :\Iarkdale, where he took an acti\'e inte:est in the 
Young :\Ien's Liheral Cluh, of which he became President. Coming to Toronto he 
r formed his f->resent husiness relations, which ha\'e proved successful. The firm, 
hesides transacting husiness connected \\ ith real estate, ha\ e fire and life insurance 
"i agencies, furnish valuations, loan money and manage estates. \Ir. \\ hithy IS a 
\\orthy memher of the :\Iethodi<;t Church. 


:\1 R, DO
ALD CA \II'BELL. 


.' 


:\Ir. John J. (;raham, builder, real 
estate broker and valuator, is a na!ive of 
Canada, ha\ing been born in the Countv 
of York, Xovember the 2nd. 1852. H
 
recei\ed a good public school education at 
,\urora, Ont., and coming to Toronto in 
1883. started his prcsent husiness. which 
has alread\ shown all the elements of 
success. :\Ir. (;raham is connected with 
two henefit societies. the Ro
al 
\rcanum 


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and the Order of Forcsters, He is .1 
\Iethodist and a Ste\\ard of I )U11das Street 
Church. Hoth as a mechanic and as a 
merchant, :\Ir, (;raham has had a \\ ide 
e"'penence. 
\Ir, \\'. H. Xa
h, real estate .md 
insur.mce agent. was horn in the ('ount\ 
of I incoln. on the 8th of :\Iarch. l8.t j, 
:\fter recei\'ing .1 good education in the 
puhlic schools. he worked as a mcchanic 
till his twenty-fifth \ ear, when he ohtained 
a Provincial certificate. For eight years he taught school. a part of the time in the 
Collegiate I nstitute at St. Catharines, 
:\Ir. Xash was agent for the C0nfedera- 
tion l.ife Insurance Company for si... 
years. till in 1 H87 he estahlished his 
present husiness. He is a working 
memher of the :\Iethodist Church, and 
Superintendent of the Sunday School of 
Berean l\lethodist Church, Toronto \\'est 
:\1 ission. 
In Canada there are, in the English sense, not man
 great houses and no great 
territorial families. In the 
ew \\'orld democracy reigns, and it
 communities 
are little accustomed to be dominated h
 the social influences of a landed gentn 
or of a single ruling house. ,\s wealth increase<;. there \\ ill no nouht come into 
the social system lurds of man
 acres and holders of e...tensi\'e landed estate". In 
time \\e may also look for large aùditions to the ranks of men of competence and 
leisure, and see arise the great cit} mansion and. hcre and there in the land. the 
fine property of the country'gentieman. 1 n the city's suburhs we ha\'c, alread
, 
not a few handsome residences. and no lack of eligible site;. (111 \\ hÏ!.h to huild 
more. Some of the old family homesteads are also occa"ionall} coming into the 
market. within tolerahh' eas
 reach of thc cit}. anù these. \\ ith their often picturesque 
sites, are desirahle acquisitions for moderni7ing and making into an enjO\ahle 
countr} home. "Buttonwood, on the Humber, near the village of \reston. is one of these. It h.1S reccntly hecn purchased, 
\\ ith its farm of eighty acres. hy :\1 r. Charles I indsey, of Bcverle} Street. as a summer residence. It is charmingly 
situated, on a high point of land, from which beautiful \ iews up and down the Humher are h.ld. \\ ith a finc stn:lch of meanO\\. 
at the foot of the wooded bluff. \\ hich recalls mal1\' a lovel\" hit of Old Englanù. 


r 


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:\11{. F. G, LFJI:, 


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:\IR. R. O. WHITBY. 



........,. '0. 11IO IU. 


ALl>, J. Krwx LESLIE. 



1'60 


COJ[JfERCIAI TOROXTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF CO./lf.llfERCE. 


C H .-\ [' r E R X X I I. 


CO:\I:\IERCL\I r()RO
 roo ,-\I'\I! THE CHIEFS OF CO:\J:\IERCE. 


I'ORO"\)(' \... \ 
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TR\I'I'\",;-l'O"T C():-TR\;,III' \\JrH TORO:-TO THF 
h'TROI'OIll"\ì\ HO:'lIE OF CO\L\IERCE. THE Crn'!>. 
\"\11 I\II'ORT"', \'\)\ 1111' III illS 1.1\'11'1' 0"\ l'HF L\rTl:R, SnTlSTlCS OF rHE HO,\RD OF TR\DF. 
OF IHI" TORo"\ro 1'0"1' (ìnll"F, SO\I), RFI'RF;,F:o.IT\Tl\F \11:RCH\NrS ,\'\"IJ I'HFIR E;-.ITERPRISFS. 


TR,\IHÌ\(;,l'UST in the French regime, Toronto first came into note, and it is natural 
as well as gratif} ing to find the Lity of to-day maintaining \\ ith credit to it"df and it
 
toilers its eminence in commerce. \\'e have already pointed out that at the period of 
the Conquest there was a large husiness done at ForI Toronto with the Indians, and that 
traders \\ ould ha\ e heen \\ illing, had the post heen maintained, to gi\'C as much as a 
thousand pounds for the monopoly of the season's trade. Since then \\e ha\'e had done 
\\ ith monupolies. hut were it desirahle to revi\'C them it would hardly he possihle to put 
in figures the sum \\ hich would huy at a fair \aluation the monopoly of a season's trade of 
the modern capital. "'hat to-day are the annual aggregate profits of Toronto's commerce 
\\ e ha\ e no means of knowing, and it is e\'en difficult to ascertain with certainty what is the 
aggrq!;ate volume of her annu.11 trade, The difficulty arises from the fact that not all of 
the cit) 's imports, and hut a tithe of the city's e'ports, pass through the Toronto Custom 
House. Prohahl} \\e should not he far astray in our estimate if we quoted the figurð 
\\ hich represl'nt the sum of the e'ports and imports of the \\ hole l'rO\'ince, and claimed 
one-tenth of the former and one,half of the 1atter as Toronto's share of the gro"s trade, 
I et u
 quote these figures, t\\ent\ years apart, as indicating the growth of commerce 
\\ ithin the two periods, The e'ports of Ontario, in 1869, were in round fIgures, twent\' 
millions: in 1889, they I\ere thirty milhons; the imports in the forma period \\ere 
t\\ enty-four million
 : in the latter, forty-three millions. The duties levied on the imports were, in 1869, t\\ 0 millions: in d\89, 
eight million
, The annual !>.tatement of the Toronto Board of Trade. for the year 1889, furnishes partial confirmation of the 
rough estimate \\e ha\e made, \\'e quote the figurl's, though with some mental resenation as to their accuracy, in \'ie\\ of whal 
\\e ha\e said of the difficulty of estimating the gros" \a1ue of the cit}'s e,ports, \\hich flow out of the city hy so many and 
varied channels. The statistics are: total 
\alue of imports (IR89), $20,457,376 : duty 
paid thereon, $4,339,839; tota1 \alue of 
C\ports (1889), $2.960,689. .\norher indi- 
('ation of the e,tent of Toronto's commerce 
is to he found in the statistics of her Post 
()ffice. The total numher of letters delivered 
h} L.uril'rs in the cit) was, for the }ear 1889, 
0\ er thirteen millions, \\ ith a like number 
po!>.ted at th_ office. This i., e,clusi\e of 
hook packages, circular", po"t-cards and 
ne\\"papers. In this ma/e of bu"ines
 it i... 
\\onderful ho\\ little \\e hear of corrc"pond- 
cnce going a!>.tra\, and credit is due to the 
office for ih finel\'-organi/ed distributing 
mLthod..., "afet) and despatch. To pay a 
pa""ing compliment in one direction i", in 
tlu
 commercial age. tú pay it in all, and to 
.II'kJ1lI\\1edg' th L uni\er
ality of the forcc
 
.1Ild Lnen!Ît:
 \\ hi('h 1110\ Land gO\ ern thL 
\\ hole 111 hinen and è\er} ramification of 
Irade. Toronto.... "hare in thi" trade happih" 
III ere from \ear to \Lar. HIm much 
enterpri...e and hi!!h. honl.t endea\our lie 
hehind it. the thoughtful onluoker \\ ill not 
fail tu note. ,\ cit\', Lommerce i" not huilt 
up \\ithout making \a,t draughb on the toiler\ br.lin .llld mu"dL'. 
thdl,;I\\, ,1.. ,.]1" 11,11, ,l!Id ,I la
tinf! re\\anl. 


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Rt',WFS('F. OF MR. C. R, S. DIS:-/ICh., Sr, (;FORr;E SrRI ET. 


In hi" lahours, hoth tor himself and the communit), ma} 



CO,Jf,JfERCIAL TORONi'O, A VD THE CHIEFS OF COJ1JfERCE. 


16\ 


\Ir, Frederic\... \\"yld, head of the well-e'itablished firm of \lessrs. \\'yld, (;rasett 
 Darling, \\ holesale dry-good, merchants, 
IS a son of a I eith merchant: his father, \\ïlliam \\'yld, having been a partner in the house of :\les
rs. James \\'yld 
 Co, 
'Ir. \\') ld, both as a citiæn and a man of 
llllsine-.s, possesses the high \\orthy charac- 
teri"tics of his nationality. He \\as born at 
:O;cotson Park, (.,!ueensferr), Scotland, ] )ecem- 
her 2-1th, 1831, and w.lS educated at Irvine 
,\eadem). :\Ir. \ryld had a thorough business 
training in Edinburgh and GlasgO\\ before 
coming to Canada at the age of twenty-two. 
He located in Hamilton, \\here he remained 
till ISj2, when he remO\'ed to Toronto. Here 
his firm ha\'e recently erected one of the 
finest warehouses in Toronto. Since 1872, 
he has been prominently iùentified \\ ith the 
commercial interests of this city, and is known 
as one of the chiefs of its traùe and com- 
merce, :\lr. \ryld is a Director of the 
Standard Bank, the ] ondon & Ontario 
Il1\'estment Co" and the Torunto I and 
Ill\'estment Co. He is also President of the 
Fire Insurance E...change, .-\S a Scotchman, 
he is a member of the St. ,-\ndrew's Society, 
though in matters of national \\ell-being and 
sentiment he is essentially a Canadian. He is a member of the Church of England. 
'ïews of his firnÙ fine warehou"e \\ ill be found on this page. 
The view of the e...tensive \\arehouse of :\lessrs. John :\l.1cdonald & Co., \\hich \\e 
gi\'e in these pages, is of the Wellington :O;treet front. The buildings e...tenù through to 
Front Street, and contain the most e...tensi\e "toc\... of dry'goods in Canada. This most 
reputable firm was established in 18-19, by the late Senator John :\lacdonald, and its 
career has been one of unbroken success. In 1887 :\Ir. :\lacdonald admitted into 



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1\1 R. FREDERIC" \\'\1)), 


partnership his eldest "on, John 
Kidston :\lacùonald. and Paul 
Campbell, both of \\ hom had long 
been identified \\ ith the business. 
In February, 1890, :\Ir. :\Iacdonalù, 
senior, died, and since then the 
,econd son of the late Senator has 
become a member of the firm. The 
three members of the hou
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actiw, energetic and thoroughly 
qualified husine!'s men, and ha\ ing 
a large established business, \\ ith 
ample capital, they are able to hU\ 
to the best ad\antabe, The hou
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is generally beliewd to do the largest 
turn-oYer in the Dominion. Their 



]6
 


eOMAIEReIAI TORONTO, AJllD THE CHIEFS OF eOAfA/ERCE:. 


tr:nellers C.Imass the trade from ocean to ocean. Besides the enormous business in dry-goods and woollens done by the firm, 
they make a specialt\ of carpets, oilcloths and linoleums. They were the first here to introduce the departmental system of doing 
business, and to send to British and European 
markets a buyer twice a year from each depart, 
ment. To speak of the commerce of Toronlo 
is to call to mind, this, one of its chief depots, 
The old and long established wholesale 
dry'goods house of :\Iessrs. Gordon, :\Iackay & 
Co., was founded in Hamilton in 1855, by the 
late Mr. John (;ordon and Mr. I>onald I\lackay, 
1 n 1859, the shipping advantages of Toronto 
attracted the firm to this city. Two years later, 
they built the Lybster Cotton ,\Iills at :\lerrit- 
ton, an industry which they still own and 
operate. The firm built in 1871 the extensive 
warehouse at the corner of Bay and "'ellington 
Streets which they now occupy, a picture of 
which will be found in our pages. The senior 
member of the firtn, 1\lr. John (;ordon, who 
was a well-known and much esteemed citi/en, 
died in Paris in 181;2, whither he had gone three 
years previously in pursuit of health, Two of 
his old and trusted employees were then admitted 
by \Ir. :\Iackay into the business. The firm 
now consists of I>onald Cordon, C. C. Robh, 
and J. "-. Woods. rhis house earned a reputa- 
tion in its early history for systematic business 
methods, and has steadily maintained its good 
name for the long period of thirty-fi\oe years. 
:\Ir. ] }onald }'Iackay, of the firm of 
I\lessrs. (;ordon, ì\lackay ,\: Co., wholesale dry, 
goods merchants, was born in I,ybster, Scotland, 
in the year 18 [5. Coming to Call.lda in the 
early thirties, I\lr. :\Iaekay served in the Rebel- 
lion of 1837, on the Loyalist side. He resided 
a number of years in :\Iontreal, where he entered 


intu mercantile life \\ ith his t\\ 0 elder brolhers. I n 180lS he removed to Hamilton, 
.lI1d \\ ith his nephe\\, formed the nO\\ e,tensive wholesale dry-goods house of (;ordon, 
:\Iackay & CO.,48 Front Street \rest. :\Ir, :\Iacka) is a Director of the Ontario H.lI1k, 
of which he was formerly \'ice-President. He is also a Director of the London & 
('anadian Loan and .\genc) Cumpany, and is identified with several other business 
enterprises. \Ir. l\1ackay, who is one of the most respected of our chiefs of commerce, 
í" a member of Knox Presb)terian Churc'h, and of St. ,\ndrew's Society. 
.\mong the houscs of emincnce in the dry-goods business in Canada, that of 
:\Iessr!-', ,,} Id. Crasett oS.. Darling is one that takes first rank. In the magnificen t 
premises erected by the firm on the ('orner of Bay and "'c1lington Streets, it possesse..s 
unusual facilities for doing business, It has command of large capital, varied experi- 
enct. in all departments of the trade, and its partners are mcn of excellent business 
abilit) .lI1d high personal \\orth. The sllccess it has met with, and its high standing 
in commercial circles in Tf)ronto, manifest the favor with which it is regarded in all f->.uts of the Ilominion. 
\Ir. ,\. ,\. Allan, senior member of the finn of Messrs. .\, ,\. .\Han & Co" wholesale hat and fur merchants, was born 
\Iarch qth, 18ol2, in the Island of South Rünaldshay, of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. His family came to Canada, in 18ol2, 
and settled at Port RO\\an. At twehe years of age :\Ir. Allan went to Cobourg, where he resided si, years, when he came tu 


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IAl'KAY. 



CO
JnIERCIAL TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF CnJIMERCE. 


Toronto, and after lon
 e"'perience as a com- 
mercial tra\'c1ler, founded the present business 
inIS77. :\Ir. \I\anisa Presb)terian, and one 
of the mall.lgers of St, James'Square Presby- 
teri,lJ1 Church. He is a member of the 
('ouncil of the Iloard of Trade. St, . \ndre\\ 's 

ocict\. a I }irector of the Traders' Bank, and 
of the'lational Club. In 18SS. 1\1r. .\I\an 
\\as elected President of the Commercial 
Tr.I\'dlers' \ssociation, :\Ir. James P. . \I\an. 
who is also a member of the tìrm, is a brother 
of 
Ir. ,\, .\. .\I\an, and W,lS born at Port 
1{00\an, .\ugust 31 st. 1850. He was early as- 

()ciated with the firm of :\Iessrs. .\. ,\. ,\1\.111 

 ('0., general merchants of that place, and 
came to Toronto in 187 ï to become a mem- 
her of the present establishment. I ike his 
hrother, \Ir. ,\I\an is a Presbyterian. 
--- Mr. Thomas :\!cLean, chief clerk of 
Her :\Iajest\.'s Customs, Port of Toronto, \\as 
horn at Turlo. ('ount
 \Iayo. Irel.1I1d, of 
parents of Scotch descent. J ,lJ1uan 22 1 1(1. 


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RS. GORI>ON, MAChAY 
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'IR. JA
IES D. ALl AN. 
18 31. After being educated in the Elphin 
.\cademy, he was employed as a clerk in the 
Public \\ orks Department of the Imperial 
Covernmcnt. In 1850, he was transferred to 
the I )rainage Commission of the Board of 
\\'orks, and after "pending some time in the 
head office in the 
Ia) 0 I )istrict, he resumed 
his former office \\ ith a \\ idened sphere. In 
18S-l, he callle to Canada and served in a law 
office in Toronto, till, in 18S7, during the 
land boom, he \\ent into the real estate busi- 
ness. Three ye,lrs afterwards, he hegan 
puhlishing a \\eekly newsp,lper. nallled the 
RrilÙlz Herald, which 
u{Tul1lhed \\ hlOn the 
officL was de
tro)ed 1)\ fire in 1362. I hiring 
the year following \Ir. I\k I can puhlisl1l'd a 
lIIonthly maga/ine, the R/l'li.Jh American, 
\\hich, hO\\e\'er, only lived one )e.lr. In 
18 7 0 , he was temporarily appointed clerk in 


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"A" -*""""11IO"" 


co Ill/ERC/Al TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF COJfAJERrE, 



 


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the l"oronto <. 'ustoms House, which position 
was made permanent the foIlO\\ing year. He 
was promoted to the position of chief clerk in 
Ú;ï'J, and has sho\\ n great adaptahilit) to the 
office, H is wide knowledge of Customs matters 
and his ohliging disposition and urhanity of 
manner ha\'e made him \ery favourahly known 
to all who ha\'e husinl"ss at the Custom House. 
:\lr. \\lei can is also Acting Registrar of shipping 
for this port. His residence, .. (;arne\'illa," on 
Sorauren .-\\enue, is a pretty picturesque home, 
h:1\ ing a fine S) han setting, 
:\lr. .\Iöander 1\1. Smith, of the firm of 
:\lessrs. Smith &. Kl"ighley, wholesale grocers, 
was horn of good old Scottish and Preshyterian 
stock, at :\Ionymusk, .\herdeenshire, in ISI8. 
-\fter receiving the education common to hi
 
worthy countrymen in Scotland, he, like many 
other enthusi.lstic youths of Korth Britain, was 
attracted to the service of \Iars, and spent four 


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 \1.., R, SIMPSor;;'S ÐRY,{;OOIlS STORt'. 


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years of his early life in the XCIII. High, 
landers. Though fond of the service, and 
good as were his prospects, he \\ ithdre\\ 
frum it. at the t:arnest solicitation of his 
family: and the passing years saw him a 
resident and an adopted son of Canada. 
Here he took to commercial life for a calling, 
and for oycr fony years has been worthil) 
identified with the ci"ic, military, parliamen- 
tary, and mercantile interests of thc City and 
Province. rhe firm of Messrs. Smith I\. 
Keighley has enjoyed a high reputation fur 
close upon thirty years, and Mr, Smith, him- 
self, has throughout that period led a blameless 
life and possessed the esteem and confidence 
of the community, For some years, in .. the 
fifties," he was a member of the City l'ouncil, 
and from 1863 down to Confederation he 
represented East Toronto in the Parliament 
of the Unitt:d Canadas. In IHSS 1\1r. Smith 
raised the Highland Company of 01) 
\' olunteers, and was in command of it until 
it became an integral part of the Queen\ 
Own Rifles, of which corps Mr, Smith was at 
one time I\lajor. He also held for a period 
the Colonelcy of tbe 1St I'rO\ isional Regi- 
ment, which was called out on active sen ice 
during the excitement incident to the Fenian 
Raids. On the return to their homes of thi
 
e'tempori/ed corps, Lieutenant,Colonel 
Smith was thanked for his puhlic SCT\ in'>; b) 
the I .ieutenant-( ;eneral in command of the 
District. I\lr. Smilh has heen President of 
the St. .\ndrew's Society, and of the Turonto 
Hoard of Trade, He is at present a member 
of the Council of the latter, and is I'residcnl 
of the \\ estern .\ssurance Co., and of the 
Canada Lake Superior Transit ('0. ; a mcm 
her of tht: Board of the Canada Labour and 
Sayings Society, and of the Ontario Bank 
Board. He also reprl"
t:nts the Board of 



CO
JfJIERCI.IL TORONTO, A1VD THE CIIIEFS OF COAI.JIERCE. 


Traùe on the H.lrhour Commis
ion, In 
politics, 'Ir. :-imith is a Liheral; in religion, 
he is a staunch !'resh) terian. 
.\Ir. Han'ey !'rentice Dwight, \ïce- 
President and (;eneral :\ lanager of the (;reat 
X orth-W estern ["e1egraph ('ompany of 
('anaùa, \\as horn at Belle\"ille, Jefferson 
Count\, Xe\\ York, I>e,emher 23rd, 1828. 
.\t the age of fifteen he left home to serve 
an apprenticeship of three years in a country 
store. In ,8-l7, then in his nineteenth 
)ear, he learned telegraphy in Os\\ego, r\.\., 
and \\as gi\'en employment by the :\Iontreal 
Telegraph Company, which opened a line 
in the autumn of that year, between (2uehec 
and Toronto. After serving at .\Iontreal 
three years, he \\as placed in charge of the 
office at Toronto. Soon afterwards he was 
appointed Superintendent for \\ estern 
Canada, and the business developed till he 
had under his charge a network of wires 
reaching all the important points in the 
I'rO\ ince, In ,88 I, on the consolidation of 
the Canadian companies, he \\as appointed 
(;eneral Manager of the system e'.lending 
throughout Ontario. (2uebec, New Brunswick 
and .\lanitoba, and a1so OCCUP) ing portions 
of the States of :\ ew \ ork, \' ermont, :\ el\ 
Hampshire, and :\Iaine, 'II'. I >wighl wa
 
elected Yice-President of the Company a 
year ago, taking the place of the late Wm, 
(;ooderham. He is a I }irector of the .\1 idland 
Railway Company and the Toronto Incan- 
descent I:Iectric l.ight ('ompany. l.' ntil the 
ahsorption of the Toronto <'\: :\ipissing Rail- 
way and the \Ïctoria Railway by the (;rand 
Trunk, he was a I >irector in hoth companies. 
I're\ ious to the transfer of the Horticultural 
Gardens to the City of Toronto, 1\1r. I >wight, 
who has been always a LCalous friend of the 
people in the matter of recreation grounds in 


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EAsr Sll>F OF BA\ STRRET, SHt'WI!"; PRE"ISES Ot rHE EARliER & ELLIS Co. 


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the city, took an acti\'e interest in the 
Society, and \\as one of the I >irectors. 
\Ir. I >wight is a man of fine business 
habits, sterling honour, high e,ecutive 
ability, and in the important trust he 
holds fulfils with great credit to himself 
and with ad\'antage to the pubiic the 
delicate and responsible duties of his 
office He is a member of the Church 
of England, anù has always kept aloof 
from politics. 
The Barber &- Ellis Company, 
the extensive wholesale manufacturing 
stationer
, was founded in 1875, by 
Tames Barber and John F. Ellis. Until 
',883 the Im"ine",.,' W.IS conducted by 
these two gentlemen, under the firm 
name of l\lessrs, Barber &- Ellis, In 
that \ear the concern bccame ,I joint- 



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CO.II IIENCUL TORONTO, .IND THE CflIErS OF COJ/AfERCE. 


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INTFRIOR OF IIlcKSOS, DUNCAN & CO.'S \V AREHOUSE, FRO:llI' STREEr \Y. 


The fancy goods house of :\h:ssrs. Hickson, Duncan 
 Co" 
.1 picture of which is gi\"l:n here\\ ith, is an e'tensi\'e establishment. 
The business was founded in 1878, by W. H, Bleasdell and E. 
Hickson, undcr the name W. H, H1easdell &: ('0. In 1889. :\11'. 
Bleasdell retircd and 1\11'. J. 1 )uncan became a member of the firm 
under the present name. I juring se\ eral months every year the firm 
has a buyer in the (;erman, . \ustrian and French markets, making 
selections to supply the retail fancy goods trade. l.ines of goods are 
kept on hand to meet the requirements of druggists, tobacconists, 
booksellers, music dealers, jewellers, de. The firm also handles 
English cutlery, and the products of se\eral .\merican manufactun:rs 
extensi\ dy, Six tra\'ellers recei\ e orders for l\Iessrs. Hickson, 1 Jun- 
can &. Co., from one end of the 1 )ominion to the other. Both 
members of the firm havc a bu
iness experience of O\'er thirty years. 
:\Ir. John Hallam, the active representative in thl' City Council 
of St. 1 awrencc \\'anl, and a must u"cful and public-
pirited citiæn, 
\\a-; horn at Chorley, I ancashire, England, October 13th, 1833. He 
is cssentially a <;elf-made man and the unaided architect of his own 
fortunt:!!. C"ntil he was 
twenty years of age, his 
opportunities of ohtaining 
an education were very 
slender, his early life ha\ing 
been passed, like that of 
his parents, in a cotton 
factory, where the hours 
were long and the toil 
hard. Even when he 
emerged from his teens, all 
the schooling he had was 
J!:ained at a nig:ht school, 
supplemented hy his own 
private reading, spurred on 
hy a laudahle thirst for 
knO\\ ledge and a desire to 
advance himself in life. In 
1856, he emigrated to 
Canada and 
ettled in 
Toronto, where for some 


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AII>FI,\IAl'o .1"11' 11\11 \\1. 


-;tock company. with 
Ir. Juhn I{. Barber of 
the (;eorgetown Paper Company who became 
the principal stockholder, as President; John 
F, Ellis, \Ianaging-I )irector; J. T. Clark, 
rreasurer; 1'. T, Perrot and J. \\". \Iaughan. 
I )irectors. The fine warehou
e sho\\ n in the 
illustration stands on Bay Stred near Front 
Stred, and was erected in 1
87, for tht: 
growing necessities of this useful industr), 
It is si, storeys in height, and cO\ers anan:.1 
of 7.000 square feet. The B.lrbcr &: 1:Ilis 
Company are well-kno\\ n as \\ holc
ale 
stationers, hook hinders allli paper-bm. 
makers. They have the largest and 1ll0
t 
complete em elope fadory in C.mada. being 
ahle to turn out 750,000 cmclopes d.lily. 
The goods of this house find their \\.1\ to 
every part of the I )olllinion, and the firm 
deservedl} enjo} s a high reputation fur 
husiness ability and integrity, The enter- 
prise of this house is as well kno'\"n to the 
trade as is its industry. 


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\\'AREJlOlTSE OF :\1 ESSRS. HICKSOS, IW-';CAN & Co. 



COllf.JíERCI.1L TORO/IlTO, .JXD THE CHIEfi:.... OF COllfJfERCE. 


\ ears his c,lreer was one of strenuous lahour, disciplined by ad\ ersity, In 
hide, wool and Jc,lther merchant, and has met with the good fortune which 

U(TL ,sful career is a notable C"\ample of 
\I hat stead) perse\'erance can accomplish, 
\I hen it i
 allied \1 ith high and beneficent 
aims, "Ïth a short hn.'ak, :\1 r. Hallam has 
almo
t uninterruptedly represented a ward of 
the city in the Council which is distincti\ely 
conllllerci,ll, for a period of near!) t\\ enty 
\ ears. In this cap.lcit)', he has ever heen 
LCaIous for reform, and h.1S intelligently and 
usefully served the city in the important 
trusb committl:d to him. As a legislator at 
tht. ('ouncil Board, he has carried many 
mt.'.l
ures of importan('e, heen an uncom- 
promising foe to 1.1'\ e'\emptions, anú an 
earnest ad\ ocate of public parks and other 
means of recreation for the people, 1'0:\1 r. 
H.lllam, chiefly, the citiæns owe the Free 
Public Lihrary, and to its interests he has 
demted much of his lime and administrative 
ahility, with suhstantial gifts from his purse. 
fhe Hallam Reference J .ibrary. in that 
institution, is a mark at once of his RES"'''''''E OF MR. IIE:<oIRY LUCAS, COLLEGE SrREF r. 
generosity and of his devotion to the hest interests of the city. .\Ir. Hallam take
 an acti\ e intl:rest in all puhlic questions, and 
I
 an enthusiastic ('anadian. In politics, as in religion, he is a J ,iheral, anti, lTonomically, a Free Trader. 
:\fr. Hugh X. Baird, grain merchant, \\as horn at Cohourg, September 2{th, 
18 3 6 , He is a 
on of the late :\Ir. K. H. Baird, e.E., who was identified with leading 
public impro\ ements in Cpper and Lower Canada during the first half of the century, 
The subject of this sketch was educated at a private school in \Iontreal. He is a 
member of the firtn of :\Iessrs. Crane & Baird, \Iontreal and Toronto, which was 
estahlished t\1 enty-fi\ e years ago and does a very large grain e'\port trade, The firm 
is largely interested in several manufacturing and commercial enterprises at Paris,Ont. 
:\1 r. Baird was \'ice-President of the old ('om E\change, and is nOlI \'ice-President of 


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RESIDENCE OF MR. II. !\. B-\IR!I, l;RO
\'E:<oIOR S rR
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1866, he began IJlI"ine
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I\IR. ELIAS kOGER,. 


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the Toronto I:oard of Trade. He is a 
Director of the "'estern .\ssurance Company. 
l\lillers and ,\Ianuf.'lcturer,,' In
urance ('om- 
pal1\', the Ontario & S,lUlt Stt.. l\1.1rie Rail\\a)', 
and the 
Iidl.tllll Hi\ ision of the (;. 1', R. 
I n religious maUcr
, J\I r, /-bird is connected 
\\ ith the N orlhern Congregational Church. 
l\f r, Elia
 Rogers, one of the best 
knol\ n and most \Iorthy of coal dealers in 
Canad.l, wa
 born near N e\\ market, June 
23 rd , 1850. The puhlic schoo] education he 
recei\ed \Ias supplemented 11\, tl\O term.., 



H;S 


CO IfJILRCl.t/. TORO.\ TO, AN]) THE CJ11El:S OF CO,I/MERCE 


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IIF..... OFFICE OF 
rt',R
. ELI"" ROGER, & CO" Ku':.; SrREET \YE'r. 


\ aile) coal. Their dock, at the foot of Church Street, i
 2 13 feet 
\\ ide and 506 feet long. Theft' are two steam elevators on the prel11- 
i...e..., and automatic appliances capahle of unloading 1$00 tons a da). 
,\t the do
e of na\igation last year there \\ere 60,000 tons of coal 
on the dock, l'he Company is officered by 1\1 r. 1\1. F, Bro\\ n, Presi- 
dent and Trea,>urer; :\Ir. ] J, R. I Jewey, Hamilton, \'ice-President, 
.Uld \Ir. F. \', Blackman, Secretary, 
The Conger Coal Com pan) i, the outgro\\ th of a 
mall 
.md unpretentious coal .md \\ ood bu,iness which was estah- 
lished b) the lat(' \Ir. 1'. I J, Conger, in Toronto. t\\enty-one 
\ear,> ago. By hard \\ork and ceaseless \igilance :\Ir. Conger 
built up .111 immelbt: trade, which wa,> still increa,ing at the 
time of hi
 lamented death. in I!$X5. The ('onger Coal Com- 
pany, of \1 hich \Ir. Ralph (;il"on i
 the President and l'rea- 
"urer, and \Ir. Jaml r. ('lar\... SelTetar), hao; ,ince that time 
.'arried on the hu-int --. The Com pam hanelles the lIe"t 


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attendance at College in X ew \ or\... H i
 
first business venture \\ a" in the lumher trade 
at t\\ enty ) cars of age, . \ few ) ear
 later 
he became interested in coal mines at \{e\ 
nolds\'ille, I'a., and turned his attention 
entirely to the ("oal husiness. ] n I X71i, he 
opened an office in Toronto to do a \\hole 
s.lle and retail husiness in partnership II ith 
:\11'. F. C. Ilininny, a wealthy operator in 
anthracite coal. Suhsequently 
Ir. Ro"cr" 
hecame sole owner of the Reynolds\'ille hitu- 
minous mine. . \ Ithough still a \ oung man 
he has built up one of the mo"t C'\ten
i\'L 
husinesses of the kind in Canada. ] n I X87. 
after one year'
 sCr\ ice in the ('ity ('ouncil, 
he was hrought prominently hefore the people 
of Toronto as a candidate for the :\Ia)oralt), 
in response to a requisition ,igned hy fi\'e 
thousand \oters. His defeat \\a<; caused h) 
the presence of a third candidate in the 
field, 1\lr. Rogers has heen a memher of 
the Council of the Hoard of Trade for ,ome 
years. and i, well kno\\ n in connection \\ith 
religious and philanthropic institutions. 
If it is an iron age, it i
 also a mal 
age, and the industries are man) and e\ten- 
si\'e to \\ hich the mining of coal has given 
hirth, ()f hituminous coal, ('anada ha
 
large deposits in K l)\'a Scotia, and of anthra, 
cite coal she is understood to ha\'e plent\ 
in British Columbia, Rut these Prm inn 
ale hoth of thcm distant from Ontario and 
her I--eople have to he content in the nuin \Iith 
the importation from nearer markets of dom, 
estic fuel. The Ontario Coal ('ompany \Ias 
formed only t\\O years ago, and IS nO\\ doing 
one of the largest husinesses in the coal 
trade in (>ntario. The fuel handled last year 
reprðented a \'alue of ahout $1.000,000. 
I Juring the lirst season's operations of the 
Company 30,000 tons of coal pa,,,ed through 
their hands. while their shipping" la"t "L.l
on 
reached I I 5,000 tons of hard ('oal, 75,000 
tons of soft coal, and 50,000 cords of Ilood. 
The ('ompany deals chiefly in the I ehlgh 



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CO_JDIERCLlL TOROXTO, .1NlJ THE CII/E.FS OF COJ/ll/ERCE, 


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l'itbton and Scranton anthracite coal, shipping direct from the mines to their commodious docks at the foot of Church Street, 
\\ h<:re it is handled \\ ith the latest impron:d macllÏner}. They do an e"\tensive retail trade, besides 
uppl) ing man} countr} 


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 ,\é Co., ESI'LA'>;AIIE, (:\EAR BER....FI E\ SIRFEr), A:Ion n\1l1l'R
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dealers, In addition to the large anthracite coal trade, they di"trihute soft coal and coke for domestic. steam and hlacksmithing 
purposes. and cordwood, pine and charcual. Beside
 the gencral office at ó King Street I:a,t, the ('ompalJl has man\' hranch 
nffiee" throughout the cit), The firm has an e"\eellent husine"s reputation. 


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 \ ONTARIO COAL CO. 
Øl]MlJIIIL CO MINERS & &HIPPF:RS or 
:",1 
, AN T:.niAfI TE C OA L B ITUMIN OUS 


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R" A,\" DOCK ot' IHE O'IARIO COAl CO'II \'\Y, E I'L
XAIIF (1'001 OF 1.1I1'RUI :".) 


\If. ,\It:"\amler 
airn. of the firm of :\Ies"rs. ,\. "- S. :'I;.lÎrn. \\h.lrfinger<; and 
oal mcrchanh. \\.IS bOTn in (;I.I"'
o\\. 
Scotl.lIld. in 1 g32. There he was educated and trained to hu"int:
" lift: in the offic
 of hi" f,lther. .1 I,uge mill-O\\ ner .1Ild gr.lin 
merrhant. .\Ir. Xairn carne to Can,lda in 1857. and for a numher of \ ears \\as in IJU:-.ine,," in Ruck\\ood. ('ounl) \\-ellinglOn, 
,b a miller ami gr.lÎn comrni""ion mcrchant, and \\a<; largely idt:ntilÌl.d \\ith thl: inJu,trie" of Ihe place. In lðï-1- he r
'm()\'cd to 



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CO/lIJIERCIAL TORONTO, .1XD THE CHIEFS OF CO/l1JIERCE. 


I'oronto, and in the follo\\ing ,ear entered into partnership with Ilis hrother Stephen, under the firm name of ,\. ,\: S. I\airn, 

till earn ing on in hi,., 0\\ n account se\erall.lrge contracts \\ ith the raih\ays for the suppl) of timber and tics, and building OJ1C 


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CHURCH STREEI' \\'IIARF, SIlO\\I
<; THI COl\t;ER COAL CO.'S YARn. 


CAN.PMOTO.IMG A 


He was also intL'rL'sted in the lake tradL', a ,.,tockholder in the \\ e,tern 
IIi rectorate of the Toronto, erey ,\: Bruce Ry. In 1880, l\Ir. Xaim 
retired from .H,ti\'c business, though he is still 
a member of the Board of Trade, and the 
0\\ ner of flour, saw and \\ ool\en mill
 at 
'" 
C', Hanover, Count) Bruce; a 1 >irector of the 
london & Ontario Il1\'estment Co., of the 
James' Bay R. R. Co., of the Incande
cent 
I.ight Co., of the I >ominion Safe I >epo.;it and 
Warehousing Co., etc. In politics, :\11', Xairn 
is a Reformer; in religion, a Presb) terian. 
.\11'. B. \\'estwood was horn in Red- 
ditch. England. July 15th. ,8-1-5, \\herL' he 
was educated, and \\hen still a youth 
given a thorough training in the manu- 
facture of needles and fishing tackle, for 
which RL'dditch has long been celebrated. In 
,Sr.7 he came to J'oronto and as,.,i,ted in 
managing the branch-house of the firm 01 
Allcock, I.aight & Co, In 1873, :\11'. \h,.,t- 
',,- \\ood \\as admitted to an equal share in the 
husiness as rL'sidL'nt partner, and the linn 
became .\lIcock, I .light IX \\'L'sl\\ood, The 
senior partner>; have alw.lYs li\ed in Engl,lIld. 
where they carryon onL' of the largL'st fi,'ih- 
ing tackle establishmcnts in the world. :\11'. 
\\ e"t\\ ood is abo intere,.,tL'd in other bU'iillt'", 


of the fine>;t doc)..o; in the {'ity for the uses of his firm, 
Tran
portation Co,ll ('0" and in 187Y wa,., on thc 


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[R. A. t-.AIR'Õ, TAR\b STRI'I'T. 



 



CO J/lIERCIAL TORONTO, AXD THE CHIEFS OF COJfJJIERCE. 


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l'ntl:rpri
e!-. and in Toronto real e"tate. He is President of the Eno Steam (;enerator Co, (Limited), and a Director of the Byam 
\lanufacturin
 Co. (Limited). ('ommencing at ei
hteen year!-. of age as a local preacher, :\Ir. \\'est\\ood has ah\a\s taken a deep 
interest in \Iethodism. and has 
occupied almo"t every lay position 
in the church. The Central 
Ietho- 
lIist Church, 
padina ,\\ enue 
Church, Trinitv \Iethodist ('hurch, 
and l'a r\... dale 
Iethodist Church 
haw all been assisted hy 
Ir. \\'est- 
\\ ood. 
:\Ir. (;eorge I eslie. 
r., one 
of the oldest and \\orthiest residents 
of Toronto, \\as horn at Ro
art, 
:-,utherlandshire, Scotland, in I
O-t, 
He came \\ ith his parents and si"\ 
brothers and sisters to this country 
in I 8:! 5. \\ hen the famil) reached 
roronto. there were hut five hric\... 
buildings on h ing 
tn:et. :\1 r. 
leslie Ii\ ed in Street,,\ ille for a 

hort time and returned to thi" cit} 
in I83ï, \\hen he permanently 
located here, He IS the o\\ner 
and operator of one of the most 
e"\tensi\e horticultural nurseries in 
Canada. :\Ir. I eslie is a life-mem- 
Ler of the Horticultural Society, 
Toronto, and a magistrate. ,\s a 
member of the City Council in its 
earl} days, he had a hand in mould- 
ing the city as it is to-day. His 
t\\O SOlb. Mr. (;eorge Leslie and :\Ir. J. kno"\ Leslie, are prominent business men, 
and the latter is a member of the City Council for 18 9 0 . 
.\Iderman John hno"\ I l'slie wa" born in the Cit} of Toronto, in J8-t6, his 
birthplace being in the \ ery heart of \\ hat is now the \ ortex of commerce. Hi" father, 


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\Ir. (;eorge I l'"lie. \\a
 born in 
lIthcrland- 
shire, Sl'otbnd, in 180-t. and c.une to ('.mada 
in I 8:! 5 ; "ince then hi
 name as an Ontario 
X ursen man 11.ls long heen tunil iar in all 
paris of the I )mninion. Tht "ubjec\ of our 
notice \\as cdUC.lted primarih at the public 
schools, suhseqllenll) at the ('olle
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1'1 
I". JOII' 
r-\IO!'I'\. BRn...... .-\\E"lÏ!. 



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COJI.IIERCIAL TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF COllIllIERCE, 


Institute, (;
orget<mn. Ont., and finally at the l\Iudel (;rammar Schoul. Toronto He then entered the B.lI1\.,ing ami E\change 
office of :\Iessrs. E. Chaffe\' & Co.. 1\ hen- he rem,lined fnr Ì\\O } ears, during the great fluctuations of ,\merican currenI') ,It the 
time of the .\merican n:hellion. leaving this 
h,lIl\..ing house to take a position in the Cal1.1da 
Permanent Building and Loan Society, of this 
city, Being offercd a situation in the Ro)al 
Canadian Bank. he accepted it, and in thi
 
in
titution he remained for three years. He 
aftef\\arJs conducted the husiness affairs of the 
Leslie Nurseries; and in 1880, accepted the 
office of C]er\... for the Township of York, \\ hich 
he continued to fill for seven years. I luring 
this time his husiness training and kno\\ ledge 
of finance made his services of incalculable 
\aluc to this premier township, [n 1887. at the 
solicitation of his father, he resigned the town- 
ship clerkship to permanently assume the 
management of the commercial and fìnanci.11 
department of (;eorge I,eslie ,\: Son 's e\kn
ive 
nurseries and real estate interests. Alderman 
Leslie has for many) ears takcn a deep inlerest 
in puhlic affairs, especially in thc imprO\ement 
of the eastern portion of the city. He is I
t 
\ïce-President of the I':"\cclsior Life Insurance 
Co. of Toronto, a I >irector of the Impenal 
Produce Company, of I.ondon, England, and 
Toronto, and a mcmher of the Industrial 
E\hibition .\ssocÎ.ltion. He is also a I'a
t 
:'I1.r
terof Orient Lodge 
o, 339. .\. F, 
 .\. .\1.. (;. R, ('" 1',ISt Z. of Orient Chapter No. 79. a memher of (;eoffrq elL St. 
,\ldem,lr Preceptor} of K.nights Templar, 1',lst Chief Ranger Court East Toronto, I. O. Foresters. Xo. 
so, 1'. :'II. \\". Crystal 
Lodge '\0, J 13, \, 0, C. \r.. a memher of tJw SOliS of eUlaJa, and The (;ardellers and Florists' Club of Toronto. .\Ir, J. 1\:. 
I e
lie, \\ 110 is an esteemed and puhlic-spirited townsman. is an e"\-memher of the ()ueen's Own Rifles, and at present c'lPtain 
of :\To, 3 Company, 12th B.lttalion "York Rangers." 
Ir. ,\Id, J. 1\:. Leslie served with the "Yor\..-Simcoe" Battalion during 
the troubles in the Korth-\\ est in IXXS. 
Cquity Chambers (corner 
,\delaide and \ïctoria Streets) was 
huilt by \Ir. Rohert Car
\\ell, the 
\\ell-kno\\n Ia\\ puh]i
her, as a 
centrall}-situated hloe\.. suitahle for 
1.1\\ offices, and thus aptly recei\ ed 
it
 name. The building was 
de
iglll:d \\ ith speci,ll reference to 
gi\ing ,Ihundance of light and good 
\ entilalion, and \\ a
 the first husi- 
lIt;
" bloc\.. in the city to introduce 
the cle\ator for the com enience of 
ih tenant
 ,1Ild their clients. On 
it- completion it \\,lS fully rented, 
and h,l
 continued to be \\ell-filled. 
"e\er,1I of the tellanh ha\ingoccu- 
pied their premi
e" continuously 
since the erenion of the building. 
It is heated b} hot water, and ib 
elc\.ltor i
 run b} h}draulic po\\er. 
The huilding com.i
ts of !>ix flats. 
including the bast'ment, \\ hi,'h i" 
med as a printing office, and the 
top floor a
 arti,,1<, studi"s, one 
portion being (w('upicd by la\\ 


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JIIENCF. OF MR. }-\s. CI ARK
O'l, PARKDAI F. A"F, 


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"BA\TIEII," /)0\\ IIS(; An:., RE,IIJF'CE OF :'IIR. R. CARS\\ Ell. 



CO.JLJIERCL4L TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF COMMERCE. 


offices. It has a fronta
e of -to feet by a depth (with a fronta
e on Victoria Street) of yo feet. 
('.Irswell, senior member of the firm of .Messrs. Carswell &: Co., law puhlishers, who occupy the 
douhtless. in the near future, will gi\'e place to a huilding more in harmony \\ ith 
I:quit) Chamhers, amI its pro"\imity to the (;eneral Post Office. i\I r. Carswell's 
seller amI importer is \\ ell-known to the legal fraternity, as his lìrm has business 
profession from Halif.l"\. \". S.. to \ïctoria, II.C. The publications of his firm 
important \\orb in Canadian legal literature (including the ahle professional serial, 
Times, under the joint editorship of :\Iessrs. E. D. .\rn1Our, C).C., and E. B, I3rown, 
te'\t-books, \\orks of practice, .wd reports of the English Courts, issued hy the chief 
Personally, 
Ir. ('ars\\ ell is a nun \\ orthy of the high esteem in which he is held 
He is a nun of great integrity of 
ch.lr.:lcter, high personal honour, re.ll 
warmth of heart, and a 10\ er of all 
good, I >enominationally. he is a 
memher of the S\\ edenhorgi.w or 
:\c\\ Jerusalem Church. and a dili- 
gent and earnest seeker after truth. 
M r. .I ohn Han ie, Secretar) 
of the L" pper C.wad.l Bible Society, 
was Ilurn at ('ampl leltown. Arg\ le- 
shire, :o>cotland. ,\pril 12th, 1833, 
<. 'oming to Canada at .:In e.lrly age. 
1Ir. H.lr\'ie entered the sen'ice 01 
the :\ orthern Railway, in !'lmnec- 
tion \\ ith which he \\ as identilied 
\\ ith the early history of railroading 
in llntario. He issued the fir
t 
ticket, and collected the lirst f.lre, 
and accomp.lI1ied the first passenger L 
train that was run in Cpper <. 'anada, 
the date being l\lay 16th, 1853. In 
1867. 
Ir. Har\'ie assumed the man- 
agement of the traffic department of 
.. The :\orthern." which he held till 
ill,health compelled him to retire in 
1881. Since then he has heen 
identified with the Cpper Canada 
Bihle Society, of which he is now 
Permanent Secretary. He has ser\'ed 
the city in an aldernl.lnic capacÎl) 
three years, and unsuccessfully con- 
tested Centre roronto at the last 
(;eneral Election, in the I.iberal 
interest. 
1 r. Har\'ie is a director 
of the Ontario Industrial I,oan Q 
In\'e
tment Company. the Toronto 
{;eneral Hur
 ing (;rounds Trust. the 
:\ewsbuys' I.odging. and the Tor- 
onto City :\1 ission. H L' is a trustee 
of the Young \romen's Christian {;uild and .1 life-meml'er of St. .\ndrew's Society. Calcl
oni.\I1 
()('iety, and the \ .:\I.C..\. 
\Ir. \\ illiam ,\lIen Shepard, :\Ianager of Tile .If ail Joh Printing Company, was born in Brown\"ille, '\,\.. Jul\' 61h, 
18 3 0 , and was hrought 10 Canada when but si"\ months old. ,\fter heing trained in the Public and (;r.uml1,U Schools at 
Bnll'h\'ille, he taught school for some time near Belle\'ille. In 18-t7, he \\as apprenticed at the Cal/ada CllrÙtÙlIl .1dz'oClltt' 
office. Hamilton, to learn printing. He hecame editor of the Bdlt'ville fl/,ir'/,mde1lt in 1858, and the follo\\ing )e.lr accepted 
a position on the staff of the Il/tdliJ;t'llcer, of the 
ame place. Suhsequently the control of the paper denJh'ed upon him, .mcl 
on the organization of the II/te//igel/cer Printing c.. Puhlishing Company. he hecame :\lanaging,lIirector. In 18 8 -t. :\Ir. Shep.ml 
lOok charge of The lIzai/ .I oh Department, now Tile lIIail J oh Printing Company. and since that time has huilt up one of the 
finest Lusinesses in Canada. He knows well his art, and hesides an intimate and practical knowledge of printing, ha
 C\cellcnt 
taste and good judgment. The present volume is a sperimen of the work of his Company. :\Ir. Shep.ml is a Presbyterian 
and a manager and elder of St. ,\ndrew's Church. He is also President of the Toronto '1') pothet.le. .Uld \ïCl'-PrL'
idel1t of the 
T) pothetae of ,\merica. 


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Its 0\\ ner is :\Ir. Robert 
adjacent premises, which 
the neat appearance 01 
enterprise as a law book- 
relations with the 
embrace a numher of 
the Calla d ia 11 f.mci 
B..\,), beside
 many 
I.ondon law publishers, 
hy those who kno\\ him. 


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 rREF rs. 



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CUJIJIERClAI TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF COJIJíERCE. 


\Ir. Frank \\ooten \\a
 horn in \\ïltshire, England, in the year 1838. Coming to ('anada m 1856, he spent four ye.lrs 
tilling thL 
oil and he\\ing out a home in the hack woods. He then turned his attention to educational matters, and for nine 
) ears follo\\ cd the profession of school teacher. Coming to Toronto, he was gi\'en 
the management of the Clzurch Herald, \\hich he purchased in 1885, and changed 
to the Dominion Churc/llllall. This paper ohtained a widc reputation as a staunch 
alhocate of the Church of England. The name was changed ag.lin during the 
present ) ear, and the periodical is now known a
 the Canadian Chlll'chman, of 
\\ hich the Re\". Professor Cl.lrk, of Trinity 
l.'ni\"ersity, is the ahle and popular editor. 

I r. ". ooten is a Past President and lJis, 
trict ] >Cputy (;rand Master of the Sons of 
England Bene\"olent Society. He is a 


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"R, JOIl' IIAR\ IE. 


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memher of the Church of England, St. 
( ;eorge'" 
ociety, and the Board of Trade, 
\1 r. J osi.lh Bruce, the well-kno\\ n 
King Street photographer, who was horn 
.It (;uelph, Ontario, on the 16th of June, 
18
o, is a grandSO)l of John Taylor, the na\"al hero, \\ho, \\hile sening under 
:\ elson on board the ",\lcmene" in I 798, distinguished himself hy leaping from 
the yard arm into the Mediterrancan Sea and recovered the ho" containing des- 
patches for J\apoleon, \\ hich had heen thrO\\ n overhoard from the French gUll-hoat, 
" Le Ledger," \\ hen sorely pressed h) the British fleet, For this act of hra\"ery he 
\\as a\\aflled a life pension hy the City of London, and \\as honoured hy ha\'ing his portrait pamted for the 
ational (;.lller). 
\Ir. Ta) lor came to Canada in J 83
, and \\as followed three years later hy his son,in-Iaw, (;eorge Bruce, the father of our 
suhject. Josiah Bruce was educated at the Paisley Block School. hy William Cowan. a famous master in his day. .\fter lea\Ìng 

chool, )'Ir. Bruce studied architecture in (;uelph 
for about four years. ] n I!,6 J, he went to (Jue 
hec, where he practised his profe

ion for a 
twel\"emonth, remo\"ing thence to :\Iontreal. 
Here, having pre\'iously had some e:\perienee 
as an amateur in photography, he engaged with 
the then celehrated photographer, \\'m. :\ot- 
man, \\ ith whom he remained for some years, 
when he removed to Toronto, and took charge, 
as manager, of the husiness of 1\Iessrs. J\OlnJ.ln 
,\. Fraser. .\t the e"piration of seven years he 
se\"ered his connection with this finn and e
 
tahlished himself in business on his own account, 
at 132 King Street \\ est. There arc fe\\ hou...e, 
of refinement in Toronto. or for that matter, in 
Ontario, tlut do not contain one or more photo, 
graphs ewcuted in ì\lr. Bruce's e"cellent studio. 
:\Ir. Eldridge 
tanton, photographer, i
 
a native of ('ohourg, where he was horn :\[.lrch 
7th, 183
, He was educated at \Ïctoria l'ni 
\"ersity, and ha\"ing a decided þalchanl for photo 
graph}', made it aftef\\ards a special study. 
While 111 \Ïrginia, he was the first to introduce 
the photograph on paper, and became celehrated 


.... 



IR. W. A. SIIEI'ARI>, 


l\I R. JO
IAIi BRULE. 


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COJDIERCIAL TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF CO,fLJIERCE. 


175 


for the excellence of his productions. Returning to Canada he remained here till 186-1-, \\ hen he went to Baltimore, 
Id., and 
opened a studio. He parted with his share of the business in 18jI, and chose Toronto for a permanent home. He was 
connected with the firm of :\Iessrs. Stanton I\: \ïcars until ten years ago, since 
which time hc has followed his profession without a husiness partner. Mr. Stanton 
has twice been elected President of the Photographic .\ssociation of Canada, He 
is an Episcopalian, and a member of the :\1asonic fraternity. For thirty,five }ears 
.\11'. Stanton has successfully practised his _\rt, and is always to he (ound at his 
studio, pa} ing personal attention to the 
posing of all sitters. 
.\11'. Herbert E. Simpson, 
photographer, successor to the well- 


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known firm of \Iessrs. Kotman &: Fraser, 
is a n.ui\e of Ontario, haling been horn 
at Richmond Hill, in the year 1866. He 
:'I[R. IIHUHRT E. SI\II'
();\". came to Toronto about ten years ago, and 
having acquired a professional education under some of the hèst Canadian artists, 
he purchased the business of .\lcssrs, Xotm.m &: Fraser, probahly the largest and 
hest-appointed house in ("anada. 1\11'. Simpson's g.IlIery contains nearly 100,000 
negatiles of the most prominent men and hest known society women, not onl)' of 
Canada, but of Europe, His professional skill ami reputation have fully equalled 
that of the firm of \\ hich he is the successor. Himself an artist of merit, .\1 r. Simpson has kept fully abreast of the times, and 
h.1S adòed to his establishment all the improvcments anù advantages in the photographic art suggested hy science. He is a 
member of the Church of England and of 
St. (;eorge's Society. 
:\Ir. J. Fraser Br}ce, photographer, 
was born in 1852, in Dundas, Ontario, where 
he recei\'ed a primary and mechanical educa- 
tion. loming to Toronto, .\1 r. Bryce studied 
photography with :\1 r. Thomas Hunter, after 
which he spent some time in perfecting him- 
self in the. \rt II ith C. C. Randell, of I )etroit, 
and J. F. Ryder, of Cleveland. both of whom 
arc proficient artists with nation.ll reputations, 
In 188-1-, .\11'. Bryce located pcrmanentl} .1t 
Toronto, purcha
ing the establi
hment of his 
lirst employer. :\11'. Hunter. The uniform 
C"\cellence of his work has made i\Ir. Br} re's 

tudio the resort of many of the best people 
of Toronto. 
\11'. Fran\.. \\". .\Iickletll\\aite, photo- 
gr.Ipher, was born at . \shton-under-L} ne, 
Lancashire, Engl.md, .\Iarch 13th, 18-1-9. He 
was educated at Hay's .\cademy, in his native 
to\ln, and sef\ed a year in an architect's 
office. Turning his attention to photograph}, 
he spent six years in the study of the .\rt, 
after \Ihich he practised till 1875 in Ird.wel. 


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CO.JfUERCIAL TORONTO, AND TIIE CHIEF."" OF CO.lhlfERCE, 


l'j'j 


Coming to ('.lI1.lda .It that time, he \\as an attaché of The .!fail nc\\ spa per for three years, resigning to open a studio aLlo J an is 
Hi
 specialt) is outdoor 


Street. Since then he has taken a high rank in the profession, and continues to do first-class work. 
\ it'\\ s, and many of the pictures of streets, parks and puhlic huildings in this work 
an
 from pictures ]1\' this de\er arti
t. :\Ir. }'lickletl1\\aitt is a memher of the 
:\[.I,.,onie hodv and of the Sons of England. 
The late :\Ir. \\ïlliam S. RohiIbon, druggist. \\as horn in \.rimshy. Lincoln- 
shire, England, \Iarch 3rd, 1834. Ht' W.b tht're .Ipprt'nticed to a druggi,.,t, and on 
.uriying at manhood came to Can.lda, 
Ih commenced husiness at \\"hith), 
\\ here he was unfortunately hurnt out. 
He then removed to Toronto, anù 
mal1.lged the drug ,.,tore of :\Ir. Robert 


Brampton, \\hich he acquired in 18ó7, and 
afterwards carried on in his own name, at 
832 Yonge Street. :\Ir. Rohinson was 
one of the founders of the Ontario Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, and seryeù in \'ariou
 
capacities as an officer of that hody. He was a P.lst :\Iaster of .\shlar Lodge, ,\. F. 
& ,\. ì\1., and an active memher of the Swedenhorgi.ll1 Church. He died from a 
sudden stroke of paralysis, on Fehruary 25th, 1889, and was much regretted hy many 
prominent citÏ/ens and druggists of Toronto. 
1\Ir. James Bm.all, of the Palace StO\e Store, h. ing Street East, and a worthy 
cili/en, was horn in \Iontreal, of English parentage, on the 8th of Fehruary, 1849. He was educated primarily at a pri\ate 
school in the cit) of <.)uehec, and after his removal to Toronto, in 1856, attended the Model School here, He was then 
apprenticed to his elder hrother, :\Ir. John Bo"\all, to learn the trade of a tin
mith, and kindred callings. Haying faithfull) 
sened his apprenticeship, he worked under instruction
 at :\Iontrealuntil [8Ó9, \\hen he remmed to Ottaw.l. T\\dye months 
later he estahlished and took charge of a hranch of hi
 hrother .I ohn 's husiness at Str.ltfonl, Ont. In 1872, he settled at 
Chelsea, :\lass., \\ here he W.IS in husiness four years; returning at the e"\pir.ltion of that time to Ontario. he lo('ated at Port 
I'err), where he was associated in business for 
eight years with :\Ir. \\'. '1', Parrish, In [880, 
Mr. Bo"\all emharked in husiness on his own 
account and met with gratifymg succe
s. In 
the summer of the year 1890, he decided to 
return to Toronto, and to open his present place 
of bu
iness at 183 King Street East. During 
hi,., residence at Port Perry, ì\1r. Bo"\all served 
two terms as Deputy-Reeye of that town, haying 
heen electerl on hoth occasions hy large majori- 
ties. "'hen le.lying to take up his residence in 
Toronto, he was presented \\ ith an address h) 
the officials of the :\Iethorli,.,t Church, and wa
 
also the recipient of an adllress from the mem- 
hers of the Old England Lodge, 'lJo, 9, Sons of 
England. 
:\Ir. John l\lallon was horn near Middle- 
town, Count) .\rmagh, Ireland, Septemher 
2,md, 1836, His parents hrought him to 
Canada in 1847, and settled in I'oronto. _\fter 
receiying a puhlic school education he "as 


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COJI.JIERCIAI TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF CO.JI.JIERrE, 


apprenticed to the hutchering husines
. and III [801 opened a .,tall on his own alTount in St. T awrence l\I.uket. Tn 1Xlí5 his 
husine"s h.ld ..0 e"\tended that it occupied three stalls, and 
Ir. '\I.Illon received as a partner his hrother-in-la\\, \Ir. :\1. J. 
\\ oods. The firm has since then heen knO\\ n as 
John :\L1110n &: Co, From 18lí6 till 18i6. :\Ir. 
M.illon \Ias a Separate School Trustee in \\ c"t York, 
and during the years 1873 and 1874 he \\a" a mcmlll'f 
of the Toronto Cit) Council. Mr. :\LIllon wa
 
appointed a Justice of the Peace in 18io. Ill' \\as 
Treasurer of Brockton from its incorporation in I RXo 
till its annL'"\ation to Toronto in 18X 4 . :\Ir. :\Iallon 
has taken an active intere"t in the shipping of !in' 
stock and cured meats to England. In politics he 
a l.iheral, and in religion he is a meml>er of the 
Roman C.ltho!ic Communion. 
Mr. Michael Joseph \\' oods, one of the most 
enterprising shippers of Canadian li\'c stock to th... 
cattle markets of (;reat Britain. and until recentl) th... 
aldermanic representative of St. .\Iark's Ward in the 
City Council, was horn near the tem n of t:allymahon. 
County Longford, Ireland, in 18 4 7. \t an carl) [igt 
he came to Canada with his parents. who settled in 
Toronto, and here the subject of our sketch received 
:\IR. :\1. J. \\ oaus' Cm TAGES 0'1/ TIlE ISI AXJ>. his education. In the si:\ties, he entered into part- 
nership \\ ith :\Ir. John :\Iallon, in the St. I a\\fence 
Luket, and has long been actively interested in ðPorting live cattle 
ami curer! meats to the Old COUlltr), \\here he had estahlished agencies both at Liverpool and at (;Iasgow, In the spring of 
IX90, \Ir. Woods \\as elected President of the Lnion Stock Yards and .\hattoir 
('om[>al1\, of \\ hich he W.IS one of the enterprising originators, From 1881 till 
188 4 , he was one of the Councillors of the village of Brockton, and \\ hen that 
suhurb was incorporated with Toronto, he was chosen to represent the new ward 
in the Cit\ Council. He continued as .\Iderman until last 1\ inter, \\ hen his mam 
husines" enterprises compelled him to retire, and the city lost a æalous and faithful 
representati\e. 1\1 r. \roods is interested in athletic "ports; is a member of the 
Sunnyside Boating Club, and was an acti\l-' a" \\ell as an honorary member of 
the Ontario Lacrosse Club. In politics, he is a Liheral; in religion, a Roman 
Catholic. .\mong :\Ir. \roods puhlic,spirited undertakings, \\as the erection of a 
numher of pleasant as well as picturesque summer cottages on the Island, an 
illustration of \\ hich appears in the"e pages, 
.\Ir. Joseph 
or\\ich was born in London, England, Fehruary 5th, 18 4 9, and 
came to ('an.lda \\ith his parents in 1855, He was educated chiefly at night- 
school. Hi'i fin,t business venture \Ias as a butcher, in 1870, on Yonge Street. 
Starting \\ ith \'ery small capital, he was 
enabled by close attention to husiness to 
purcha"e a hlock of land, part of \1 hich he 
"old to advantage and reil1\ested in \\ cst 
roronto Junction, l'arkdale and the city. 
:'Ilr. KOf\\ ich was instrumental in organi.áng 
the Parkdale Presl" terian Church, of which 
he was Chairman of the Board for ten ) cars, 
and \\aselected cider in 1888. .\Ir. Xorwich 
\\as a memher of the first Council of Park- 
dale, in 18i9, and held office till 1882. He 
\Ia., Yice-President of the ('on'iervati\e .\",,0- 
ciation of W cst York, re'iigning office \\ hen 
it \Ia
 not permitted independent action hut 
..till personally holding Consenati\e \iews. 
Ill. is a Past (;rand of City of Toronto 
lodge, <'.0,0. J-'" a memher of .\Ipha lodge, 
,\, F. &. .\, :\1., the Orange ,\"",,,'i.Ition and 
:-;1. (;eorge'" Society 


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TIlt. :\IAI.LOX IJ10n,. DUXUAS S fREET. 



CO.llJIERCIAL TORONTO, AND THE CHIEFS OF CO,JIJ1ERCE. 


lï9 


:\Ir. J
,hn Jo"eph \\'ard, merchant tai.lor, o
 1247 Queen Street \\ e"t, wa" hum at London, Ontario, :\fay 18th, 
He ha: acqUl
ed a 
horuugl
 knowlcd
e of his Lusmess, to \\ hich is to he attrihuted the large degree of su<"Ce
s he enjo) " 
\\ ard I" a hc1le\'er 111 orgal1l.fed lahour, and has held pu"itions of trust in numerous 
organifations. He has se\eral times heen a delegate to the Dominion Trades and 
Lahour ("ongre"", and is a prominent Knight of Lahour in this cit
. .\t the age of 
Iwent
 -t\\ u he was elected a memher of I'arkdale 1'0\\ n Council, and remained one 
till the municipality \\as annC"\ed tu 
Toronto. 
:\Ir. .\Iex. \Iillard, undertaker, 347 
\ on
e Street, is the desrl'ndant of a 


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\\ elsh family, who in the Yl'ar I ti20 emi- 
grated \\ ith the "Pilgrim Fathers" to the 
Cnited State,>. :\Ir. 
Iillard was horn at 
Xe\\market, Ont" on the 9th March, 1852. He is the second son of Joseph 
\Iillard, J. P., of that to\\n, \\ho has Leen in the furniture and undertaking business 
there for many years. He receiwd his education partly at X e\\ market and partly 
at the roronto Business College, . \t the age of 18 years he took a position in his 
father's \\arerooms, and in the )ear 1873 \\as admitted into partnership. In Decem- 
her, 1880, he retired from the firm of J. :\Iillard & ('0" and commenced husiness 
III Xe\\market on his o\\n account. There he remained until J.lIluan, I88-t, when he remo\ed to Toronto, to assume the 
po"ition of assistant to the bte John Young. and remained \\ith him until his death in Decem her, 1885. He then purchased 
the husiness of his late employer, and carries it on still under the name of John Young. \Ir. 
Iillard has made a special 
study of the o;ubject of emhalming, and is thoroughl) posted in all the most appro\'ed methods for the care and preser\'atlon 


.....11I 
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:\IR. JOlll' J. WARD, 


'IR. AI E"\. !\IIII ARV. 


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THE ISL \:o.n-I1A....1 AI>' I'OI'tT IN 18 6 7. 


of the dead, -\t the same time he has not lost sight of the importance of hm ing all \\ ork done on thorough ';anitarv principle.;, 
Since the organiLation of the Cndertaker's .\"sociation of Ontario, 
Ir. :\Iillard has alwa\<; taken an acti\'e part, and in IRX9 \\as 
elected one of three members of the first 1 egislati\ e Committee of the, \ssociation, 1 n 1 R9 0 he \\ as ell'cted I'rl'sident of the 
City Cndertaker's .\ssociation, 



l
U 


INDUSTRIAL TORONTO, AND THE CAPTAINS OF INDUSTR r 


CHAPTER XXIII. 


]1\'()L'STI<L\L TO RO'\"TO. \
I> THE C.\I'T.\IXS OF 1i'\I>CSTR\'. 


\\ \1;,\1 It III (IF T"R(I'\ rn'
 l'\IIl'srRII S. \IH: Ol'R \\ -\"1 r
 1'.... .\RI'IF/ClAI.?- L"
E OF 1\11' I"\I.
 1:\ :\I""I'RN :\hNlF\C 
ITRFS, I:\I'\'srRY E\lI'I()\FII IN Till' .\IU'S "I' 1'1-:\("(', X\TI\'F INIlI'SI'RII'S \'S. l\II'(lRI,HI.."'. ('\N\l1\ IkC()\I1'
 
SI IF-Sf 1"1'1('('\"(;. TII I' Lot' \I. TOil FR, HIs ('ON rE'\"TMI'N I' \:\"11 L \\\'-.\1\1 DIN(; ('H \R \C rl'R. - TORo.... 1'0 hlf'l'S IÏ{(I" 
I'I'R,\....11 L"r>.UI-:R (;0(111 .\t'SI'ICFS Sn\IE Rn'RFSI':-/I'\I'I\T \1 \:-/l'F\CTORIFS ,\!\II IfIFIR E'\" I'FRI'Rlo.,INI; FOI''\"I'I'I{'' 


- 


T fI E E
TEXT and growing magni- 
tude of thl:: industrie
 of Toronto earn 
it honour, and mark II ith distinctive 
emphasi" the transformation which has 
('(IIHe o\-cr the city from the sa\agery of its early 
\\ ikb, It has heen often said, that we of this 
generation live in an age of artIficial wants; hut 
this is hardly true of the people of Toronto, if 
our \\ants are wholly met by the manufactures 
of the native market. In the main, it is utility 
rather than ornament that employs the lahour 
of the lo('al artisan and crafbman. Our want
, 
of /'ourse, ha\'e gone he)ond those of the savage, 
and e\'en heyond the \\ants of the early sl::uler. 
But this is merely to say that \\e, as a people, 
have ad\'anced with the ,-ivilitation of the time, 
.md have sought to share the comforts and to 
utilite the machinery \\ ith \\ hich science and 
invention hme endO\led our modern age. .\t 
an earlier period, wood and the products of 
wood used to he 
ufficient for our needs, If 
we haw gone heyond that era of simplicity, it 
docs not follow that we have become artificial. 
It means merely that WI:: are eeonomiLing the 
materials which arc now becoming scarce, and 
making u
e of those \\ hich are more durable and better adapted for our wants. It is marvellous the e,tent to which the metab 
are now made use of in almost e\-ery hranrh of manufacture; and Science is daily placing ib triumphs at the service of man. 
to enlarge the range of his achie\ ement, as 
",ell as adding to the hum of industry. Hl::re 
toil and skill are happily put to heneficent 
uses, It is not in the making of rifles, can- 
non, iron-clads, or other agents of destrur- 
tion, that industry is here employed; hut 
rather in the useful arts and the hlessed 
service of peace. :\luch is also locally heing 
manufactured which lIe used to import. In 
this respect we ha\-'e hecome more enter- 
prising as well as more self-sufficing. \\ e 
now huild our own locomotives, cars and 
steamships; manufacture all the material for 
our hridges and houses; and e\- en forge and 
fashion the machinery for turning out ma- 
chinery. In this latter regard, it is to he 
feared, the saying is true, that the tool some 
times overshadows the \\orkman. It i<; 
noticeable that much of our machineI') re- 
flects l\merican, rather than British, influencc. 
Here our craftsmen have sho\\ n thcm"ehes 
adept
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INDf'.S"TRIAL TORONTO, AND THE C.lPT.lIi\'S OF IN/JCSTfl' J: 


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the nati\e 
onsumer pays for this, and adaptation, I,ike protectiun, Ius another shield tl1.1t which e"\acts the pen.llty for defiance' 
of economical lalls. .\ \lord .1>. to the 10c.11 toller. In Toronto it is J 'u
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 the hest pomts of their order., . \s a rule, they .Ire conscientious as well as ahle, and though occasionally therc are 
.mtagol1lsms hl'lwecn them and the capItal 
that gÙes them employment, they are on the 
whole pe.Hoe-lm ing and just. Here legislation 
and humane sentiment have heen actively on 
the side of lahour. This the workman no 
douht sees, and he is fair enough to 
.Icknowledge that compared with Old \\'orld 
nperiences, industry in Toronto i
 pursued 
under good auspices. 
rhe Polson Iron \\"orks Company 
(Limited), of Toronto and (hlen Sound, \las 
founded in 188ó, hy Messrs. William Polson 
.\: Son, for the manufacture of marine engines, 
hoilers, steamhoats, yachts, launches, and 
steam-ferries. and has since gro\1 n to mal11- 
moth proportions, and achien
d some notahle 
SUCCesses in the development of this now 
well-endO\\ ed and enterprising incorporated 
('ompal1\, The Company has its engine and 
l>viler \\orks, with machinery of the most 
recent de\ ice and cap.1hle of turning out the 
largest class of work, at Esplanade Street, in S n FI S n:.-\ \ISHII' ":\I.-\NI roIlA," BUll r BY mE 1'01 SON IRox WORKS CO\II'ANY, 
this city. Here are constructed, hesides every variety of \ertical, hoisting and m.uinc engines, and hoiler
 of all descriptions. the 
famous" Bro\1 n .\utomatic Engine,"' largely used in the chief citie
 of Canada, and of \I hich the :\Iontreal Electric Light Co. 
alone have ten in use. The Company ha\e al.;o at ()\\en Sound perhaps the mo
t thoroughly equipped ship-huilding works on 
the Continent, and equal to any of similar c.lpacity on the Ch de, They are also the owners of the Owen Sound I >r) I lock, 
which is of sufficient capacity to float the large
t \'essel.; on our inl.md 
eas. . \t 0\1 en Sound the Company conduct .m industry 
of the first magnitude in the I >ominion, and have turned out from their yards some of the finest steel \essel
 afloat on Canadian 
waters, Here, from ti-Je works of the Polson Co., lIas launched in :\Iay, 1889, for the Canadian Pacific Railway Co" the splendid 
steel steamship Jlánittlbn, which had heen constructed for its owners \I ithin the remarkahly short period of nine months. The 
.Ililliitobo, at the time of her completion, \Ias the largest vcssel on fresh w.lter, heing 305 fect long. 38 feet heam, .1Ild drawing 
13 feet. So satisfied were the officials of the 
C'. 1'. R'y Co. with the results of the work on 
The Jítlllllol1o, that hefore she was rompleted 
they awarded a second contract to the Polson 
Iron \\'orks Co., for the constructiol1 of a 
steel car-ferry, 295 fed long and 73 feet heam, 
for the rOl1\ ey.lIlCt' of cars across the Detroit 
Ri\'er from \\'indsor to I )etroit. \\ ork on 
this sleam ferry \la
 hq
un in June, 1889, and 
she was plying- on the I >droit Ri\'cr in the 
fo\lO\\ ing Spring. The engines .1I1d hoilers 
for this ship \\ ere huilt at the works of the 
Company at I'oronto, and are the largest of 
their kind ever huilt in Canada. The hoilers, 
\\ hich are [3 feet, 3 inrhes in diameter, 
\\eighed 37 tons each, and \lere the I.ugest 
e\ er carried by rail on this ('ontinent. \ 
third I'ontract ha
 now also heen completed, 
in a steel steamshIp for the Parry Sound 
I.umher ('0 The \e
sd, The !:JèglliJl, is 215 
fl" t long, with 3--1- fed beam, and is desig-ned 
to carr} general freight on the lake
, She is 
prope\led h} triple e\pansion engines, and is 
of .1 d.ls:> of \ I ,sels whil'h, thanh to the 
enterprise of the Polson ('ompany, must 
sullIe d.IY cover the \I.lters uf our in1.lI1d "l'.I
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''TO, AXD TIfE rAPT..4IN....,. o.r IXDl'STR J: 



 
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for, the da) for \\ooden bottoms heing O\er, it is now manifest that steel steamships of large dimensions can he constructed in 
C.mada. \\ ith en
r) thing else that is required for her now e\ten
iYe and still e"\panding commerce. rhe officers of the Polson 
Iron \rorks ('ompany arc as foIlO\\
: Presi- 
dent. \rm. Polson: :\lanaging-lJirector, F. 11. 
Polson: \\. E. Sanford. ,\. B. I.eL, D. (;ra, 
ham. Thomas \\'est, James \\"orthington, \Y. 
C. :\Iauhews, J. B. 
I iller. r. F. Chamher\,\in. 
I )Îrectors. The capital stock is $300,000. 


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lo,;1FRIOR 01' SOIlO "ACIIIXF WORkS. ESI'LANAVf. STREET. 


\hout thc \ear 18-1-0. three hright young mechanics from the Soho 
lachine 
Work-. at Belfast, Ireland, estahlished thc Soho :\Iac'hine \\ orks, Toronto. .\fter 
passing through three or four ownerships, the estahlishment. which is located on the 
Esplanade. east of the t:'nion Station. came into the hands of the present proprietor. 
\11'. .\. R. \\ïlliams, The chief work done hy this enterprising house is the refitting of machineI') in connection \\ith his 
hrokerage machine husiness. The hroker:1ge dep.lrtment was commel1l'ed in 18ïï 11\ :\Ir. L. .\. :\Iorrison, and was acquired 
hy :\Ir. \\ïlliams, in 18RI. It now cO\ers 
all the important lines of machinery used in 
the manuf.lcture of wood and iron, together 
with P{I\\ er of different classes and appliances 
used in connection \\ ith machinery. local 
agencies haye heen estahlished in all the 
important commerrial centres. and a large 
staff of trayelling salesmen keep the e:-.tahli,h- 
ment fully supplied with orders, 
rhe Toronto Safe \\'orks \\ere estab 
li
hed in 1855, hy :\Iessrs, James and John 
Taylor. On the \\ithdrawal of :\11'. John 
Taylor the husiness de\'olyeù upon \Ir. 
James Taylor, who carried it on till his 
death in I 
ï 5. For a short time the \\orb 
\\l're situated on Princess Street, but the 
rapidl) gro\\ ing husiness compelled remO\al 
to the present site, at the corner of I'ront 
and Frederick Streets, The present pro 
prietors arc \lcssrs. Thomas \\ cst and Rohert 
:\IcClain, hoth thoroughly po"led in this 
1)\1
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s, and they h,lve done much to make 
the name of J, 
 J. Taylor famous through 
out Canada for safe;., tho
e indispensablt 
adjuncts and sureties of commerce. The 
premises occupy a hlock of land, sen.nty feet 
by four hunùn
d feet in site. From one 
hundrcd and fifty to two hundred men are 
kept constantly employed. X otwithstanùing 


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SUPPLIES 


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INDUSTRIAL TORONTO, AXD THE CAPTAINS OF I1VDUSTR r. 


that t,he firm has he
n di
trihuting, safe
 throughout Canada for the past thirty-fi\e year!'., they are still ta,>ed to their utmost 
capaClt\, and the husll1ess IS ) early II1creasing. The safö they turn out rank among the best made 111 the world, and are in the 
highest repute among hankers and 
the \aried sections of the financial 
and commercial community. 
The Ontario Bolt Compan), 
e
tahli!'hed many years ago, took 
possession of their present e,>tensi\ e 
premises at S\\ansea, near the Hum- 
her. in 1 RR-j.. The huildings com- 
prise a large factor), warerooms, 
offices and outhuildings, and are 
equipped \\ ith steam hammers and 
the most modern machinery for the 
manufacture of bolts. nuts, carriage 
irons, and forgings of various kinds. 
It would require fi\e hundred men to 
fully work all the machinery at one 
time, and from three hundred to 
three hundred and fifty hands are 
no\\ emplo) ed, The products of this 
factory are shipped as far east as 
Halifax, and as far \\est as Yancou- 
\'er, The bridge rods and holts, and 
track bolts and spikes for most of the 
railroads now beinghuilt in the Xorth- 
West, \\ere made hy the Ontario Bolt Company. In the rolling mills adjoining the Bolt Works, about two hundred men are 
employed day and night, making in all from seven hundred to one thousand men and boys who find \\ ork in this immense industr). 
\\ïth such enterprises as this in our midst, Canada may fairly claim a share in the industries that mark our epoch as an iron age. 
rhe Dominion Sa\\ and Lead \\'orks, and metal warehouse, O\\ned and operated hy :\Iessrs, James RoLertson & \0., 
wa!'. estahlished twenty-fi\'e years ago, hy :\Ir. James Robertson, of :\Iontreal. There are branches in 
fontreal, \\'innipeg, St. 
John, and B.lltimore, besides the Toronto factor), \\hich is at 253-271 King Street West. The Company does a large business 
in the manufacture of lead pipe, shot and sa\\s. They are the most e,>tensi\e grinders of \\hite lead and colours in the 
Dominion. and are e,>tensi\'e imporkrs of hea\ y metal goods. The firln is an enterprising and successful one and conducts a 
large and important indus- 
tr) in the country. 
The Ontario Lead 
&: Barb \\Ïre Company 
occupy large premises on 
Richmond Street East and 
I om bard Street. The 
husiness ha
 grown since 
18ï6 to its present pro- 
portions, It \\ as originated 
h) 
Ir. ,\, J, Somerville as 
the Ontario lead \\ orks, 
, \t that time the \ompan) 
produccd only white lead 
I"" and lead pipe. In IRRo, 
=:::;:::- =:::1 .\fr. Somerville commenced 
the manufacture of Larh 
\\ ire and formed the 
Ontario Steel Barb \\'ire 
Fencf' Company. Both 
concerns \\ere merged into 
the present Company in 
1885, \\ ith .\fr. Somerville 
a
 President and 1\fanager; 
T. R, \\ (Joel, \'ice-Presiùent; 
James (;eorge, Secretary 


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IXDFST1UAL TOAOXTO, AND THE CIP1:UXS OF LVDUSTRJ: 


.111d Trea
urer; and T. S. Ba
le". Superintendent of \rorks. The Lusinð
 has de\eloped and e"\tended greatly under its pre
ent 
manaL:ement. TIll' ('omp.lm nO\\ manuf.1ctures lead pipe, lead paints, putty, lead shot. lead tr.lps (I Ju Bois patent), babbitt 
metal, steel harh fencing wire. steel 
plain t\\ ist fencing. steel fencing staple", 
steel wire nails. and hrads- a comhined 
industry as interesting as it is u"cful, 
and one of the \\onderful products of 
an inventive and mechanical .\ge 
:\Ir. James i\[orrison, bra,",s 
founder, commenced his career in 
Toronto, in 186.., with a \'ery limited 
capital. His husiness spread, howC\er, 
rapidly, and he was compelled to mo\e 
into larger premises from time to time, 
till he finally took possession, in 1872, 
of his present factory on .\delaide 
Street \rest. In addition to bras3 
founding and finishing. 1\1 r. 
Iorrison 
does a large husiness in engineer
, 
"team-fitters, plumbers and gas-fitters' 
"upplies, Yarious additions have heen 
made to the factory to meet the pres,,- 
ing demands upon it. . \ four-"tore} 
foundry was erecterl on Pearl Stred, 
and sho\\ rooms and storagL' room,., h.n c 
heen added, :\Ir. :\Iorrison has al"o 
a coppersmith's departmcnt, \\ here 
copper I\ork for distillers, hrL'\\ers, 
\'onfectioners and plumhers i
 manufactured. It i
 shortly intended to removL' this dL'partment to the ne\\ factor) in :\Iimico, 
\\ here new lines \\ ill he added. The firm employs 150 hands, and pa\s annually out in \\ages over $80,000. 
The J, F. Pease Furnace Company, manufacturers of the famous " Economy" Furnaces, ha\'L' given hirth to one of the 
most important indu
tries in the city, and the operations of the firm ntenel throughout the I Jominion. and their products find 
thL'ir way e\en to Europe. The e"\tensive factory and offices of the Company are on (2ueen Street E.lst. a view of which \\ ill 
he found in the
e pagL'S, The industry gives emplo
- 
ment to a large number of hands, hesides a staff of 
mechanical e"\perts and experienced heatmg engineers, 
In 1885, this Company was a\\arded, at the Toronto 
I nduslria: E"\hibition, the Sih er :\Iedal for their 
Econom) Furnaces, the only premium gi\en on that 
occasion, though all the other manufacturers were 
represented. The heaters manufactured hy this firm 
are the prorluct of thirty )ear... skill and thought given 
to the vital suhject of 
anitarr heating and ventilation. 
The ('omp,my are each ye,u introducing improve- 
ments, and ha\(' rerently perfected an entirel) new 
heater, designed for \\arming all m,UlIler of huilrling", 
h\' a comhination of hot \\ater and \\arm air. Three 
distinct das
es of heaters are no\\ made by thi
 
('ompany, ,i7,: the ., Economy" \\"arm,\ir Furnace, 
the" Economy Combination Steam and \rarm .\ir 
Heater, and the" Econom) .. Hot \\ ater Comhination 
Heater. These are made of \arious si/e c , ...uitable to 
the \\armmg of all classes of pri\ate residences and 
puhlic buildings. The nO\\ popular S) stem of .. ( 'Olll- 
hi nation " heating by steam and \\arm air, lIas imented 
hy \Ir. J. F. Pea
e. of this ('ompan), and his Furnace 
\\a
 the first of that kind am \\ here put on the market. 
()f thi., ('ompan) heaters there are 0\ er 30,000 now 
in II"\.. in the Cnited S\.\\c...: the\ linel their \\,lY. abo. 


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]\'I)USTRIAI TOROXTO. AND THE C.lPTAIXS OF LVDFSTRJ: 


II'.ï 


.!
 \\e h;ne said, inlo eyery part of ('anad.! .mù into mall\ places in the Old \\ orld. In recent )cars the great ad\'antage of 
furnace heating oycr that of old hcating method
 hy stoves. ha" "0 come hume to peuple that huildings and rLsidence" are no\\ 
(Lcupied or left empt) as furnace heating 
method
 arc or are not adupted hy 0\\ ners or 
huildcrs, The consequence has heen an 
cnormou" proùuction of steam, hot water, 
.1I1d \\ann air heaters, the chief demand heing 
_upplied hy the manufactures of the l'ea
e 
('ompan}. The husine
s of the Compan} j" 
under the direction of the President and 
rrea
urer. \[essr". John r. and Joseph B. 

heridan. men of enterprise and ahilit\, \\ ho 
ha\'e recenth e,tended their \!1anufacturing 
operations hy the erection, at ;\limico, of a 
large loundn and machine shop, to enahle 
the finn to meet the incre.!sing demand for 
their I:conomy heaters, as \\ ell a" to enahle 
Ihem to take up the manufacture of all 
manner of regislers, for domestic use, \\ hich 
the firm ha\'e hitherto largely imported, 
)Ir. H. \, \1.1sSe), President and 
(
eneral :\lanager of the )Ias
ey \Ianufactur- 
ing ('ompall\, was horn in the ('ounty of 
Haldimand. 
\pril 29th, 1823. 
\lthough the 
,on of a f.umer he early hegan to e,hihit 
ound husine"s in
tincts, Hi" early training 
\\as recei\'ed at \\'.HertO\\ n, X. y, \\ hen hut 
e\'enteen ) ears of age his desire to taste the 
s\\eets of independence led him to \\ ork two 
\Iinters in the lumher camps. In his nine- 
teenth ) ear he hegan a course at \ïctoria 
Cni\ersit\,. and hy his O\ln industry acquired an education. \\'hen he turned his attention to the \!1anufi!cturing hu"ines", l\Ir. 
)lasse} found amplc scope for his skin and energy. His name to-day is familiar throughout the I )ominion, and the agricultural 
machiner) made hy the \las..e} :\Ianufacturing ('ompany is c,tensi\ eh u
ed in e\Tr) grain-grim ing section of the \\l,rlù, The 
('omp.lI1\ has turned out J 40,000 
machine
 and impleml'nts. and their 
annual output is 16.000, The 
worh gin' emplopnent tu from 65 0 
to ï 50 men in the twent} depart- 
ments, .JIld 150 hand.. .1fe emplo) ed 
111 outside hranches, Heo;ides the..\.. 
there are 800 to 1,000 agents \\ ho 
Lam the greater part of their li\'ing 
from thl' 
ale of the \l.!ssq 
machine' :\Ir. )l.bSl'Y h.1S hl't.'n a 
life-long memher of the :\lethodi"t 
('hurch. He is l're..ident of the 
Sa\1 ver ::.: i\lasse\ Cn,. H.I1nilton, 
lmilùers of threshers and enginL 
and of \1.1sse\' & ('q" \\ïnnipeg, 
general de.ller" in f.Hm implements 
and settlers' effects. ."'soci.Hed \\ ith 
him in the \I.!sse} \lanuf.1cturing 
('u. arc hio; hlo sons. )Ir. C. I). :\1:1.., 
scy, \ÏCt,-l'residcnt, and :\Ir. \\. E. 
H. \Ias"e). Secretar} and rfL.Isurer. 
,\ portr.lit of \Ir. \l.hSe). Sr., \\ill he 
found in these pagL", as \\ell a
 an 
illustration of hi" rc"idcne.' on Jal \ is 
Street. klllm n .1" "l:udiJ H.11I. . 


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INDUSTRIAL TORONTO, AND THE CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRJ' 


\Ir. John ,\ bell. engine and machine manufacturer, \\ hose mammoth establishment is situated on Queen Street \\ est 
near the sulJ\\ay, \\a
 horn at Charlton Kings, (;Ioucestershire. England, September 2znd, 1822, and \\as educated at Chdtcn- 
ham Coming to Canada a young man. he e"tahlished the \\'oodbridge .\gricultural 
\\'ork
 in 18-1-5, but had the misfortune to be burnt out, with a loss of $200,000. in 
\Iarch, 187-1-. 
uch \\as his energ), however, that two months aften\ards the 


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establishment was duplicated on the same 
site. In 18Ró, :\Ir. .\bell mo\ed to hi
 
prcsent location in Toronto. .\mung the 
many medals awarded him, one is of special 
note, inasmuch as it was presented in 18 79 
to l\Ir. .\bell by H. R. H. the Princess 
1.ouise, at the Senate Chamber, Ottawa. .\s 
the Scripture saith : "Seest thou a man dili- 
gent in Lusiness? he sh,'11l stand Lefore 
kings." Mr. Abell has Leen a Justice of the 
Peace since 1870, and President of the 
Yaughan Road Company since 1875. From 
18ó3 till 1876, he was President of the 
Yaughan .\gricultural Societ}, and from 18 74 
till 1886, President of the \\' est Y ork .-\
ri- 
cultural Soriety. He was the first Reeve of 


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TIIF J. F. PE\
E FURlI>ACF Co., QUEF.:s" SIREFT EAST. 


\\ oodbridge at its incorporation in 1883, and held the office till ISS6, when he 
remo\'ed to Toronto. :\Ir. _\bell built the first steam engine in the Township of 
\" aughan, and in 1880, built the first compound portable engllle, He is a member 
of the Church of England. 
:\1 r. \\ïlliam Chri'itie, of the firm of 
Icssrs, Christie, Brown & Co., the most 
Lxtensi\e bi'icuit manufacturer<; in Canada, commenced Lusiness in Toronto in the 
earl} fifties. on a \ ery small scale. The present firm was formed in 186S, when 


. 


\[R. JOI!'\ .\11"-11.. 



INDUSTRiAl- TORONTO, AND THE CAPTAINS OF iNDUSTR Y 


187 


\[1'. Christie entered into p.utnership with \Ir. ,\Ie"amler Brown, under the n.lIne of 
then occupied the premises on Yonge Stred, where the baking establishment uf !\Ir. 
they n:moved to larger premises on Francis 
Street. The further e"\tension of the busi- 
ness \\a<; met hy the erection of the pröent 
mammoth factory, at the corner of [)uke and 
Frederick Streets, \\ hich has from time to 
time been enlarged until it is now three times 
its original si/e. The produce of this factory 
is sold in Canada frum the .\tlantic to the 



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Pacific, and has reached a high point of e"\cellenee. Personally, :\Ir. Christie is a man 
of high worth, and his firm enjoys the confidence of commercial circles both in and 
out of Toronto. ,\ picture of his residence will bc found on page 3 8 . 
:\11'. Octavius Kewcombe, the e"tensive piano nl.lnllt:lCturer. was born at 
H:lIlkford-Barton, I>e\"onshire, England, on the 19th Kovember, I1-Lt6. .\t eight years 
of age he W.IS sent to Shehbear Boarding Schoo\. Two yc.Irs later, the death of his 
father occasioned the rdurn of his two cider brothers, I Jr, \\ m. Ke\\cumbe and Henry 
Ke\\comlJe, from .\ustra[ia. the winding up of the homc estate. and the removal of the family to Toronto, Here he attended 
the :\Iodcl School and the Torontu (;rammar School. taking at the latter first priLCs in mathematic" and English, His brother. 
] Jr, James Xewcombe, heing Professor of Surger\" in \Ïctoria College, he attended two winter sessions .It that institution. though 
his personal preference was for a rOlllmercial 
rather than for a professional career. The 
intervening summer he joined his hrother 
(assistant,surgeon L. S. .\.) at \\"ashington, 
accepting; the position of corresponding clerk 
to the surgeon in charge of I incoln Hospital, 
and was in that city during the :\Ian land 
raid, He suhsequently entered the :\1 ilitar) 
School, Toronto, getting his certificate at an 
e"\amination where there were fourteen candi- 
dates,onl) four of whom were then successful. 
Soon afterwards he joined the staff of the 
(!uebec Bank, and in a couple of years 
recei\'ed the appointment of accountant at 
Toronto. Later on he ".IS st::nt in that 
capacity tu Ott.1\\"a, the must important 
hranch of the Bank. _\fter fi\"e \"Car,,' hank- 
ing e"\perience he accepteù a more [llcrati\e 
position with one of the largest lumlJer mer- 
chants on the Ottawa, l\Ir. .\Ie"\anrler Fraser. 
of \\ estmeath. While there a partnership 
\\as offered him, with the financial manage 
ment, of a pianoforte husiness to he 
estahlished in Toronto, and this \\.IS cntered 
upon in d
ï I. The husiness in com se uf 
timc developcd into two separate and 


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IXDUSTRIAL TORO'TO, AND THE CAPTAINS OF I"DUSTR 1: 


inlh:pendent fìrm
. Octa\iu
 X,'\\comhe heing joined 11\ his hrother Henry. and devoting their joint energies to the huilding up 
of the I.uge pi.lno manufacturing IIU
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 more full
 de.;cribed belo\\. In connection \\ith this bu.;iness, :\rr. Xe\\comhe 



 


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\lR, T, A. I1F1I'\T/\I\X. 
has \"isited all the rhief towns and cities of 
the I }ominion, the important cities of the 
L nited States and (;reat Britain, and the art 
centres of Europe, 
The den:Iopment of musical art in 
our midst has necessa,rily stimulated the 
pianoforte industn', so that Toronto has 
hecome the 
ew York of Canaùa in the 
Ill'mber, variety, and c"\cellence of the musi- 
cal instrumcnts manufactured here. . \mong 
these, the Newcombe (;rand, Square. and 
L pright l'ial1ús arc conspicuuus as h.1\ ing 
attained that arti:.tic C"\cellence that has 
secured for them the highest recognition in 
Europe, as well as in the C nited States and 
CanacL.1., The Xewcombe Piano F.lCtory 
\\as foundeù in Ig71. In 1879, the commo' 
dious premises, 107 anù 10Y Church and 7-t 
Richmond Streets, were completed; amI in 
18g7, the splendid faltory, 121 to 129 lIell- 
woods . \ venue, e)\ erlooking the grounds 01 
the Bid..forù estate and Trinity College, with 
an additional wing 1\\0 storeys high amI 
e"\tending IJack one hundred and t\\enty' 
se\'en feet. was huilt to accommod.ItL the 
increas"d demand for the X t::\\ cumbe l'i.1Il0- 
fortes, This denund has not been limited 
to CanacL.1.. In IR8-t-5, the Xew('omhe 
I'ianofortes \\ere aw.uded the First Silver 
:\ledal and Juror
' Report of Commendation 
at the \\ orld's E"\hibition, Xew Orle.lIb, 
L' .S. \., in competition \\ ith the pianofortes 
of Europe and .\merica, being the only 
Canadian Piano that has received such a 
distinction, and which has led to the 
e\portation and sale of these pianos in the 
C nited States. In 1886, these instruments 



I.J.\'DUSTRIAL TOROXTO, AXn THE CAPTAINS OF INDU.\"TR 1: 


\\ere equally successful at london, England, being a\\arùed a medal and diploma, The firm had also 
ha\ing a 
e\\combe Grand Pianoforte selected h) Sir .\rthur Slllli\an for Her 'Iaje"t) the <lllcen. 
pronounced hy 
Ir. James Dacer, the composer, as 
the "gem of the c\hihition;' and now occupies its 
new home, the <lueen"s Audience Cham her, at 
\\ïndsor Castle, The excellence of the instruments 
manufactured hy the 
 ewcomhe Piano Factory has 
heen endorsed by a number of first prizes in 
Canada, in competition with Canadian and Cnited 
Stares makers, by international awards abroaù, and 
confirmed b) the recommendation and patronage 
ofthe profession and the puhlic. This has increased 
the demand for them. and stimulated thc firm to 
make their factory a model in the perfection of its 
arrangements and adaptation of modern appliances, 
so that in its equipment and appointments it is 
Iluite on a par with the most complete factories in 
the Cnited States. \\ïth these facilities this firm 
is e"\tending their reputation, and the 
 ewcomhe 
Pianos are to be met with in most of the English- 
"peaking communities of the world -throughout 
the I )ominion. Xt::\\ foundland, England, the Cnited 
States, .\ustralia, and even in ,-\sia. 

Ir. T. -\. Heint/lnan, founder of the well- 
known piano finn of 
Iessrs. Heintzman &.. Co., \\as 
horn in Berlin, Prussia, \lay 9th, 181 ï. .-\t the 
age of fourtecn he engaged in the manufacture of 
piano keys and actions, and four years later, in 
1835. he entered the famous Bruno manufactor) to 
learn piano-making in all it!'. hranches, In 18,J0, 
he hegan business in Berlin as a piano manufac- 
turer. Coming to .\merica in [850, he spent (\\0 
)ears in 
e\\ York, and eight years in Buff..1.lo, 
locating in Toronto, and founding the present 
enterprise in 1860. He ha
 now assisting him in 
the business his four sons, Hermann, \\ïlliam, 
Charles, and Ceurge, all of whom are piano 
e\perts. The immense factory of the Company. at 
\r est Toronto Junction, emplo) s [50 hands. and 
turns out some 800 pianos annually. :\Ie""rs, Heint/lnan &.. Co.'s pianos are all of 
the highest class. and hm e secured fur the house an t. "\ceedingl) good reputation. 
These instruments hm e met \\ ith the approval of the nHl"ical \\ orld, and hesides 
suppl} ing a large part of the Canadian marlet, ha\-e heen \er) successful in I:ngland, 

Ir, Heint/lnan is a memher of the 
Iasonie fraternity, and of the I.utheran ("hurch. 
The first company in Canada to manufacture sih'er-plakd \\art. from the 
crude metal was the Toronto Silwr Plate Compan). Incorporated in Igg2. this 
Company hq
.lI1 husi- 
l ne, ; with a subscrihed 
c.lpitalof$loo,ooo. The 
founding of a ne\\ indu, 
tn like this in Canada 
\\a'" not done \\ ithout 
0\ ereoming many diffi- 
culties. The large 
establishmcnt \\hich the 
Comp.1I1) now 0\\ ns, at 
5 ï O King 
treet \\ e.;t. 
testifie'" to the energ\ 
and slill that han' been 
di"played in putting it 


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FACTOR\' OF THF \C\IE SII \'ER CO\! P \ "y. 


189 


the further honour of 
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\[R. A. T, PARf..rR. 



190 


INDCSTRIAL TORONTO, AND THE CAPTALVS OF INDUSTR Y 


on its feet. l h er one hundred of the hest mechanics arc employed in the various departments, and travellers solicit orders 
for the lirm in e\ery part of the Dominion, Its manufacture
 are in high repute hoth for quality and taste in designing. For 
the past si\. years the ewcutive of the Com- 
pan) Ius heen under tht:: care of :\1 r. 1:. (;, 
(;ooderham as manager, while the financial 
department has heen administered hy 1\[r. 
John C. Copp. The Bu.lrd of .:\1.lIlagement 
is composed of l\Ir. \\", H, Beatty, Presi- 
dent; 1\1r. .\Ifred Gooderham, \'ice-Presiùent, 
and the following Directors: Messrs. (;. 
(;ooderham, \\'. H. Partridge. I JaÙd \\ alker, 
\\'. 1', Kiely, \\"m, Thomson, James \\ ebster, 
and Frank Turner. 
:\Ir. .I ohn C. Copp is a native of 
I Je\onshire, England. He \\as hrought, 
\\ hen quite young, to Toronto in 1 X,p, and 
has since resided in this city. He was one 
of the first enrolled pupils of the Toronto 
:\Iodel School, when it was located on the 
site now occupied hy the (;O\"ernment House, 
.\t the age of fifteen, he entered the real 
estate office of Messrs. Strachan &: Fit/gerald, 
and three years later became an employee of 
:\lessrs. Jacques ò:. Hay, latterly R. Hay & 
Co. He continued with this firm for t\\enty- 
se\"en years, for nineteen of \\ hich he was 
the tru-;ted financial manager. In 1884, Mr. Copp hecame Secretary-Treasurer of the Toronto Silver Plate Company, \\ hich 
position he still occupies. \Ir. Copp, who is a business man of high repute and of untiring energy, has been a director of the 
Bihle Society for man) years. He is a trustee of the Toronto General Burying Grounds Trust, a director of the \".:\I.C'..\., anù 
deputy-chairman of the Jewellers and Sihersmiths' Section of the Board of Trade. :\Ir. Copp's residence, y6 \\ dlcsley Street, 
i, a handsome building, of red hrick on hro\\n Credit \ alley stone foundation, ornamented with grey sandstone and terra cotta. 
:\Ir. .\. James Parker, President of the Acme Siher Company, was born Uctober 25th, 1'6-t5, at Birmingham, England, 
He \\a
 educated at <.'ueen Elimheth (;rammar School, London, England, and Kew Cross Ka\"al School, from which he 
graduated in 1859. .\fter seeing acti\"e seT\ice in the Royal Xa\y, he \\as some time in the Ci\"il SeT\'ice of Ke\\ South \Llles. 
Returning to England in 1 '6()-t, he was sent hy :\Ie-;srs. B. J. Eyre & Co., of Sheffield, to the C" nired States, a
 their representa- 
tive, and afterwards hecame connected 
with the firm of Messrs. Rogers & Bro., 
\\"aterbury, Conn., manufacturers of 
plated-\\ are, In 18 ï '6, he hecame 
('anadian l\Ianager for the :\lcridt::n 
Silver Plate ('0.. and on their retiring 
from the ('anadian marl-et he was for a 
} Lar as-iociated \\ ith the l\Ieridt::n 
Brit,lIlIlia Co., of Hamilton. In 1885. 
he pun'hased the controlling interest in 
the ,\nne Sih"cr ('0" of \\ hich he has 
bt::en President -;irll'e that date. The 
goods of this ('ompanv, hesides bt::ing 
\\ ell-I-nu\\ n in Canada. find marl-ets in 
the \\ cst Indies, .\u.,tralia, and Xe\\ 
/ caland. .:\Ir. Parkf'r i., a Freemason, 
.111 honourar) member of the Junior 
l'nited Ci\il SeT\ice Cluh of England, 
and in religion, is an Lpiseopalian. 
rhe Queen City Oil \\'orl-s, of 
\\ hich :\Ie
srs. Samuel Rogns 
 Co. 
arc the proprietur!>, \\ere founded in 
I '6ïï h ) I\Ir. Samuel Rogers. The ,,. 
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hrm is now compo"ed of I\Ir. Rogers 
an(l hi., t\\O sons, Joseph and .\lbert 


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,,"F UI \IR, A. J \\11- PARKER, 51 HIII.ER A\ENUE. 



INDFSTRIAL TORONTO, AND THE CIPTAINS OF INDUSTRY. 


191 


T.he y are the 0\\ ners of a large establishment, manufacturing plant, and numberless railroad cars; and the oils they 
\\Idel)" and fa\ourably kno\\n. Fine cylinder and engine oils have been made a specialty of b) the firm. Through 
their enterprise and energy Toronto has 
been made the headquarters for n1.lchin- 
er) oils in the Dominion, and Canadian 
oils haw found a market in England and 
. \ustralia. !\I r. Samuel Rogers is a son 
of Elia
 Rogers \\ho located in the Town- 
ship of \rest (;\\Íllimbur) in 1828, and 
grandson of ,\sa Rogers who came to 
( 'anada from \ erInont in 1800, He was 
a resident of the t:; nited States for some 
years, representing the (;rO\er ð.. Baker 
Se\\ ing l\Iachine Company in Kentucky 
and parts of I ndiana and lllinois, but did 
not become a naturaliLed citiLen, and 
returning to Canada joined his younger 
brother, Elias Rogers, in the co.ll business 
for a time; retiring in 1R7ï to founù the 
Queen City Oil \\'orks, In this industry 
he has found an engrossing yet profitable 
field of work. 
1\1r. John 1\1cPherson Taylor, 
)'Ianager of the Toronto Radiator 
Ianufacturing Company (Limited), was born at 
Belfast, Ireland, on the 2-1- th of M.lY. 1865. ('oming to Canada with his parents, who settled in Toronto, he attended the York- 
\'ille Public School until he \\as twehe years of age, when he entered the office of 1\lr. James !\Iorrison, brass'founder, and at 
eighteen had attained the position of head salesman and purchasing agent. Cpon the organÚation of the Toronto Radiator 
Manufacturing Company, 1\1r. Ta) lor became ì\I.lI1ager of the Company, and in January, 18 9 0 , was made Secretary-Treasurer, 
and no\\ fills all theo;e positions. The Toronto Radiator !\Ianufacturing Company is a joint stock association, composed of 
se\erallocal manufacturers, and \\as formed for the purpose of making the Safford Radiators, for hot \\ater and skam heating, 
The house is one of the largest establishments of the kind in the 1 )ominion ; the factory, on ] )ufferin Street, ha\'ing a floor 
space of nearly five acres, and emplo) ing over one hundred hands, !\Ir. Taylor is a young man to be at the head of such an 
important manufacturing industry, I'hat his sen ires have been appreciated hy his employers and associates, however, is 
attested by numerous valuahle testimonials, accompanied hy \"arious illuminated addresses. .\mong the testimonials which he 
chiefly pri7es are a gold \\atch, presented him hya former employer, Mr. James Morrison, and an illuminated address presented 
by steamfitters and dealers in steamfitters' supplies in Canada and the {;nitt::d States, 
The business carried on at the extensive premises, 2-1- Front Street \\' est. of \\ hieh we give interior 
was started by Mr. (;eorge F. Bost\\ick in 188-1-. Opening an office in that year on Toronto Street for 
(;oldie & 
[cCulloch's safes, :\Ir. Bostwick 
was compelled by the rapid extension of his 
business to remove to a \\arehouse on Church 
Street, thence to the large building on King 
Street, adjoining The _IEait Office, and 1\\0 
years ago, to his present premises. The 
business now emhraces, besides the f.lInous 
safes of the Galt firm, all kinds of commercial 
furniture; bank and office fittings; church, 
hall and opera seating; school furniture, and 
\arious kinds of heavy iron work, By a 
careful "election 1\Ir. Bost\\ ick hao; heen ahle 
to guarantee that e\ ery article in his ware- 
house Ü, the best of its kind, and certain to 
win appro\'al for t::\èr)thing offered to his 
patrons. 
The Cosgrm e Bre\\Íng Company is 
owned and managed by :\Ir. La\\rence Cos- 
grave. The founder, the late 
Ir. P. Cosgraw, 
\\as born in \\'e"ford, Ireland. in 18q. He 
came to Canada in 1 S So, and in 1861 o;tarted, 
with Mr. Eugene O'Keefe, the \Ïctoria 


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I\\"IC"'" On-iCE Fl'lDõlTURI<. SIIO\\'ROO\I, FRor.;r SI"REEI" \\. 



HI:.! 


IX/)USTfU.lI. TORONTO, AXD T/fE CAPT-UNS OF .lNDUSTR J: 


Bre\\l'T). \\ hen he retired from that husiness. Mr. Cosgrave purchased the \\'est Toronto Brewery, ,\fter a useful life, :\Ir. 
Co

r.1\l_ died :O;epkmher 6th. I R81. rhe busine>.s subsequentl) passed into the hands of his son, the present owner, under 
\\ hose management the reputation his 
father foun(kd has been sustained and 
e'l.tended, 
1\Tr. J. F. 
lauril'e :\lad
lrlane, of 
:\lcssrs. :\1.1cf.lrlane, :\Ic Kinlay &: Co., 
manufal:turers of \\ indo\\ shades, is the 
grandson of the late HIm, James Ferrier, 
memher of tIlt' Dominion :O;enate, and for 
many years Chairman of the Canadian 
Bo.ud of I >irectors of the (;rand Trunk 
R.lilway, and other public offices. \1 r. 
:\Iacfarl.me W.1S born in l\Iontreal, on the 
1 Xlh of Sept., 1849. and was educated at 
the 
Id ;jll High School. .-\fter leaving 
-;ehool he entered commercial life in 
:\Iontreal, and later on in Chicago, 
Returning to l\Iontreal, he took a position 
in a prominent wholesale dry'goods house 
In ISï3, 
Ir. :\lacfarlanelocatedin\\"ood- 
stock, Ontario, and eng.1ged in husiness 
on his 0\\ n account, in \\ hieh he continued 
fì\ e years, \\ hen the 
. 1', was inaugurated he decided to engage in manufacturing, and in [880, settled in Toronto, amI 
enterell upon his present undertaking. The firm of 
Iaef.lrlane, :\lcKinlay & Co. now turn out about [0,000 yards per week of 
p.linted shadL' cloth, which lca\'e the f.letory in three se\-eral styks -either in pairs artistically decorated, finished with fringes or 
lal'es, or in plain tints. :\Ir. l\Iacfarlane is a Royal. \rch .\Iason, and a member of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club. 1\Ir. .\. 
Reid :\kKinlay, \\ho i'i associated with :\Ir. :\lacfarlane in business. is a nati\e of Toronto, and \\as educated at t;pper 
Canada College. He was for many years a 
member of the Queen's ()wn Rifles: is a promi, 
nent Mason. and a memher of the Royal 
.\rcanum. He is a succe>.sfulman of business. 
and \\as connected \\ ith some of our largest 
wholesale dry-goods houses, and at one time 
interested with his father in the lumber trade. 
Only in recent ) ears has the attempt 
been made in Canada to utiliLC photography, 
in \\ hat is called a process-picture, for book 
illustration, In 1888, The Canadian Photo- 
Engra\-ing Bureau \\as established, at 203 Yonge 
Street, in this city, for that purpose, and began 
to supply the local demand which already 
e'l.isted for artistic half-tone engra\ ings. I II 
addition to half-tones for books and maga/illes, 
line engra\-ings arc here made for newspaper and 
ad\ ertising purposes. . \ large proportion of the 
illustrations for" Torontu Olù and Kew" \\ere 
made at The Canadi.m Photo-Engraving Bureau, 
and tell their 0\\ n stor). :\Ir. 1. F. Moore, the 
sL'nior proprietor, is a nati\-e of I,ondon, Eng- 
lanù, where he \\as born in 1863, In 18ï[, he 
came to CanacL.1.. In 18ï9, he remO\'ed to the 
t:'nited States, and after nperimenting in Art 
methods, he returned to Ontario, where he was 
attached to the Grr
'J Printing and Publishing 
Cu., as foreman of the .\rt department. lie 
relinquished that position to inaugurate the 
present enterprise. .\Ir. J. ,\Ie\ander, Jr., of 
the firm, is a son of the pastor of the 1)0\ ercourt 
\fR. J. ,\I.FXA[';IJER, JR, "Road ItJptist Church. and was born in !\Iontreal, 
in 18(,5. ,\f\er fl\e )"l:ars practical "\perience he joined \Ir. ì\loore in 1889, and took charge of the busincss dcpartlllcnt of 
Ihe BlIIe.lu. Both men are elll'r:-:elil'. c.lpablc. and thoroughly .lli\ e to the requirements of this .utistic age. 



 


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FIN.1NCI.1L TOROXTO: BANK.s
 LOAN, AND INSURANCE COAfP.l1UES. 


I!J3 


Fl
.\X( '{,\L TOROXT(): IL\KKS, 1.0 \;-..r, IK\'ESTßI E,\;T, .\
J) DISUR.\
(,E (,O:\ll',\X I ES, 


CHAPTER XX 1\'. 


TilE LIFF-HlOOIJ OF CO\I\IFRCE ,\NO IXIJCSTIH. TOIWXI'O, l"HE SI,\I' \:-'11 XIï{\F Cnoi'lln OF Ft'\",\:\(", THF ('Il\'
 
B\"....IX(; F\CIUIlFS, THE RI'-SOURCES OF HER LO\N, I;o.I\FS1'\II':-'1' \XII S\\IXI." S,'(ïFTIJ.". LilT .hSLR\:\CF 
('O.\II'\;IIII:S, \:'IlL> 1 HEIR I\IIr-;IJ-RFIIFnN(; FUXCTIo;lls. 


T o RO:\T()"S financial resources, in great measure, account for the rit) 's eminence in trade and commer('e. They are, 
as it \\ere, the life,blood of her industry, and impart health as well as vigour to her framt::. It i" upon the banks allll 
monetary institutions of a town, with the organÏ/ation of credit which they controL as well as upon the enterprise and 
energy of its commercial and industrial classes, that the edifice of pro"perity is built up, Toronto di\-ides \\Ìth 
:\Iontreal the repute of being at once the seat and the nerve-centre of Canadian fin.lIlee, In these t\\ 0 cities are the head. 
quarters of our great B.mks, with a total assets, available in the m.1in for the transactions of ('ommern', of something like two 
hundred millions of dollars. Their combined paid-up capital is not f,lr short of a fourth of this amount. Their finan,'ial 
position and management are such as to e\tort admiration, ,lI1d give at the same time the ,unplcst se('urit) to the ill\estinl!; and 
borrowing public. The interest of both these c1a""e" is further prntened b\ the 
.ltional (;0\ ernment, in the wise and safe 
prO\-isions of the Banking .\ct, and in the se('urity it e"\a('ts hefore an instilution can open its doors for business, The chief 
banking institutions hm ing their headquarters 
in the city are the Commerce, Toronto, r m- 
perial, I )ominion, Ontario, St,mdard, and 
Traders' Banks; while those having br.mches 
here are the 
Iontreal, British, :\Ierchants', 
Quebec, C nion, :\f olsons and Hamilton 
g,mks. To these is about to be added, by 
the enterprise of l\fr. G, \\. Yarker, one of 
our ablest and best kno\\n bankers, the York 
County Bank, an institution which, it may 
safely be predicted, will aùd materially to 
Toronto's legitimate b,mking facilities and to 
the renown whirh e"\isting in"titutions hm'e 
brought her, Public conn'nieIice is further 
"en-cd by the SaÙngs Banks, 1\ hich of recent 
years ha\-e becl!me a useful adjunct to m.1ny 
of the rhartered banks, b) the Post ()ffi\'l:
 
and (;overnment Savings Banks, and by the 
Loan, Savings and Imestment Companies 
doing business in the city. The facilities of 
these institutions are great, and public confi- 
dence in them is well grounded, 01 r .oan 
and IIl\-estment Companies, there are now 
twenty-five, having their headquarters in Tor- 
onto, \\ ith a total assets of 0\ er sixty-three 
millions. Their paid capital amounts to twenty,three millions, and they place forty millions more, raised on debl.'nturl.' or on 
deposit, at the financial sen ice of the public. There is littll.' need to say much here in commenùation of those beneficl.'nt 
enterprises, which mark the provident character and the humanity of the age, the l.ife, Fire and :\Iarine Insurance Companies, 
In their operations, aside from their practical henefit, the) remO\'e from the mind of the \\age-earner, and all ranks of toil, a 
load of anxiety \\ hich would in many instances become an intolerable hurden. The fullowing pages present to the reader some 
of tht::"e institutions, as well as those connected with finance, who
e operations ,lre part of the multiform features of Toronto's 
co
mopolitan trade. 
Of late) ears, architecture has done great things for financi,d Toronto. \\"h.lt it has done for tn () or thrcl.' of our h,mb 
it has dune and is doi.lg for se\-eral of our great insurancL offict". Though not imposing III appcarancc, the Toronto Branch 
of the Bank of \Iontre,t! is, within and nithout, one of the most artistic huildinl!;s in the city. Suhst,mtial, as \\ell as allr,lC'ti\e, 
arc the eòificcs re('t
ntl\" erected for the St.lIldard Bank and the Traders' (;,lIlk. The hranch of the (Juehec Bank, if \\e can 
say no more, has at least the aù\antage of a good sile. :'I;"ot only i
 the site good, hut imIJl,,,ing is the ne\\ home of the 
('anadi.lIl Hank of ('ommcrce. The huilding i", in st) Ie, tll.lt of the modernih'd !tali,1Il RenaissaIH'l.', and its whole architectural 


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FINANCIAL TORo.NTo.: BANKS, LOAN, AND INSURANCE COMPANIES 


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CANADIAN BANK OF COf>I\H RCF, COR:\ER OF KUla; ANn TOR\lA:\ Sn,nTS. 



FINANCIAL TORONTO.' BANKS, LOAN. AND INSCRANCE COJIPANIES. 


195 


cumpo
ition is at once dignified and plea 
ing. It is built of a deep bro\\ n !.andstone, its massiveness bemg relieved by 
delicate chisc\ \\ork and other tasteful ornamentation, as well as by an abundance of \\ indow-light. It has a double façade 
and a s
mmclrical corner to\\er \\ith a frontage both on King and on Jordan Streets. rhe interior is spacious and the 
decorations are rich .md effecti\-e. :O;uiks of rooms open out of the main floor, and an entresol, artistically de!>igned, affords 
further arrommodation for the elegantly furnished parlours of the officers of the Bank, :\Iassi\e and elaborately contrived 
\aults with ample storage facilities are among the necessary appurtenance
 of the institution. together with a series of la\atorie!. 
and other \\ ell-appointed uffires, The Bank of Commerce has a history \\ hich datö back to the era of Confedera tion, when 
it \\as founded, mainly through the instrumentality of the late Senator \Ie \Iaster, and it has had on its directorate many of the 
most substantial and enterprising of Toronto's chiefs of commerce, It had originall} a capital of one million dollars. \\ ith si\ 
branches in the chief cities and towns of the Pro\ incl'. To-day, it has a paid-up capital uf six millions. \\ ith a rest of 
$800,000, and thirty-eight branches, in addition to five 101'al agencies in different sections of the city, It has also branches in 
\Iontreal and Xew \ ork, and agents and correspondents in the chief money nnrts of the \\orld, upon \\ hom its letters of 
credit and bills of c....change are drawn, The institution has been of the greate-;t sen ice to the industrial and commercial 
interests of Toronto, and its present management justl} ments the confidence of all classes of the rommunity, Its .,tock is 
quoted at 126, and it usually pays an eight per cent. annual di\Ídend, It has a strong Directorate, and possesses in :\1 r. B. E. 
\\'alker, the (
eneral :\Ianager, a banker of great abilit\. and c"\tensiH' e\perience. The following compose the Board and 
officers of the Bank : (
eorge ,\. Co"\, President: John L I>.widson, \ ice-President: Jame
 Crathern, \\". B, Hamilton, John 
Hoskin. Q,C.. I.L. \)" Robert Kilgour, :\Iatthe\\ Leggatt. and (
eorge l'aylor, Directors' B. E. "alker, (
eneral \lanager: J. 
H. Plummer, .\ssistant (;eneral \Ianager: ,\. H, Ireland, In!.pel'tor: C. de t'. ()'(;rady, .\ssistant Inspector. 
The Bank of Toronto has for more 
than a generation been one of the most use- 
ful, as well as stahle and representative, of 
the monetary institutions of the city. It" 
charter dates back to the year 1855 ; but its 
authori/ed capital, of t\\O millions, was not 
\\ holh issued or paid up until t\\ emy years 
afterwards, Besides this capital, the Bank 
has 11\' uniformly good management accumu- 
lated a rest of seventy-five per cent. of its 
paid-up stock, .\t its last general meeting, 
the Bank added $100,000 to its total rest 01 
$ 1,500,000, besides pa) ing a half-yearly 
di\ idend of fi\'e per cent. and carr} ing a 
substantial sum to the credit of its profit and 
loss account. The nd profits of the last 
financial } ear were not far from $300.000: 
and its total assets \\ere in the neighbourhood 
of eleven and one-half millions. It!. stock 
is no\\ quoted at 222. Besides its Head 
Offices in Toronto, the Bank ha.; Branches 
at :\lontreaI. London. Ont., Barrie, Bro!'k- 
\ ille, Cobourg. Colling\\ood, (;ananoque, 
Peterborough, Petrolia, Port Hope, and St. 
Catharines, It has also agencies in 
ew 
\ ork, and in I.ondon, Eng:la
ld, rhe fine premise,: of the Bank in Turonto (see illustration on page -tïl, were ereclcd in I XÓ2, 
Its management has for a
long .,eries of years been e\ceptionall) good. and it naturall} cnjo}!> a most excellent financial reputa- 
tion. Its administration has always been wisely conservative, though it is an institution \\ hich has e....tended to the e"\panding 
commerce of the city such facilities as legitimate expansion seemed to need and its large resources could \\ell suppl). In its 
cashier, :\1 r. Duncan Coulson, the Bank of Toronto ha
 had for man) }ears an officer of acknowledged ability. e"\perience and 
sagacit\ : and it possesses a I )irectorate composed of men of sound judgment and large \\ealth, The Directors for the present 
year are :\Ir. (
eorge (
ooderham, Pre!.ident; \Ir. \\'Ill. H, Beatty, Yice-President : and \Iessrs. .\. T. Fulton, Hem) CO\ert, 
Tohn 1 e\!., Hem\' Ca\\thra. and "-. (
. Gooderham. \Ir, Hugh I each j., .\ssistant Cashier, and :\Ir. J. Henderson, In!>pector. 
, The Imperial Bank of Canada \\as incorporated by an .\ct of the Dominion Parliament, in 18H, and ope
ed its 
oor., 
for business on the I st of \larch, 18 75, Its first Board of Directors were \Ie"srs. H. S. Howland (late \ Ice-PresIdent 
Canadian Bank of Commerce). \\'m. Ramsa}, John Smith, Patrick Hughes, Robert Carrie. T. R. "adsworth, and John Fisken. 
:\Ir. 1>. R, \\ïlkie, formerly :\Ianager of the Branch of the Quebec Bank in Toronto, \\a., appointed. Cashi
r. In 18 75, authorit\ 
\\ as obtained from Parliament for the amalgamation of the Kiagara I )istrict B.mh. \\ ith the I mpenal, \\ hlch \\ as consummated 
in the same year. B) this arrangement the Board \\as strengthened by the acquisiti
n of \Ir. T. R. :\.Ierr.itt and th
. lat
 
on, 
Senator Henson, the former being the President, and the latter the \ 'ice- President, of the \\ ell-kno\\ n St. Catharn
es JIlS
ltutlOn, 
Since then, the Ban'k has 
ucceeded beyond the e\pectations of it
 founders, and, from a comparative1} "mall IIlstItutlOn, has 


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PRorESIA'\T ORPIIA!\'" HO\IE, DO\ERCOURI ROAn. 



196 


FINA./.\'CLlL To.Ro.NTo.: fUNKS, Lo.A-V, AXD INSURANCE COMPANIES. 


risen to a high position in the estimation of the public. . \ comparison of figures, taken from a statement of its asset
 and 
li.tbilities on 31st \Iarch, 18ï8, and 30th September, lð90, \\hich has been prepared hy the Bank, is not unintere
ting, and i
 
e\idence that the in
titution has not only the confidence of the public, but has yielded a good return to its shareholders, 
I >i\ idcnds upon the stock han
 been regularl} paid from the first da} of the opening of the Bank. and han:: aggregated 
$1"P.).ï(,ï, or an a\erage of seven and three-lluarters per cent. per annum during a period that has \\itnesscd at least three 
"e\erc financial crise". The Head Office is conveniently situated in the large and commodious building. the property of the 
Bank, un the corner of \\ ellington Street and Leader lane, Citv branches of the Hank are open for the convenience of 
its customers in I"monto on the corner of Y onge and Queen Streets. and on the corner of \' onge and Bloor Streets. 
\Ianitoba branche
 of the Bank were opened in \\ïnnipeg and Brandon in 1882, and the Rank has en
r since taken a 
prominent part in the de\clopment of that Province and of the i'Jorth-\\" cst generally. Branches wcre subsequently opened 
in Portage la Prairie and C.dg.u), The Imperial are the bankers for the (;O\'ernment of the Province of :\Ianitoha and make 
.1 spccialt\ of all ;\l.lIlitoha and Xorth-\\ est business, ha\'ing good facilities for transferring moneys deposited with any of 
its offices in Ontario, or \\ ilh its agents in (;reat Britain (1.10\ d's Rank, Limited, ï2 Lomhard Street, London, England, and 
hranches), from tho
e poinls to any point in :\Ianitob.l, the North-\\'est PrO\'inces and British Columbia. Country branches arc 
also open at the following points in Ontario: St. Catharines, \\'elland, Xiagara Falls, Port Colborne, Ingersoll, Woodstock, 
(;alt, Fergus, St. Thomas, Esse\, Sault Ste. :Marie, at all of \\ hich a general banking business is transacted. . \ Savings 
Ilepartment is attar'hcd to the I lead Office and to each branch, and every facility is afforded for the deposit. at interest. of 
large and small sums. rhe Bank also makes a specialty of (;o\'enllnent and municipal debentures; it has successfully floated 
more th.1I1 one issue of debentures of the City of Toronto on the I.ondon market. and has been a large purchaser of those and 
other high-class securitle
. Insurance companies and il1\'estors usually communicate with this Bank whenever good, solid 
('anadian securities are needed for deposit with the I >ominion (;()\'ernlllent at Otta\\a, or for other purpuses. The present Board 
of the Imperial consists of ;'Ilr. H. S, Ho\\- 
I.llld, President; ::\Ir. '1', R.. l\Ierritt, \ïce- 
President; Messrs. \\ïlliam Ramsay, T. R. 
\\'adsworth, Robert ]affray, Hugh Ryan, and 
T. Sutherland Stayner. The chief officers 
of the Bank are I\lr. )), R. \\ïlkie, the able 
and energetic Cashier of the institution; :\Ir, 
H. Jennings, Assistant Cashier; and 1\Ir. Ed. 
Hay, I nspector. The Bank is agent in 
Canada for the Cheque Bank of london, 
England, and issues cheques upon that Bank 
available in every city and town of an} 
account in every part of the world, thus 
affording trm ellers the same facilities which 
could othe[\\ i
e be obtained only through a 
letter uf ('[edit, but without the annoyances 
as to irlentilìcation, etc., which might he and 
often are inflined upon the holders of such 
documenls. 
The Home Sa\ ings ,\: I.oan Compall) 
(Limited), oi which the Hon. Senator Frank 
Smith is President, and ill r. James :\Iason 
(:\Iajor of the Royal (;rl"'nadiers) is :\Ianagcr, 
grew out of the Toronto Sayings Bank, which 
was established in ] gS-1-. under the authority 
of .\ct
 4 and 5 Vic. Thi
 institution prO\ed a most useful One to the farmers, and to the \\orking classes of the city, at a time 
\\ hen sm ing<; bank 
 \\ ere either unknO\\ n or few in numher, for it gave an incenti\ e to thrift and led the wage-earner to mah 
proyident prO\ iSlon for ill-health or old age. The .-\ct under which sayings banks were originally established in Canada ha"ing 
been repealed, it \\a
 considered de
irable to continue the business of the Toronto Sayings Bank, and tu afford and maintain 
oppurtunitie
 for its benelìcent \\orking. The Home Saying
 &. Loan Company (I.imited) was therefore incorporated, and in 
I xï 8 an agreement \\as entered into bet\\een the two institution", and sanctioned by . \ct of the I>ominion Parliament, whereby 
the IJU
ine
s of the Sa\ ings Bank \\a<; taken over by the new ('ompany. By the sal;1e agreement, a sum repre
enting the 
urpills 
profits of the Sm II1g
 Bank, amounting to $20,000, \\'a
 paid hy the Company, and this sum, b} the terms of the agreement ami 
.\ct, is held as the Toronto Sa\ ings Bank Charita hie Trust. and cuntrolled by Trustces appointed under thc same .\ct, and 
ha\ ing no connection \\ ith the Company. The yearly earnings of this Trust are divided among some of the charitable institu- 
tion
 of the cit}. The fonner Pre
ident and \ ice-President uf the Sa\Ïngs B.1I1k Hon. Frank Smith and I\Ir. Eugene O'Keefe 
are and ha\e Ilf'en "inec' it
 organiLation the I're
ident and \ ice-Pre!-ident of the Home Savings ð: Loan Comp.II1Y, The 
other I>irl'l"tors of the ('ompan} arc \k

r
, \\ illi.lm 1'. Kiely, John 1-'0)', anù Ed\\ard Stuck, \\ith :\Ir. James J. Foy, <.>,c., a
 


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FIN.LVCIAL To.Ro.NTo.: BANKS, Lo.AN, A_VD INSURANCE COMPANIES. 


19ï 


the 
oli\'itor. Its \1:ìIl,lger is \1 r. James :\Iason, an ahle and !"perienced financial administrator. The subscribed capital of the 
institution, \lhich is e.;<,entiaIl) a repository for the sa\'ings of the people, is $r,750,000. The depositors of the Company now 
numher over 6,000, and they are constantly increasing and adding to the \'OIUme of 
their savings. The total deposits are nO\\ in the neighbourhood of a million and 
three quarter.;. The investments of the Comp..1.n) are restricted to dehentures, mort- 
gages, and such olhcr 
ecuritie
 as are considered hy the (;O\'ernn1l'nt of a proper 
character for such an institution, 
\11'. James :\I.1son, :\lajor of the Royal (;renadiers, and the popular manager of 
the Home Savings and Loan Compan) (Limited), was born of .Irish parentaae in the 
City of Toronto, .\ugust 25th, 18-+3. ,\fter receiving his education at pri\'at: schools, 
and at the Toronto :\Iodel School, where he was head boy, he entered the office of 
the late :\11'. \\'.llter l\Iackell7ie, Clerk of the County Court, and remained there sc\'eral 
years. :\1 r. :\Iason intended to study sun'eying and ci\'il engineering. hut 0\\ iag to 
the discouraging prospects of the profession in his youth, his attention was turned to 
banking, Entering the employment of the Toronto Sa\ings Hank in r866, he was 
appointed assistant manager in 1872, and manager in the following year. He 
remained in that position till the husiness was taken O\'er, in r 879, h) the Home 
Sa\ ings I\: I.oan ('ompany, and has since continued to be manager of the new and 
now flourishing institution. The Home Sa\ ings 
 l.oan Company, whose offices 
are at 7 R Church St., and of which the Hon. Senator Frank Smith is President, has an 
authori/ed capital of $2,000,000. It enjoys an e,ccllent reputation as one of the 
most useful, as well as sound, financial institutions in the city, Under :\Ir. \Iason's 
able and pruJent management, it has of recent years added largely to the \olume of its 
business. \Ir. :\lason finds time to fulfil the acti\'e and patriotic- duties of a citiæn, He was I >irector for se\'eral ) ears of the Toronto 
\lcchanic
 Institute ,lIld its last President \lhen the institution was merged into the Free Public Library. In the founding of the 
latter he too\... a \\arm interest as a member of the Board of Trustees and sef\'ed as its chairman. On his retirement he was 
presented with a handsome address, He was also one of the promoters of the .\thenæum Cluh and its first President. .\ 
taste for military life led :\1r. \lason, early in the si,ties, to join the Queen's Own Rifles, ,\s a passed cadet of the :\Iilitary 
School, he was appointed to a commi"sion in the corps, the organiLation of \\ hich was undertaken at the time of the Fenian 
Raid, hut was abandoned at its suppression. In 1882, he was appointed to the command of one of the Í1\'O companies which 
were then added to the Royal (;renadiers. I>uring the :'\lorth-\\'est Rebellion, he sef\'ed as Captain of No.2 Service Company 
of his Regiment, and was present at the action of Fish Creek, on \I hich occasion his Company, at his 0\\ n request, was the first 
to cross the Saskatchewan to cover the crossing of the remainder of the column, and to 
upport the other half of (;eneral ;\Iid- 
dleton's force then engaged with the rebels. Spea\...ing of the feat then accomplished, Ceneral :\Iiddleton thus reports: "To 
fully appreciate the rapidity \\ ith which this was done, in spite of the diffi,'ulties which e,isted, the river must be seen; wooded 
heights on each side, one hundred fed high 
-at bottom, large houlders encrusted in 
thick, sticky mud -a fringe of huge blocks of 
ice on each side; a wretched scow, carrying 
about si,ty men at most, pulled with oars 
made with an a,e, and a rapid current of 
about three or four miles an hour, were the 
obstacles to be surmounted by dint of deter- 
mination and alniety to join \lith :lI1d aid 
their comrades." On reaching the scene of 
the fight and learning that the attempts to 
capture the po
ition occupied by the rebels 
had failed, Captain \Iason \'olunteered \\ ith 
his Company to charge this point, hut the 
(;eneral declined the offer, sa) ing there \lere 
.. too many \'aluable lives lost already," ,\t 
the engagement at Hatoche, :\0, 2 Company 
was one of those that gallantly led the attack, 
and here Captain :\Iason recei\'ed a gunshot 
\\ound in his right side while ad\'ancing on 
the rehel rifle-pits. The \\ound proved a 
severe one, and he suffered a long time from 
it
 effects. 1\Ir, :\Iason. as an ötcemed. 
useful and patriotic citi/en. enjoys the respect 
of the community and the confidence of 


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MAJOR JAS. :\IASON, R.C. 


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CO''';RA\'F 
 BRFWERY, (2UEEN STRt'FT \\-Fsr, CORNER OF XI \G \RA S I RFF.T. 



19:- 


FIN.L\'CLIl TORONTO: R"LYA"S, LOA1'
 .IN/) IN.'.;CR.INCE COAll'.ANIES. 


h:lIlking and financial men throughout the cil\, He is now \l.1jor of the Royal (
renadicrs. and is one of the most popular 
o'h('Crs in the Regiment. He is an adherent of the Roman Catholic Church. 
:\Ir. Humphrey Lloyd Hime, President of the Toronto Stock E,change, \\as 
horn at :\10\. Co. \rn1:1gh. Ireland, Septemher I jth. I X33, \t the age of fifteen he 
crosse<.J to England to obt,Ún a husiness educ.ltion and learn tntile manuf,lt'turing. 
Coming to Canada in 1854 he spent some) ears with sun'e) ors on the I n<.Jian Penin- 
sUI.I. on the isl,lIlds of the Ceorgian Ha) ami I ,Ike Simn.e, and in the II uds(JI1 Ba\ 
Territories. In 18óI he hecame one of the foun<.Jers of the Toronto Stock E,change. 
of \\ hid1 he \\as \'ice-President in 18ó5. an<.J President in I RoR, and again in 18R8, In 
the \ ear 1807 \Ir. II ime took an acti\'e interest in mining: on the north shore of lake 
Superior. He wa
 aldermanic representatin' of St. Patrick's \ranl in Ii'; 7 3 and was 
appointed Justice of the Peace in 1874, :\11'. Hime is now President of the Toronto 
Stock E,change and of the Copland Brewing ('0. He is a I Jirector of the Toronto 
Belt line Raih\a) and the Belt I.and Corporation. For SO\11e time he was a I Jirector 
of the Xorthern Rail\\;!\' Company, He is a member of the Church of England and 
lIas for\11erh connected with the Reform .h,;ociation. hut now takes no acti\e part in 
p
litics. He is head of Ihe firm of \lcssrs. H. I.. H ime 
 Co., stock brokers. real 
estate and insurance agents. 
Toronto owes to the Canada I.ifc \ssurance ('ump.1I1) one of the finest build, 
ings of the many which now adorn her streds. 1t is at once the most striking, and 
among the most costl). of the homes of her commef{'e. ,\rchitu:turall). it is a 
departure from the usual designs of office construction. the innO\ation the well or 
court which break
 the continuity of the faee front of the structure being suggested 
h} the demands in so large a huilding for light. The han<.Jsome edifice we need hardl) take up space to descrihe, as we gi\e in 
the volume a fine full-page illustr,ltion of it. Ih erection. on our chief thoroughfare, King Stred, while it does honour to the 
cit). is at the same time a mark of the emerprise 
and \\ealth of the great Com pan} which stands 
at the head ofCan.ldian in
urance, The build- 
ing, \\ hich has been constructed from the plans 
of \1 r. \\'.lite. Buff..lo, is se\'en storeys high: the 
lirst store} presents a massi\e granite front, only 
the entranCe pillars being polished: the second 
storey i
 of red sandstone, and the upper storeys 
oj a dark-colore<.J hrick. The main entrance is 
t'1rough a court, across the front of which is an 
immense polished granite block horne upon _ _ _ 
polished granite pillars, and leading to the grand 
\ estihule, to the offices on either side. and to 
\he de\,ltor in the tower at the rear of the 
buildin
. The walls of the \estihule are inlaid 
\\Ìth :\Ie,ican onY", anò the great rorridor is of . - 
old Roman :\Iosaic tile, The "pacious offices 
of the Canada I ife are in the \\ estern \\Ìng of 
Ihe main floor, and are elaborately but taste- 
fulh del'orated. I'he IlUilding as a \\hole con 
tain
 about a hundred other officps, and alread} 
the tenants of the ('ompan} arc hastening to 
lake possL
sion of their fine ne\\ quarters. ,\ 
Branch of the Bank of Hamilton occupies the 
large offiCI.... on the main floor, east of the 
corridor. The career of the Canada Life, \ssur- 
ance ('ompan} has been one of unqualified and 
unlw)kcn succe

. It wa
 originally e
tahlished 
in 1847, \\ith it., head offin. at H.unilton,and it 
is une of the institutions of \\ hich the" .\mbitiou
 
('it} .. h,\ reason to be proud. Hamilton 
till 
i
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 .1I1<.J thLre ih aff..irs are _ 
administered II} ih eminent I'fl .ident, .\11'. ,\. (;. 
Rams.l\, aide<.J II) strong I lireetor,\te, loc,1I.1I1d 
prm in('ial. rhe Chief Secretary is \1 I'. R. Hill" : 


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200 


FIXANCL1.L TORONTO: HA
VKS, LOAN, .AND INSURAXCE COJII'ANIES. 


the (;eneral Superintcndent, :\Ir. \\, T, Ramsay. It
 Toronto managers are \[essrs. l
eorgc .\. and E. \Y. ('m, ; and the 
metropolitan office ha
 fot ib advisors thc follo\\ ing Honorary 1>irectors: Lieut.-GO\'ernor Sir. \Ie'lander Camphell, Sir Casimir 
S. Cmwski, Sir P. L. :\lacpherson, thc Hon. :\lr, Justice 13urton, and :\Ir, C. \\'. Bunting. .\n insurance company, doing husi- 
ness in e\ ery pro\ ince of the I )ominion, in T ondon, England, and in at least one state of the neighbouring Repuhlic, and ha\ ing 
fift\, million
 of a.,
urances in force, with O\"er eIe\'en millions of capital anù other assets. and an annual income of two millions, 
is in need of no conunendation in these pages. The volume and ronstant increase of its husiness, the numher of its policy 
holders, and thc amount in
ured in the Company, are it" 0\\ n paneg) rico Kot only the Company, but Canada also, may he 
felicitated on the remarLlble hi
tr)r} of this grcat home institution, 
Some forty ycars ago a numher of le.lding citiæns of Toronto applied to 
the Parliament of Canada for a charter for an assoriation under the style and title 
of thc "\\'estern .-\ssurancc Company." and in 1851 thc Company \\as duly 
incorporated \\ ith powcr to transact fire, marine and life insurance It has ne\ cr 
donc a lifc husincs
, hut has confined itself to the othcr two hranches. The hu
i- 
neSS has gro\\ n from a premium incomc of .L 3,725 in the first year of its e'listence 
to a premium income of $1,686,932, in 1889. The Company has also cash assets 
of upwards of $1,500,000, The directorate, which has emhraccd such men as the 
late Hon. John :\1c\lurrich, and the late S.uuuel Haldan, is composed now as 
follo\\s: \Ir. ,\. \1. Smith. Prcsident: :\Ir. (;eorge .\. Cox, Yice-President; Hon, 
S. C. Wood, :\lessrs. Rohert Beaty, \, '1', 
Fu Iton, H, K. B.1ird, (;corgc :\Ic 1\1 urrich, 
W. R, Brock, and J. J. l'-enny, Managing- 
I >irector. The Company's huilding. an 
illustration of which appcars on another 
page, is a handsome structure of Con- 
nerticut bro\\ n stone. situated on thc 
north-west corner of \Y c11ington and Scott 
Strects. The Company deserves the suc 
cesS that has awaited on it. 


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:\IR. J. J. KFI\I\Y. 


\Ir. J. J. Kenny, :\lanaging- 
I )irector of the \\' estern \ssurance 
COInpan), \\as born in Lonrlon, Eng- 
I.md, III the } ear J 8-1-6. Coming to 
Canada \\ ith his parents when quite a 
lad, he was educated in Hamilton, and 
commenced his insurance carecr, at 
the age of eighteen, as a clerk in the 
agency office of 1.1r. George .\. \' oung, 
the then representative of the Royal 
for that district, .\fter four }ears thus spent, he was for a short time l!J the 
cmplo}mcnt of the Canada Life .\ssurance Company. Two }ears laterhcacrepted 
a pú
ition on the staff of the \\'estern .-\ssurance Company, and for nineteen years 
he has remained in their service. From clerk he rose to be agcnt at Toronto, 
Inspcctor, Secretary and Managing-I >irector. The phenomenal progress of this 
Company, since he took charge in 1880, is due in no small degree to :\Ir. l'-enny's 
skill J.nd encrgy, 
The Confederation Life ,\ssociation is one of the most suhstantial and 
surces
ful of Canadian Insurance Companies. It is a home company, doing 
business e'ldu
i\e1} in Canada, and \\as incorporated hy the Dominion Parliament 
in 1871, \\ith a strong hody of directors, under the presidcncy of the late Sir Francis HIIlCks, K.C.:\I.<
. In 18H, Sir \\'111. 1'. 
Ho\\land, C. n., succeeded to the presidency, and has since held that position in the Company, aiding it largely \\Ìth his mature 
experienct" and sound judgmcnt. The.-\ 
sociation ha
 abo had the henefit, for nearly twenty years, of the husiness ability and the 
\\ ise counsels of a number of influential men, chiefly \\ell-kno\\ n residents of the cit}. From the first, thanks in the main to 
the careful and capable admini
tration of 
1r. J. K. :\Iacdonald, :\Ianaging-Director, the Company has met \\ith ull{lUalifled 
succe!'
. Its \olume of current business has gf{)\\n from an amount under two million
 in 1873 to nearly eighteen millions in 
l889, while its as'-ets withm the 
ame period have c'lpanded from $ I 13,293 to $2,89-1-,502, or, including the capital of the 
in...titution, to $3,800,000. I >uring the past }ear alone, the increa
e in Ihc volume of insurance in forcc amounted to nearly a 
million; \\ hill' the incrt-.lse in a
sets, available in p.lrt as policy-holder,,' profih, was not far from $350,000. Results so 
gratif} ing as the'-e figure
 show, denote not only. as we ha\c said, su("Cessful management, hut the public confidence and 
f.Hour \\ hich sur('e

ful mal1.lgement in<,pires, Something is abo no douht due to the liberal character of the Compan} 's 


" 


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fr1 


MR. S. C. ÐUI'(CAN,CLARK. 


" 


:\1 It, :\IAl COL \1 G IIm'i. 



FINANCIAL TORONTO: RANA'.s: LOAN, AND INSURANCE COAIPANIES. 


:!Ol 


rel.1tions \\ ith its patrom. In the Confcderation Life, policies are free from all re
trictions as to residence and travel after three 
} cars : they are also non-forfeitable after the pa}ment of t\\O full annual premiums. Its poliries, moreO\er, \\hieh have been in 
force for three years are free subject only to proof of age from any ohjection in regard to any mi
-statement or omission 
which ma) have been made in the application for the issue thereof. ,\cluated and gO\erned by these liberal and enlightened 
prO\isions, success ha
 \'ery naturally \\aited on the rareer of the .-\
"ociation. .\ new and impo
ing building is nO\\ under 
construction for the Compan} on the north-east corner of Yonge and Richmond Strcets, a full-page illustration of \\hich \\ ill 
be found in this volume, The follo\\ ing are the directors and officers of the Company: Sir ,,", P. Howland, K.C,:\I.G" e.B., 
I'rðident: \\ m. Elliot and Edllard Hooper, \'ice-Presidents: \\. H, Beatty, Hon. James Young, 
r. P. Ryan, S, 
ordheimer. 
\\". H. (;ihbs, .-\. :\Id ean Howard, J. D, Edgar, \1.1'., \\-. S. Lee, A L. {;ooderham, 
\\. D. :\Iatthews. and George :\litchell, I>irector
; \\'. C. :\Iacdonald, ,-\rtuar}, and 
J. h. :\Iacdonald. ,\Ianaging, Director, 
:\1 r. S. (', I )uncan-Clark, general agent of the J ancashire In
urance Com pa 11\', 
i,., a Scotchman b) hirth, and recei\'ed his education in Edinhurgh and Brussels. As 
a young man he entered the sen ice of :\[essrs. (;illespie. :\loff..'Ht & Co., London, and 
later \\as in the emplo) of the london & \\'e
tminster Bank, In 186-t-, he connected 
himself\Ùth the I
lncashire Insurance Compan}, and for many years has been their 
able general agent, \\ ith headquarters at Toronto. :\1 r. Duncan-Clark, who enjo} s a 
high reputation among the chiefs of commerce. has under his charge the business Of 
the Company in Ontario, <2uebec, :\lani- 
toba and the Xorth-\\'est Territories. The 
., Lancashire " is one of the most success- 
ful of the English Insurance Companies 
in Canada, and it has been fortunate in 
ha\'ing for so many years at the head of 
its Toronto Branch a gentleman of :\Ir. 
I )uncan-Clark's high character for business 
ability and personal worth. He was 
elected Ia
t } ear Pre,ident of the Canadian 


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"R. R. \\ IChEXS. 


Fire Cnder\\riters ,\ssociation. In 
religion, I\Ir, I )uncan-Clark is a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church of 
Canada. 
:\Ir. :\Ialcolm Gihhs, horn in 
(;Ia"gow, Scotland, :\Iay 18th, 1837, 
was educated at GlasgO\\ University. 
Coming to Canada a }oung man, his 
interest in his adopted country did not 
make him forget his nati\e land. :\Ir. 
(;ibbs has been identified \\ ith all the Scotch societies in Toronto, and \\as Presi- 
dent of St. .\ndre\\"s ::;ociet\', of \\ hich he is nO\\ the popular :\Ianager. H is name 
has been intimately conn
cted with the insurance and real e,.,tate bu"ine
s in 
l'oronto for many years past. He has taken a decp interest in moral reforms, and 
was formerly President of the Temperance Reformation society, and Di,.,trict Chief 
of the Independent Order of l;ood Templars. He is a 1'.1St :\Iaster of Rehoboam 
lodge, .-\. F. ;:.: .-\. :\1., , \uditor of Capital lodge, , \.u,l'. \\., and an E\ecuti\'e ('om- 
mitteeman of the Law and Urder League, 1\Ir. l;ihbs has been Secretary of the 
Caledonian Societ\" He is an acti\e member of Jan'is Street Baptist Church. 
.\Ir. RICha;d \\'Ickens, in
urance agent, is an Englishman, and was horn 
:\IR. E'RE Till; RISSOI':. ,\ugust 13 th , 1826. Coming to Canada \\hile quite young: animated 1>\: a desire to 
, . I . , I ' I ' t ' d c tion S l )eciall ) ' desl"ned to fit hlln for com- 
remalll under the old flag; of the land of his mth, he reCl'J\'e( III t liS coun n an e u a , . , .... 
mercial life. H i5 conn
ctlon \\ ith the Commercial C nion \ssurance Company, 01 london, England, for "ome } ears past has 
. . I I ' II ( ' . :\Ir \\ïd.ens takt an acti\e interest in his 
cau,.,ed a large amount of Cana(lJan msurance to go to t lat re la J C ompan\. . . . 
.. .,. 
C I I . I f " t ( ' " .'et. His denominational connectIon IS \\lth the 
fellow-countrymen \\ho come to ana(a, )emg a mem )er 0 .,. .eorge:> .,ou ). . . 
:\Icthodist Church, of \\ hich he is a worthy and devoted memher. , 
:\fr. _-\Ifred Wightman Smith is a nati\e of Toronto. He \\as horn in thi" cit) in September, 18-t-.J' when 
\'hat IS nOI\ the 
::\Ietropolis had scarcel) more than emerged from its rural oh!'.curit}. , \fter recei\ ing the rudin
en.b 
f Ins education he hecame a 
student at Cpper Canada College, and suhsLquentl} at the Toronto (;rammar School. ::\Ir. 
nnth IS on: of ,the I


t 
nO\\ n of 
" .. " . I h I . I I .. I " ( ' o ll l lflIH' and the Briti
h Lm l llrL' Ilk (111111':111\, 
I oronto s IIlsurance men. H I
 connection \\ 1[ I t L' mpena 'Ire Ibur.lI1( to I. .' . 


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FIX.-lNCIAL To.Ro.NTo.: RAXKS, Lo.A.l'
 _IND IN.<.;CRANCE COMPANIES. 


ha.; dr.I\\ n a 
reat deal of husll1ess to those organi/ations. For some )ears :\Ir. Smith h.lS been a member of the Toronto 
Board of L nrier\\ riters. of which he has heen President since I 

I). He is a memher of the Church of Engl.lIlù. 
'Ir. I':)rc Thure
son. .1.1',. \\as horn of l'nitcd Empire Loyalist stock, at Picton, Prince Ed\\.ud Count" \pril lith, 
182 5. His educ.1tion was impartcd hv pri\'ate tuition. 1 >uring the S.lIldfidd-:\I.lcdonald administration, :\Ir. Thuresson \\.IS 
.Ippointed one of the Justices of the Pcacc for the South kiding of \\ entworth. From 1850 till 1860 he operated ntenS1\'e 
agricultural implements works at .\ncaster, which he relinquished to enter upon the manufacture of knitted goods. The first 
('anadian factOf\ for the proùuction of card clothing for \\001 and cotton carding machinery was estahlished by :\fr. Thuresson, 
in 18ú6. .-\fter carr) ing this enterprise on for thirteen} cars. the \\ orthy gentlcm.lIl retired from acti\'e husiness. Since locating 
in Toronto he has ill\'e
ted largely and profit.lbl} in bu"il1l:ss and pri\ate pruperty. He is a Freemason, and a memher of 
:\Iacnab lodge, Port Colborne. :\11'. Thure.;son, in politics, is a Liberal. and in religion. an Episcopalian, 
For the securit} of Financial foronto, as 
well as for the n1.lintcnance of good order, the 
city is possessed of two org.lI1i/ations, of \\ hich 
it may well he proud, the Police Forcc .\IId the 
Fire Brigade, The Police Force is compo.;ed 
of a \cry fine body of mcn, three hundred 
strong, well-drilled, \\ell set-up, and sef\'iceably 
uniformcd, :\[any of the men ha\'e .;ern:d in 
the British .\rmy, or in the Royal Irish Con- 
stahulary, anù in addition to heing amenahle to 
discipline ha\'e militar} instincts and possess a 
soldier's sense of duty. Their fine physique and 
soldierl} hcaring are the subject of comment 
\\ ith \'isitors to the city, as \\ ell as among to\\ ns- 
people \\ ho see them as a hody at drill or. 
occasionally, in some page.wt on the strect. 
They are e,ccllcntly commanded hy I.t.-Col. 
H. J, (;rasett, Chief Const,lhle, an e,-army 
officer, and a singularly good administrator. 
Col. (
rasctt is efficiently aided hy Deput)-Chiel 
Stuart, and hy four Inspectors, :\lessrs, Stephen, 
\\'ard, Johnston and Breckenreid. Besides the 
ordinal'} force, there IS a small :\Iounted Police 
Patrol, and an . \mhulance and Detedi\'c 
('orps, the latter under Inspector \\ m. Stark. 
The gO\'ernment of the City Police is \'ested in 
three Commissioners, thc Mayor for the time 
heing, the Stipendiar} Magistrate, I.t.-('ol. (;. T. 
I>enison, and His Honour, Judge :\!.lcdougall, 
of the ('ounty Court. 
Toronto's Fire Brigade \ ies in efficiency. 
and may we not .;ay, in no ohjection.lblc "ensc, 
in the lu"t of manhood, \\ ith the city's other 
protecting arm, the Policc Force, Thc org.\IIi- 
Lation is of e,ceptional importance to the \ast 
and far-rcaching interests of the Pro\ incial 
Capital, and to it and its admirable ,ystem is the city mdehted, dail) and hourly, for its immunity from flrc. Xothing 
could \\ell he more efficient than the de(.tric alarm s}stem now in force in Toronto and the thorough I) organiæu slaff, 
1\ ith its hook, ladder and ho!.e equipment, at the several convenicntly-situated fire stations. l'here arc no\\ in operation 
we helieH o\er 300 sign.l1 ho,es Ihroughout the city, and the rapidity of mO\emenl \\hich the system has introJuced and 
e'cltc!. i<; most a"surin
 to all interests at stake. The numher of strcet hydrants is well-nigh legion, and \ er} e,ceptional 
are no\\ the circumstances that \\ ill permit a fire within thc cit) limih to get a headwa) and do much damage. I'he present 
Chief of the Brigade i" \Ir. Richard .\rdagh, \\ith :\Ir. Thomas Craham a
 assistant. The.;e act under the authorin of the 
l"ire and (;a.. ('ommittee of the City Council, of whom .\Iderman Bell is no\\ Chairman. Thc Fire BrIgade System has 
attained it<; present perfection as the result of a constant e\olution which has becn going steadily on for many }ear<;. 1'0 look 
1I.lck to,day to the oldmcthod.. in use at fires in the city is to secm to look back on the days of the .\1'1.. and the deluge. \\ t: 
ha\e made a long 
tride from the era of the old hand engine and the harrel of water. The citi/ens would he ingrate" if they 
lorgot to \\ ham the} O\\e credit in a large measure, for the modernl/ing and prcsent clluipment of the ,,} stem no\\ in \'ogue, 
'1'\\0 name", at lea<;t, claim to hL mentioned as instrumental in hringing ahout the change, these are, the late Mr. Jame
 .\sh 
field, who was long Chief of the Fire Brigadc, and cx-.\Iderman James B. Boustead, for many year" ('ll.linnan of the Fire anJ 
(;.l
 ('onnnittLe uf the' (', ,un, il, .\IId one of the mo"t lealous. hard \\ orking and !.elf-saeriflcing of our City Father". 



 


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WEST TORO \'TO fUNCTION AND ITS ACTIVITIES 


C H,-\PTE R X X\' 


203 


\\ï:s r r()RUX ru JL':\TTIO:\ \XIJ ITS .\CTI\ïTIES. 


TORo"\ 1'0 1"\ 181 ï. 18-l5, \'\"11 ,..". \ \\ f,II-....'\"O\\:\ 1:\RL\ \\ RllER ()I'OIFD. \\ F"T\\ \RlJ I'RO(;RF"" OF rHE ("11"\. 
:\1\1;(l"\l Slï-llRB\'\" 1:"\.1"1"'10"\". Jl"\cno"\ E"\I!î{I'Rl"I" \"\II rHFlR KI'\""HIP TO rHOSF OF THF ("11\ 


S L" B L" R B, \ X T () R ():\ T (). like the cit\. itself, "as once of 
mall and modöt dir.lensions. 
\\fite" \Ir. :\Iunlgomen' :\I.lrtin. in his \\ork on The BrÎtÙh Colonies, Toronlo, in 1817', had 
farm aùjoining another, the aYe rage heing 
one farm-huuse in e\ ery three miles. Thc 
city had then no hrick houses, no tinned roofs, no 
planked !.idew.llk!>: the stumps of trecs remained in 
the street!.: the ,..ite of the present (st. I
l\\fence) 
market \\as an unhealth\ hog. rhere were nu hanks, 
no markets, no se\\ ers: onh a fe\\ stores, and scarcely 
a schooner frequented its \\'harn
s. X 0\\ (\1 r. :\I.utin 
\\fote in 18-l5), Toronto contains 30,000 intelligent 
citiLen" : rows of handsome hrick huildings. roofed 
\\ ith tin: numerous places of \\ orship: splendid shops 
or "tore"'. \\ ith plate'gla"" \\ indow" ; ga,,-Iit anù ma- 
cadamiæd streets. The city had hy this time, we 
learn, ri"en to the dignity of a tuwn hall, and pos- 
se"sed law courts and a uni\'ersity. Its \\hane" were 
nO\\ loaded \\ ith produce and crowded with steam- 
hoab and "chooners. There was a Board of Trade, 
a I\lechanic,,' Institute, puhlic haths, and a fi'l.ed and 
floating propert) estimated at fi\ e million,.. sterling. 
.\round and ahout the cit) in all directions, :\Ir. :\lartin 
adds. were \ illas, farm!., and fine orchards and gar- 
dell>>. Xearly fift) year!. have gone hy since Ihis de
cription of Toronto wa" \\fitten. and e\ery urchin in the street knows what 
strides the eity has made and is making. :\I.lncllous as has heen the progress \\ithin the cit\ proper. no le"s manellous has 
heen the progress in the cÏt) '" suhurhs. E\'en \\ ithin the past ten) ears the change has !.eemed magical. rrue to the generalla\\, the 
chief prugre"" has heen \\esh\ard. 
:\0 sooner do l'.ukdale and Brockton 
hlossom out intu a nn\ and popu- 
lou
 Toronto, and in time come 
\\ ithin the cÏt)'s emhrace. than "till 
another ri\ic e'l.tension appe.lr" and 
grows up to nl.lturit\ lil-.e a gourd in 
the night. If the pace i" maintained. 
\\ t' sh.ll1 ha\ t' ere long a continuous 
cit\, \ ocal with the sound
 of indus- 
tr), from the \\atcr,front to \\ e"wn. 
. \ stroll through \\ cst Toronto J unc- 
tion \\ ill astonish the Torontoni:m 
who rarely quits the heaten p.lths 
of the cit) proper. Here he \\ ill 
find m,umfactones and all manner 
uf industrie" that haw sought at 
the Junction room to e'l.pand freeh, 
\\ ith e'l.èmption from cit) ta'l..ltion, 
rhe suhurh has a stir and life ahout 
it which mark it as an off-shoot 01 
the city, and horn of the "ame enter, 
prio;e and energiL" th.lt ha\'e made 
Toronto \\ h.lt it i". 


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WEST TORONTO JUNCTION AND ITS ACTI1'ITIES, 


John T, (;ilmour, M.P., :\r.r.r., first sa\\ the light of day in the Count} of Durham, Ont., on 
larch 3rd, 1855. He 
\\as educated at Port Hope High School, and in 1878, at the age of t\\enty-three, graduated from rrinit} :\Iedical College, \\ith 
the degree of :\r.I). In addition to the e,tensive medical practice which, in conjunction \\ ith 1)1'. Clendenan, he enjo}s at 
\\ est Toronto Junction, Dr. Cilmour has found time to serve the public in nuny 
\\ays. He \\as the pioneer of journalism at the Junction, The lórk Tribune, of 
\\ hich he was the first editor, is now a flourishing dail}, In 1886, he was nominated 
by the Liberal party and returned memher for Xorth York in the Local Legislature, 
In 1890, he wa
 re-elected, and on the opening of the I egislature seconded the adùress 
in reply to the Speech from the Throne. 
I )r. (;i1mour is connected with all the 
leading Societies, is one of the Puhlic 
School Trustees of West Toronto Junc- 
tion, and a memher of the :\Iethodi
t 
Church. 


:\Ir. Jacob H. Homer, of the \\ell- 
k no\\ n real estate finn of :\ kssrs. Hoover 
& Jackson, \rest Toronto Junction, \\as 
born January 20th, 18-1-5, in the Township 
of York, Ontario. Hc attended the \\ es, 
ton High School and one of the Toronto 
Business ('olleges, but in the main is o;elf-educ.lted. Mr. Hoo\'Cr \\,IS on the staff of 
the Journal of Commerce, Toronto, for some time, and fl)r si,tcen years wa5 a school 
tcacher. The pre"ent firm of :\Iessrs, HoO\'er & Jackson, besides carrying on a large 
real cstate husiness, are the puhlishers of the Dllil,yand TVeeklJ' Tribu/le, and do an 
eÜcn5i\'e coal, wood and lumber trade, 
Ir. HoO\'er is President of the .\uston 
:\Ianufacturing l'ompany, of Toronto, and a ] )jrector of the Hess Manufacturing Company, \\'est Toronto J unction. He is a 
member of the :\Iethodist Church. 
\Ir. James T, Jackson, of l\Iessrs. Hoover & Jackson, real estate agents, money loan brokers, and appraiscr5, \\'I'st Tor- 
onto Junction, is a Canadian by hirth. He "as born at Yaughan, York County, January 4th, 18(j:? lIe attended \\ eston High 
School and took a second-class certificate in 
1880. .\fter teaching school for a year and 
.1 half at "-i1lowdalc, :\Ir. Jackson matricu- 
lated at Toronto "L"niver5ity. and in 1887, 
graduated in "\rts, Since commencing busi- 
ne"s, the finn of Iloover & Jackson have 
been singularly successful. The} ,Ire the 
publi5hers of the Daily Tribulle, which \\as 
founded as a weekly in 1888, developed into 
a bi-weekl} in 1889, and a daily in 1890. 
:\Ir. Jackson is a member of the :\Icthodio;t 
('hurch, and a Reformer in politics, 
\Ir. Panie! Webster Clendenan, bar- 
ri5ter, io; a graduate in _ \rts of Bethany Col- 
lege, \\ e
t \ïrgIllJa. Formerly he was a 
member of the firm of Beaty, Hamilton & 
('ao;sd
, but for the pao;t seven years he ha5 
\\ ithdra\\ n from active pr,lctiee. :\1 r. ('Ien- 
denan ha
 been ,'lo"c1} identified \\ ith the 
gro\\ th and development of \rest Toronto 
Junction, He \\.h the fir"t Reen
 and fir"t 


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!\lli. JA\lFS T. JACKSON. 


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WEST TORONTO fUNCTION AND ITS ACTIVITIES. 


20fi 


:\lavor of the Junction, and took a leading part in mapping it out. :\lr. Clendenan has heen I>eput}-Reeve of York Township. 
Puring the recent I'rovinci.ll campaign \Ir. Clendenan carried the Equal Rights h.mner in West York and made an e"\ceedingly 
good run against the old party nominee. Douhtless \\e shall yet hear of him in puh1ic 1ife. 
:\Ir. luues .\, Ellis, architect, is a native of Ontario, having heen horn at :\Ieaford, :\Iarch 2nd, 1856, He received a 
good primary education, and a thoroughly practical as well as a theoretical 
training in architecture, and now carries on the husiness of registered architect 
and building; superintendent at "'est Toronto Junction. He has prepared and 
carried to their successful completion, plans for important huildings at Port 
.\rthur, Sault Ste. :\Iarie, and :\leaford, including churches, school-houses, resi- 
dences, and business blocks. .\t West Toronto Junction, three puhlic school 
buildings, the I )jsciples Church, two factories, and a number of residences were 
built under his supenoision. :\11". Ellis is a member of the Ontario Association 
of .\rchitects, and is connected with the ;\I.lsonic fraternity. 
:\lr. Thomas (;ilhert was horn in Toronto, June 13th, 18..J.3. He received 
hi" education at the I\lodei School, and afterwards at Rockwood .\cademy, near 
(;uelph. For thirt} -five years he carried on a farm at what is now kno\\ n as 
I'rospeet 1'.lrk. The rapid growth of Toronto has made this property very valu- 
ahle for huilding purposes, :\lr. Cilhert retired from farming, and is no\\ living 
at \\ cst Toronto Junction. He W.b si"\ years a trustee of School Section Ko, 
13, near I )avcnport. ::\lr, (;ilhert IS a Consenative. and a memher of the 
\\ eslepn :\lethodist Church. 


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The residence of I\lr. Peter 
T aughton is a handsome brick struc- 
ture, occupying a commanding site at 
\\' est Toronto J unction, fronting on 
I )undas Street. Mr, I aughton was formerly a market-gardener. He came to Toronto 
some twenty-three ago, and for a long time carried on husiness at the corner of I )over- 
court Road and College Street. Suhsequently he mo\'ed to the vinmty of \\'est 
Toronto Junction, and when real estate 
\alues rose in that locality, \11". I aughton 
had some thirty-three acres of land. He 
disposed of the hulk of the property and 
retired from active husiness, 


MR. TIIOMAS GILBERT. 


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"H ome\\ ood Hall," the residence 
of John McConnell, 1\1.1>" 625 lJundas 
Street. is one of the finest houses in 
51. :\ lark' s \ \' ard. \\ here he is a large 
property 0\\ nero It stands on an acre 
of ground, surrounded by trees, vines 
and fto\\ering plants, and from the bel- 
vedere commands a view of the city and lake. 1>1". I\IcConnell was born in the 
Township of Scarboro,' I\larch 4th, 18.t6, and when about ten } ears old remo\ ed 
\\ ith his parents to I\larkham. Here. and at the Richmond Hill (;rammar School, 
he waS educated, and he also n1.ltriculated at Toronto U niversit), and ohtained 
from the Education I )eparuuent a first-class certificate as a teacher, For a time 
he taught school and also studied for the medical profession. He heeame a 
student of the Toronto School of i\ledicine, and in 1869 he graduated. After recei\ ing his ùiploma, he commenced practice 
at Thornhill, and fifteen years later remO\'ed to llrockton, then a 
uburh hut nO\\ part of the ('it) of Toronto. In 1 8
4, he 
was JZeeve of the \illage and represented the \rard after incorporation. He is a Coroner for the ("ounty of \ ork, and ll.ls.l,leen 
President of the \rest York Reform ,\ssociation and of the Reform .\.;soei.ltion of \ aughan, He holùs a fìrst-da.;
 I\hhtar} 
School certifIcate, and has heen long connected with the ('.madi.lIlmili\i.l. 1)1". I\IcConndl was for four) e.us attend.lIlt-pl1\ sici.1II 
at thL l'l"<Jtest.uH ()rphaus Home. 


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DR. 10Ilr; ;\[cr,,'...,Io.LI. 




()Ii 


WEST TORONTO JCNCTION A.YD ITS ACTIVITIE5, 


:\1r. J. :\1. \Iouat-Bigg
, to\\n eng1l1eer of \\ est Toronto Junction, was born at Rawal Pindi, India, .\pril 11th, 18(q. 
He \\.lS educ.lted for the British .\rm), and decided to adopt the profession of Civil Engineer. To tI-J.lt end he too\.. a special 
course at Xe\\ton College, South Devon, England, In 1882 he ,ame to ('.mada, and for t\\O years \\a;; employed by the 
I Jominion (;overnment sun e) ing in the X orth- \ \ est, and in the 1\lus\..oka and 
!'.un' Sound Di
tricts. Suh
e4uentl} he \\as employed for some time on the \\ d- 
land Canal. In the 
pring of ISSy, he located at \\ est Toronto Junction. and a 
few \\eeks thereafter \\as appointed to his present position of town engineer. 
\\' e
t Toronto J unction owes not a 
little to :\11'. John Dunn Spears, of ;\Iessrs. 
Spears 
 (;ilmour, real estate brokers, a 
gentleman \\ ho has for man) years heen 
prominentl) idenlified \\ ith the rise and 
progress of that enterprising suhurhan 


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:\IR. CHARI FS C. ';01:\;(;. 


town. 1\Ir, Spears was horn in 18{{ in 
the Township of \\'hitby, Ontario County, 
where he wa
 long acti\ dy en
aged in 
the milling husines
. In [ù8{, \1 1". SJ>ear
 
moved to the Junction, and has since then 
devoted himself to contracting and to real 
estate. He is the onl) person in \\ est Toronto J unction who h.ls continuously 
occupied a seat at the Council Bo.ml since the i[l.lugur.Ition, first of the \ illage 
and then of the to\\n, :\11". Spears has heen d1.lirman of the 13o.lTd of \\ .Iter-\\or\..s 
at the J unction since their first establishment. He is also a I Jirector of the Hess 
:\lanuf.H:turing Company, and J. memher of the 1. 0, 0, F. ;\11'. Spears is an ardent Reformer, of the old Clear (;rit school, 
.lIld, in religion, i
 a \\orthy memlJl:r of the Pre
h) taian Church, and has taken a heart} inlerest in huilding up Preshyterianism 
in this thri\ ing outpost of the Scotch ehun'h. 
:\1 r. Charle
 Crosbie (;oing, b.lrrister, \\ .IS born at I.ondon, Ontario, Octoher ;! 1st, [859. He is the) 0l1l1gcst son of I Jr. 
(;oing of that city, a descendant of the 
(;uings of Ball) philip, Ireland. _\fter heing 
educated at Hellmuth ('ollege, \Ir. Coing 
studied Ia\\ in the office of J. H, Fraser, (,J.e., 
,lIld \\as called to the Bar in [881. He 
practised for some ) ears at Strathroy, until, 
in 18S8, he hecame a resident of \\ est Tor- 
onto Junction. Shortly afterwards he was 
.IPpointed 1'0\\ n Solicitor, and has ta\..en a 
leading pal'l in huilding up this new and 
flourishing outgro\\ th of Toronto. He is 
senior member of the la\\ firm of ;\Iessr". 
(;oing l\: Heaton, \ ice-l're
ident of the -' 
I .îber.ll-( 'on
enati\"e . \ 

ociation. ('hairm.lIl 
of the Building Committee of St. John's 
(1mrch. and delegate to the S) nod of Tor- 
onto. :\1 r. Coing resides on High Park 
"enue. 



 


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\11'. Ceorge (;urd, real estate agent 
..nd valuator, \\a
 born in Stradually, (
uecn\ 
Count\. Ireland. July ith, 18H, He rc- 


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\{F'IIJI'="CE OF :\IR, I'trt.R LAlI(;III"ON, \\tsr TORO:'oOI'O ]l':\;CIIO:\;. 



WEST TORONTO JUNCTION AND ITS ACTII ITIES. 


:!Oï 


cei\ ed a husine-;s education at Ranela
h College . \thlone and at the affe of fifteen went to I> ull ' h h fi 
. ' L 
 ,.. . <:> , ) 111, \\ ere e 
 pen t ve 

e.l
s III one of the !.lrgcst estabhshmenb of that Clt}, The ne\t ten }ears \\ere spent in hi-; native to\\n, \\here he carried on 
husll1css and \\.IS (1er\.. of a I )istrict ('ourt. 
(, 'oming to this countr) in 1869, he W.ls in 
the agenn' and ('ommission business till 
1886. when he became a real est.lte agent. 
\Ir, (;urd has ta\..en a deep interest in \rest 
roronto J une-tion, and was a member of the 
first Council of the to\\ n. Ht. resides at 
present at the corner of I a\..e\'ie\\ . \\ emle 
and (;Jendomn nne Road. :\Ir. (;urd IS an 
official memher of the :\Iethodist Church. 
and for three }ears has been a delegate to 
Toronto Conference. He is connccted \\ ith 
the ,\. O. L\r. ((;ranitL I.odge). and Irish 
Protestant Ikne\'olent Society. and IS a 
l.iheral in politics. 
(;eorge \\"ashington Clendenan. :\1.1), 
and c. :\1., one of the mo-;t popular as \\ ell 
as prominent ph) -;i.cians and 'iurgeons at 
\rest Toronto Junction, was horn in the 
("ounty of Lincoln. He was educated at 

t. Catharines Collegi.lte Institute, \\ here he 
recel\'ed, besides an English education. a 
thorough grounding in the classics. Thus REsIIII<.M'E O
 DR, "cCor;rmLl, BROChTON. 
equipped he passed to the roronto School of :\ledicine, where he graduated in 1882, recei\'ing the degrees of :\1.1). and C.;\1. 
I>r. Clendenan at once came out to and settled at the J unction, and in a comparatively short time I.JUilt up an appreciahle 
practice. \\ hich is no\\ one of the largest and most lucrative in' that suburhan town. He holds the office of Coroner ha\ in u 
, <:> 
received his commission in :\Iarch, 1882. He 
is also \Iedical Health Officer, Chairman of 
the Public School Board, and President of 
the \Iechanics' Institute, positions \\ hich he 
has held since the incorporation of the Junc- 
tion as a town. ])r. Clendenan has alwa}s 
taken a deep interest in social and benevolent 
societies, being a prominent member of Slan- 
lev lodge, ,\, F, (\: .\. :\1.: a ('.ISt \ laster 
Workman of the ,-\. 0, C. \\'.: a Past Chief 
Ranger of the Co.F.: and a memher of the 
1.0.0. F, I)r. (,1endenan is energetic and 
painsla\..ing in the pursuit of his profession. 
()ne of the mo-;t deser\'ing of the 
city's charities, as well as one of the oldest. 
IS the Protest.lIlt Orphan
' Home, situate on 
I )O\'ercourt Road, surrounded hy ample play- 
grounds, the Home itself heing a model one, 
and by its comfort and cheerfulness tending 
to soften the asperities and hrighten the out- 
loo\.. of its orphaned inmates. I'ew of 
Toronto's charitable institutions appeal more 
urgently than does the Orphans' Home to 
the S} mpathy and support of the puhlic. 
The charity \\ as founded so far back as 18-+9, and long had its home on Sulli\'an 
treet, from which it remO\ ed some \ cars ago 
to ib present more suitable site, In the heyday of her fame :\ladame Jcnn) I ind sang on one occasion in I'oronto for the 
benefit of the in
titution. It has not \\anted, neither then nor since, many good and true friends, among \\ hom, perhaps the 
hest and truest has been \Irs. :\I.ltthe\\ \'ankoughnet, \\ho has for many ye.lrs \\ith 100al and Ul1\\earied de\otion "er\ed its 
interests, Besides :\Irs \ ankoughnet, and \\e might mcntion Mrs. J. S, :\k:\lurra) and \ Irs, R. I. ('o\\an, it has on its 
directorate an acti\ e and enthusiastic band of friends among the ladies of Toronto, as well as a few staunch supporters and 
\\orkers of the other se\. Since the founding of the Home, full) 1,600 children ha\e been cared for under its 
heltering roof, 
and the numher of its present innl.ltes varie
 from I So to 200, The efficient maintenance of this dcserving charity appc,d-; to 
the hene\'olcnce of c\ <:r) citi/en of Tomnto. , \n illu-;tr.ltion of the Home \\ ill he found on p.lge 195 of this \ olume. 



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RE,WE'i;CE OF DR, G. \Y. CI E....l>E'f.\N, WE,r TORO:\TO ]11\CIION. 


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INDEX OF SUI3] ECTS. 


P..\f"'
. 
-\ Xe\\ ErR uf ('ulonial Histor
 in An",,'ie", '. 9 
\ Ramble round Toronto,. 49 
A ltetr""peet of the last Thirty Y cars. 46 
A('ademy of :\1 usi(' , .. , .. . .. ' , , , .. . . .. . . , , , 53 
Administrati\ e and Public Of!i('ers of the 
1'1'0\ inee and Capital. ..,.., .. '., 
.\d, anee in Population and R('alt
 . 
Ad, antageous Location of Toronto"., 
\11., enturein Ontario Penin
ula,l'Rrl) French 
Aims of the early Reformers in the strugKle 
\\ith Ab'ioluti"'tu1.. 
Algonquias or Hurons, lIome of" 
Annexed "'estern Suburbs, 
Architecture Emd CHnmte"",...... 
Arehiteeturl\l Bel\ut) of City,. 
.\re our \\ lUlls too Artillcial '.,." 
Argonaut ItU\\ ing Club, \'iew from", 
Arlington Hotel 
Art and Music,.... 
-\<:nden)ics _ 
Tl'Ilining in the :5.,bool.,... 
Yet in its Infancy in Canada.. 
.\rtists. Ontario Soeie!) of.......'.".... 
Attitude of Rnling Powers towards Respon, 
"ible GO\'ernment ., ................,...